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YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform owned by Google. It was launched on February 14, by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley. A new way to download, watch and share videos, even when you have limited data or a slow connection. youtube desktop.

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JJ Redick, Pascal Siakam recall Kawhi Leonard shot that beat Sixers

Every fan of the Philadelphia 76ers knows about &#;the shot&#;. Every fan remembers Toronto Raptors star Kawhi Leonard drifting into the corner and throwing up a prayer over Joel Embiid that took four bounces before dropping in Game 7 of the Eastern Conference semifinals to beat the Sixers

It is a painful moment in Sixers history that will never be forgotten as they watched Toronto go on to win the finals. If Leonard doesn&#;t make that shot and the Sixers go on to win that game in overtime, who knows what might have happened? Obviously, there is no guarantee, but the Sixers had as good a shot as anybody to win the title in

Former Sixers guard JJ Redick, who was on that Sixers team in , welcomed Raptors forward Pascal Siakam on with him to recall the shot on Redick&#;s podcast &#;The Old Man and the Three&#;.

Siakam said to Redick:

Who was guarding me? I think it was like either Joel or Ben (Simmons) was guarding me and he had the ball and they both went to him. And I was like, I was wide-open at the top of the key and I was like waiting and I&#;m like, ‘Okay, I don&#;t know what&#;s going on’. I knew Kawhi was gonna shoot it, but it&#;s looking like they both got him! Like it&#;s Ben and it&#;s Jo. So and obviously they have high hands and everything. So I&#;m thinking like, I don&#;t know how he&#;s gonna get this off. I know he&#;s gonna get off I don&#;t know what to do. Like I was just literally watching I felt like I was like a supporter too. Like I was on on the side and just watching because I&#;m just there like waiting and I&#;m like, okay, like, what is he gonna do? Like, is he gonna shoot it? Is he gonna pass? Like what&#;s going on? And yeah, It was crazy.

Redick then asked Siakam if he thought the shot at any shot at going in when it left his hands. It was such a crazy shot and it was improbable the way it went in. It was terrific defense by Embiid on the shot.

Siakam: No way! Like, it looked like it was coming off.
JJ: Right back!
Siakam: It looked like it was coming off, but then hit it and it&#;s like, I&#;m just like, if you look at me in the video, I don&#;t even know if you can see me, but like I&#;m just like waiting and I&#;m like, oh, like counting all the bounces and the rest was like you know, it was history.

Redick then had a bold claim that Siakam just laughed at:

JJ: I didn&#;t watch the clip. It was so painful. I didn’t watch the clip for well over a year and I was scrolling through Instagram one day, and there was a fan angle from right behind your bench. Sportscenter, House of Highlights, one of those accounts posted on IG, and it was the first time I&#;ve rewatched the clip. And what I realized from rewatching the clip was when Kawhi caught the ball, he got a running start and traveled.

Siakam: Oh my God, man! on. We&#;re not gonna do this. There was no travel. No, there&#;s no way like, and yeah, there&#;s no travel.

This then led to a summer of changes for the Sixers. They let Redick walk to the New Orleans Pelicans, acquired Josh Richardson in a sign-and-trade for Jimmy Butler, and then signed Al Horford. Philadelphia slumped to the No. 6 seed in the East and they were swept out of Round 1 of the playoffs in the bubble by the Boston Celtics.

This post originally appeared on Sixers Wire! Follow us on Facebook!


JJ Redick Accuses Kawhi Leonard of Travelling During The Shot

Two and a half years after Kawhi Leonard drained his iconic Game 7 clinching shot for the Toronto Raptors, JJ Redick has begun spreading conspiracy theories that suggest The Shot never should have happened.

On the latest episode of Redick's The Old Man and the Three podcast, the former Philadelphia 76ers guard accused Leonard of traveling just seconds before he drained the series-winning shot.

"I didn't watch the clip. It was so painful. I didn't watch the clip for well over a year," Redick said. "And I was scrolling through Instagram one day and there was a fan angel from right behind your bench and it was the first time I'd re-watched the clip. And what I realized from re-watching the clip is when Kawhi caught the ball, he got a running start and traveled."

It's not the first time Redick has suggested the NBA missed the travel. He apparently texted Tobias Harris during the first few months of the pandemic to say Leonard's shot never should have counted.

"I went on and watched and he definitely did travel when he caught the ball, Harris told TNT's Ernie Johnson. When he got to the baseline and shot this rainbow shot I was like no way. It was just unreal about how the trojectory of the basketball bounced. It&#x;s hard to talk about.

Recommended Articles

A month prior, in May , former 76ers veteran Mike Scott also accused Leonard of traveling. 

I still think Kawhi traveled, but, whatever. Call me a sore loser," he reportedly said.

Well, not only did the referees not call a travel during the game, but the NBA's Last Two Minute report did not even mention the call as a potential violation of league rules. Ironically, it did say the referees missed one call in the final two minutes of the game, a foul that should have been called against Redick during Leonard's drive to the rim with just less than a minute to go in the game.

Anyways, you can be the judge:

Further Reading

Raptors right the ship defensively as Fred VanVleet stars late

Watch: Scottie Barnes says he's still feeling the effects of Steven Adams' screens

Raptors have begun preparing for opposing teams to copy Memphis' defensive game plan

Источник: /nba/raptors/

Body language can say a lot. Here's what one expert told us after studying Kamala Harris' and Pete Buttigieg's interactions on their joint trip to Charlotte.

  • VP Kamala Harris and Transporation Secretary Pete Buttigieg's relationship is under scrutiny.
  • A body-language expert told Insider Buttigieg was deferential to Harris in an appearance Tuesday.
  • Harris' and Buttigieg's spouses spent time at a bagel shop, as documented on Chasten's Instagram.

Scott Rouse, a Nashville, Tennessee-based body-language expert who has trained alongside members of the FBI, Secret Service, and the Department of Defense, is in demand.

Typically he spends his time appearing on "Dr. Phil" analyzing cases such as one of the last videos of Gabby Petito and her fiancé, Brian Laundrie, or advising US special forces at nearby Fort Campbell on how to handle enemies and adversaries — "how to interrogate them and how to get an idea of what they will do next during personal interactions," he told me Tuesday afternoon. 

All of which made him the perfect person to weigh in on Washington, DC's most scrutinized relationship of the moment: That of erstwhile Democratic presidential-primary rivals Vice President Kamala Harris and Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg, who are now administration allies. 

That relationship came under the microscope again Thursday, as the duo embarked on a joint appearance to Charlotte, North Carolina, to sell the benefits of President Joe Biden's new $ trillion infrastructure law, amid speculation that the two could square off in a primary should Biden, 79, not run for re-election. (Press secretary Jen Psaki has said Biden's "intention" is to run again.) 

It was one of their first big moments in public since Harris officiated Buttigieg's swearing-in ceremony back in February. Buttigieg helped her prepare for the vice-presidential debate back in , playing the role of his fellow Hoosier, Trump's vice president and former Indiana Gov. Mike Pence. Harris' husband, Doug Emhoff, has struck up a friendship with Buttigieg's husband, Chasten.

But throughout the Charlotte stop on Tuesday, Buttigieg, 39, the first openly gay Senate-confirmed Cabinet official, went out of his way to be deferential to Harris. Buttigieg's advisers told Insider last month that he would be reluctant to challenge Harris, 57 — the first Black and first female vice president, as well as the first person of South Asian descent to hold the office and someone who has struck a genuine friendship with Buttigieg and his husband, Chasten — in a primary. 

The duo toured a public-transit facility at the Charlotte Area Transit System's bus garage Tuesday and made remarks about how the law will benefit North Carolinians. Meanwhile, Chasten posted an Instagram story with Emhoff as they picked up bagels from Call Your Mother Deli back in DC. (In a bit of symmetry, Emhoff visited North Carolina with Pete Buttigieg to talk up infrastructure back in April).  

To assess how the event unfolded, I asked Rouse to analyze several photos documenting Harris' and Buttigieg's interactions and their respective speeches.

For starters, the two embraced on the tarmac at Joint Base Andrews on Tuesday morning. Rouse said the hug was somewhat awkward. "Her feet are pointed toward him, whereas his are sort of spread a little bit," he told me. "But his left foot is pointing just a little bit away from her. When you want to focus on a person or a thing in a room, or in your surroundings, your feet will point toward that person. He seems a little bit ill at ease because he's back and he's leaning forward." 

What's more, Rouse said, is the space between them. "If you really are happy to see someone, you're going to step right up to them and hug them and pull them toward you," he told me. "He's trying to make space from her where she's a little bit more into it than he is," he added. 

Later, when the duo arrived at an all-electric bus depot and light-rail garage, Harris sat in the driver's seat as Buttigieg looked on, his hand in his pocket, according to a vice-presidential pool report. 

"It's ," Buttigieg said when asked by reporters as he briefed them alone without Harris on Air Force Two about whether he and Harris are mounting their own presidential campaigns (a person familiar told Insider that Cabinet secretaries typically speak with reporters alone without the vice president on trips). "And the whole point of campaigns and elections is when they go well, you get to govern. And we are squarely focused on the job at hand. I am excited to be part of a team led by the president and the vice president, and I think the teamwork that got us to this point is really just beginning." 

Did that mean the visit represented a united front with Harris, a reporter pressed? 

"As transportation secretary, I get to be the face of a lot of these investments that we're doing, but we would not be here without the leadership of the vice president as well as the president, of course, and so many others," Buttigieg responded. "So I am glad we're able to shine a light on that today." 

Later, in remarks before Harris', Buttigieg praised and underscored the vice president's role in getting the infrastructure law across the finish line. "Her message was not to get lost in the details of the politics but to remember the unique nature of the opportunity," he said about being in an Oval Office meeting before the law's passage. "She was exactly right. It helped shape the conversation."

Back inside the depot, Rouse told me he was struck again by Buttigieg's deference to Harris. 

"Her eyes are wide-open, she's looking right at him. You can tell she's not very comfortable in that seat," Rouse said. "She's kind of like a child there. But let's take a look at him. If you look, again, let's take a look at his feet. Neither one of his feet are pointing toward her. One is pointed toward the door a little bit."

"The main thing we're seeing here is his hand in his pocket," he added. "When you see someone with their hands in their pocket, and you don't see them, or their thumbs, that shows that they don't feel dominant in that situation."

A Democratic strategist interviewed by Insider said they did not expect that the joint appearance would put to rest talk of a possible Buttigieg-Harris rivalry. 

"I don't think it's because of anything that did or didn't happen today. It's just generally speculation season," this person said. "To that end, Pete and Kamala both did what they needed to do: sell this historic infra law so that the American public knows which party's agenda to back ahead of midterms." 



Online video platform owned by Google

Not to be confused with YouTube (channel).

The YouTube logo is made of a red round-rectangular box with a white "play" button inside and the word "YouTube" written in black.

Logo since



YouTube's front page on November 14,

Type of businessSubsidiary

Type of site

Online video platform
FoundedFebruary&#;14, ; 16 years ago&#;()
Headquarters Cherry Avenue
San Bruno, California,

United States

Area&#;servedWorldwide (excluding blocked countries)
Key&#;peopleSusan Wojcicki (CEO)
Chad Hurley (advisor)
ProductsYouTube Premium
YouTube Music
YouTube TV
YouTube Kids
RevenueIncreaseUS$ billion ()[1]
ParentGoogle LLC (–present)
(see list of localized domain names)
AdvertisingGoogle AdSense


  • Not required to watch most videos; required for certain tasks such as uploading videos, viewing flagged (18+) videos, creating playlists, liking or disliking videos, and posting comments
UsersIncrease 2 billion (October )[2]
LaunchedFebruary&#;14, ; 16 years ago&#;()

Content license

Uploader holds copyright (standard license); Creative Commons can be selected.
Written&#;inPython (core/API),[3]C (through CPython), C++, Java (through Guice platform),[4][5]Go,[6]JavaScript (UI)

YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform owned by Google. It was launched on February 14, by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. It is the second most visited website, with more than one billion monthly users[7] who collectively watch more than one billion hours of videos each day.[8] As of May [update], videos were being uploaded at a rate of more than hours of content per minute.[9]

In October , YouTube was bought by Google for $&#;billion.[10] Google's ownership of YouTube has also changed its business model; it no longer generates revenue from advertisements alone. YouTube now offers paid content such as movies and exclusive content. YouTube and approved creators participate in Google's AdSense program, which generates more revenue for both parties. It has since evolved from a small video streaming platform to a large service with reported revenues of $ billion in [1]

Since its purchase by Google, YouTube has expanded beyond the website into mobile apps, network television, and the ability to link with other services. Video categories on YouTube include music videos, video clips, news, short films, feature films, documentaries, audio recordings, movie trailers, teasers, live streams, vlogs, and more. Most content is generated by individuals. This includes collaborations between YouTubers and company sponsors. Since around , established media corporations such as Disney, ViacomCBS, and WarnerMedia have created and expanded their corporate YouTube channels to advertise to a larger audience.

YouTube has had a substantial social impact, influencing popular culture, internet trends, and creating multimillionaire celebrities. It has been criticized for facilitating the spread of misinformation, copyright issues, violating its users' privacy, enabling censorship, and endangering child safety and wellbeing.


Main article: History of YouTube

Founding and initial growth (–)

YouTube was founded by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. The trio were all early employees of PayPal, which left them enriched after the company was bought by eBay.[11] Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.[12]

According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of , after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen remarked that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".[13]

Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy, when Janet Jackson's breast was briefly exposed by Justin Timberlake during the halftime show. Karim could not easily find video clips of the incident and Indian Ocean Tsunami online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.[14] Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.[13][15] They created posts on Craigslist asking attractive women to upload videos of themselves to YouTube in exchange for a $ reward.[16] Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video.[17]

The YouTube logo was used from its launch until Another version of this logo without their "Broadcast Yourself"slogan was used until

YouTube began as a venture capital–funded technology startup. Between November and April , the company raised money from a variety of investors with Sequoia Capital, $&#;million, and Artis Capital Management, $8&#;million, being the largest two.[11][18] YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.[19] In February , the company activated .[20] The first video was uploaded April 23, Titled Me at the zoo, it shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo and can still be viewed on the site.[21][22] In May, the company launched a public beta and by November, a Nike ad featuring Ronaldinho became the first video to reach one million total views.[23][24] The site launched officially on December 15, , by which time the site was receiving 8&#;million views a day.[25][26] Clips at the time were limited to megabytes, as little as 30 seconds of footage.[27]

Contrary to popular belief, YouTube was not the first video-sharing site on the Internet; Vimeo was launched in November , though that site remained a side project of its developers from CollegeHumor at the time and did not grow much, either.[28] The week of YouTube's launch, NBC-Universal's Saturday Night Live ran a skit "Lazy Sunday" by The Lonely Island. Besides helping to bolster ratings and long-term viewership for Saturday Night Live, "Lazy Sunday"'s status as an early viral video helped establish YouTube as an important website.[29] Unofficial uploads of the skit to YouTube drew in more than five million collective views by February before they were removed when NBCUniversal requested it two months later based on copyright concerns.[30] Despite eventually being taken down, these duplicate uploads of the skit helped popularize YouTube's reach and led to the upload of more third-party content.[31][32] The site grew rapidly and, in July , the company announced that more than 65, new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving &#;million video views per day.[33]

The choice of the name led to problems for a similarly named website, . That site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube subsequently changed its website to.[34][35]

Broadcast Yourself era (–)

YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California

On October 9, , Google announced that it had acquired YouTube for $&#;billion in Google stock.[36][37] The deal was finalized on November 13, [38][39] Google's acquisition launched new newfound interest in video-sharing sites; IAC, which now owned Vimeo, focused on supporting the content creators to distinguish itself from YouTube.[28]

YouTube logo from until

The company experienced rapid growth. The Daily Telegraph wrote that in , YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in [40] By , the company had reached a market share of around 43% and more than 14&#;billion views of videos, according to comScore.[41] That year, the company simplified its interface in order to increase the time users would spend on the site.[42] In , more than three billion videos were being watched each day with 48 hours of new videos uploaded every minute.[43][44][45] However, most of these views came from a relatively small number of videos; according to a software engineer at that time, 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site.[46] That year, the company again changed its interface and at the same time, introduced a new logo with a darker shade of red.[47][48] A subsequent interface change, designed to unify the experience across desktop, TV, and mobile, was rolled out in [49] By that point, more than hours were being uploaded every minute, a number that would increase to hours by November [50][51]

During this time, the company also went through some organizational changes. In October , YouTube moved to a new office in San Bruno, California.[52] Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as a chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company in October [53]

YouTube's new CEO (–)

Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube in February [54] In January , YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $&#;million. The complex has 51, square metres (, square feet) of space and can house up to 2, employees.[55] YouTube officially launched the "polymer" redesign of its user interfaces based on Material Design language as its default, as well a redesigned logo that is built around the service's play button emblem in August [56]

Through this period, YouTube tried several new ways to generate revenue beyond advertisements. In , YouTube launched a pilot program for content providers to offer premium, subscription-based channels within the platform.[57][58] This effort was discontinued in January and relaunched in June, with US$ channel subscriptions.[59][60] These channel subscriptions complemented the existing Super Chat ability, launched in , which allows viewers to donate between $1 and $ to have their comment highlighted.[61] In , YouTube announced a subscription service known as "Music Key," which bundled ad-free streaming of music content on YouTube with the existing Google Play Music service.[62] The service continued to evolve in , when YouTube announced YouTube Red, a new premium service that would offer ad-free access to all content on the platform (succeeding the Music Key service released the previous year), premium original series, and films produced by YouTube personalities, as well as background playback of content on mobile devices. YouTube also released YouTube Music, a third app oriented towards streaming and discovering the music content hosted on the YouTube platform.[63][64][65]

The company also attempted to create products to appeal to specific kinds of viewers. YouTube released a mobile app known as YouTube Kids in , designed to provide an experience optimized for children. It features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-appropriate content, and parental control features.[66] Also in , YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented vertical and app for videos and live streaming, intended to compete with the Twitch.[67]

Consolidation and controversy (–present)

The company was attacked on April 3, , when a shooting occurred at YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California, which wounded four and resulted in one death (the shooter).[68] By February , one billion hours of YouTube were watched every day, and hours of video were uploaded every minute.[8][69] Two years later, the uploads had risen to more than hours per minute.[9] During the COVID pandemic, when most of the world was under stay-at-home orders, usage of services such as YouTube greatly increased. One data firm estimated that YouTube was accounting for 15% of all internet traffic, twice its pre-pandemic level.[70] In response to EU officials requesting that such services reduce bandwidth as to make sure medical entities had sufficient bandwidth to share information, YouTube along with Netflix stated they would reduce streaming quality for at least thirty days as to cut bandwidth use of their services by 25% to comply with the EU's request.[71] YouTube later announced that they would continue with this move worldwide: "We continue to work closely with governments and network operators around the globe to do our part to minimize stress on the system during this unprecedented situation."[72]

Following a complaint alleging violations of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA),[73] the company was fined $&#;million by the FTC for collecting personal information from minors under the age of [74] YouTube was also ordered to create systems to increase children's privacy.[75][76] Following criticisms of its implementation of those systems, YouTube started treating all videos designated as "made for kids" as liable under COPPA on January 6, [77][78] Joining the YouTube Kids app, the company created a supervised mode, designed more for tweens, in [79]

During this period, YouTube entered disputes with other tech companies. For over a year, in and , there was no YouTube app available for Amazon Fire products. In , Roku was forced to remove the YouTube TV app from its streaming store after the two companies were unable to reach an agreement.[80][81]


Video technology

YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H/MPEG-4 AVC video codecs, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol.[82]MPEG-4 Part 2 streams contained within 3GP containers are also provided for low bandwidth connections.[83] By January , YouTube had begun rolling out videos in AV1 format.[84] In it was reported that the company was considering requiring AV1 in streaming hardware in order to decrease bandwidth and increase quality.[85] Video is usually streamed alongside the Opus and AAC audio codecs.[83]

At launch in , viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser.[86] In January , YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard.[87] This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed.[88] On January 27, , YouTube announced that HTML5 would be the default playback method on supported browsers.[87] With the switch to HTML5 video streams using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network.[89]

The platform can serve videos at optionally lower resolution levels starting at p for smoothening playback in areas and countries with limited Internet speeds, improving compatibility, as well as for the preservation of limited cellular data plans. The resolution setting can be adjusted automatically based on detected connection speed, as well as be set manually.[90][91]

From to , users could add "annotations" to their videos—such as pop-up text messages and hyperlinks and which allowed for interactive videos. By all annotations had been removed from videos, breaking some videos which depended on the feature. YouTube introduced standardized widgets intended to replace annotations in a cross-platform manner, including "end screens" (a customizable array of thumbnails for specified videos displayed near the end of the video).[92][93][94]

In , YouTube became an ISNI registry, and announced its intention to begin creating ISNI identifiers to uniquely identify the musicians whose videos it features.[95]


All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users can verify their account, normally through a mobile phone, to gain the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, as well as produce live streams.[96][97] When YouTube was launched in , it was possible to upload longer videos, but a minute limit was introduced in March after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.[98] The minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July [99] Videos can be at most GB in size or 12 hours, whichever is less.[96]As of [update], automatic closed captions using speech recognition technology when a video is uploaded is available in 13 languages. YouTube also offers manual closed captioning as part of its creator studio.[] YouTube formerly offered a 'Community Captions' feature, where viewers could write and submit captions for public display upon approval by the video uploader, but this was deprecated in September

YouTube accepts the most common container formats, including MP4, Matroska, FLV, AVI, WebM, 3GP, MPEG-PS, and the QuickTime File Format. Some intermediate video formats (i.e., primarily used for professional video editing, not for final delivery or storage) are also accepted, such as ProRes.[] YouTube provides recommended encoding settings.[]

In , YouTube added a feature called Premiere which displays a notification to the user mentioning when the video will be available for the first time, like for a live stream but with a prerecorded video.[]

Quality and formats

YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of × pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H),[][] with mono MP3 audio.[] In June , YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones.[] In March , a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to × pixels.[] In December , pHD support was added. At the time of the p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a aspect ratio to a widescreen[] With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November , p HD support was added. In July , YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to × pixels.[][] In March , support for 4K resolution was added, with the videos playing at  ×  pixels. In June , support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at × pixels.[] In November , support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with hybrid log–gamma (HLG) or perceptual quantizer (PQ).[] HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. color space.[]

In June , YouTube began to deploy support for high-frame-rate videos up to 60 frames per second (as opposed to 30 before), becoming available for user uploads in October. YouTube stated that this would enhance "motion-intensive" videos, such as video game footage.[][][][]

YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. Viewers only indirectly influence the video quality. Users choose between "Auto", which adjusts resolution based on the internet connection, "High Picture Quality" which will prioritize playing high-quality video, "Data saver" which will sacrifice video quality in favor of low data usage, and "Advanced" which lets the user choose a stream resolution.[] It is not possible for the viewer to directly choose a higher bitrate (quality) for any selected resolution.

Since , viewers have had the ability watch 3D videos.[] In , the company began natively supporting degree video and it has since allowed for live streaming of ° video at up to 4K resolution.[][] Citing the limited number of users who watched more than degrees, the company began supporting an alternative stereoscopic video format known as VR which it said was easier to produce.[] The company now allows users to watch any video using virtual reality headsets.[]

In response to increased viewership during the COVID pandemic, the company temporarily downgraded the quality of its videos.[][] The company developed its own chip, called Argos, to help with encoding higher resolution videos in []

Live streaming

YouTube carried out early experiments with live streaming, including a concert by U2 in , and a question-and-answer session with US President Barack Obama in February [] These tests had relied on technology from 3rd-party partners, but in September , YouTube began testing its own live streaming infrastructure.[] In April , YouTube announced the rollout of YouTube Live. The creation of live streams was initially limited to select partners.[] It was used for real-time broadcasting of events such as the Olympics in London.[] In October , more than 8&#;million people watched Felix Baumgartner's jump from the edge of space as a live stream on YouTube.[]

In May , creation of live streams was opened to verified users with at least 1, subscribers; in August of that year the number was reduced to subscribers,[] and in December the limit was removed.[] In February , live streaming was introduced to the official YouTube mobile app. Live streaming via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10, subscribers,[] but as of mid it has been reduced to subscribers.[] Live streams support HDR, can be up to 4K resolution at 60 fps, and also support ° video.[][]

User features

On September 13, , YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media-based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel.[] Prior to the release, several creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find useful; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3.[][non-primary source needed]

After the feature has been officially released, the community post feature gets activated automatically for every channel that passes a specific threshold of subscriber counts or already has more subscribers. This threshold was lowered over time[when?], from 10, subscribers to subscribers, to subscribers,[non-primary source needed] to subscribers.[]

Channels that the community tab becomes enabled for, get their channel discussions (the name before March "One channel layout" redesign finalization: "channel comments") permanently erased, instead of co-existing or migrating.[non-primary source needed]

See also: Criticism of Google §&#;YouTube user comments

Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In , Time praised Web for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".[]The Guardian in described users' comments on YouTube as:[]

Juvenile, aggressive, misspelt, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance—with the occasional burst of wit shining through.

The Daily Telegraph commented in September , that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".[]The Huffington Post noted in April that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.[]

Google subsequently implemented a comment system oriented on Google+ on November 6, , that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.[] The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse.[][] In response, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change.[] The official YouTube announcement[] received 20, "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32, comments in two days.[] Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that "Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network like Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and added that "Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with the outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:[]

Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad. Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.

Later, on July 27, , Google announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+ account to post comments to YouTube.[] Then on November 3, , YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.[] Creators may also choose to keep or delete comments with links or hashtags in order to combat spam. They can also allow other users to moderate their comments.[]

In December , it was reported that YouTube would launch a new feature that will warn users who post a comment that "may be offensive to others."[][]

Content accessibility

YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web.[] This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by, or related to another user's video can make a "video response". The eleven character Youtube video identifier (64 possible characters used in each position), allows for a theoretical maximum of 6411 or around quintillion ( billion billion) unique ids.

YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature on August 27, [] Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.[] YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface.[] A small number of videos can be downloaded as MP4 files.[] Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos.[]

In February , YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.[] In June , Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos.[] In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site.[] Users retain copyright of their own work under the default Standard YouTube License,[] but have the option to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose.

Since July , it has been possible to select a Creative Commons attribution license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material.[]


Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June , using RTSP streaming for the video.[] Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.[]

Since June , YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone.[]

The mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5 in July , avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls.[] The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.[][]

In September , YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.[] According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June , making it the third-most used app.[]

A TiVo service update in July allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos.[]

In January , YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wiivideo game consoles.[][]

During the month of June that same year, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.[] YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live.[]

On November 15, , Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel.[] An app was available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, but was discontinued in August [] Videos can also be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5.[] Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, ,[] and, in October , the Sony PlayStation 4.[]

YouTube launched as a downloadable app for the Nintendo Switch in November []

International and localization

On June 19, , Google CEO Eric Schmidt appeared in Paris to launch the new localization system.[] The interface of the website is available with localized versions in countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.[]

Country Language(s) Launch date
&#;United States (and worldwide launch) English, SpanishFebruary 14, []
&#;BrazilPortugueseJune 19, []
&#;FranceFrench, Catalan, BasqueJune 19, []
&#;IrelandEnglish, IrishJune 19, []
&#;ItalyItalian, German, CatalanJune 19, []
&#;JapanJapaneseJune 19, []
&#;NetherlandsDutchJune 19, []
&#;PolandPolishJune 19, []
&#;SpainSpanish, Galician, Catalan, BasqueJune 19, []
&#;United KingdomEnglishJune 19, []
&#;MexicoSpanishOctober 11, []
&#;Hong KongChinese, EnglishOctober 17, []
&#;TaiwanChineseOctober 18,
&#;AustraliaEnglishOctober 22, []
&#;New ZealandEnglishOctober 22, []
&#;CanadaEnglish, FrenchNovember 6, []
&#;GermanyGermanNovember 8, []
&#;RussiaRussianNovember 13, []
&#;South KoreaKoreanJanuary 23, []
&#;IndiaHindi, Bengali, Punjabi, English, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, UrduMay 7, []
&#;IsraelHebrew, ArabicSeptember 16,
&#;Czech RepublicCzechOctober 9, []
&#;SwedenSwedishOctober 22, []
&#;South AfricaEnglish, Afrikaans, ZuluMay 17, []
&#;ArgentinaSpanishSeptember 8, []
&#;AlgeriaArabic, FrenchMarch 9, []
&#;EgyptArabicMarch 9, []
&#;JordanArabicMarch 9, []
&#;MoroccoFrench, ArabicMarch 9, []
&#;Saudi ArabiaArabicMarch 9, []
&#;TunisiaArabic, FrenchMarch 9, []
&#;YemenArabicMarch 9, []
&#;KenyaEnglish, SwahiliSeptember 1, []
&#;PhilippinesFilipino, EnglishOctober 13, []
&#;SingaporeEnglish, Malay, Chinese, TamilOctober 20, []
&#;BelgiumFrench, Dutch, GermanNovember 16, []
&#;ColombiaSpanishNovember 30, []
&#;UgandaEnglish, SwahiliDecember 2, []
&#;NigeriaEnglishDecember 7, []
&#;ChileSpanishJanuary 20, []
&#;HungaryHungarianFebruary 29, []
&#;MalaysiaMalay, EnglishMarch 22, []
&#;PeruSpanishMarch 25, []
&#;United Arab EmiratesArabic, EnglishApril 1, []
&#;GreeceGreekMay 1,
&#;IndonesiaIndonesian, EnglishMay 17, []
&#;GhanaEnglishJune 5, []
&#;SenegalFrench, EnglishJuly 4, []
&#;TurkeyTurkishOctober 1, []
&#;UkraineUkrainianDecember 13, []
&#;DenmarkDanishFebruary 1, []
&#;FinlandFinnish, SwedishFebruary 1, []
&#;NorwayNorwegianFebruary 1, []
&#;&#;SwitzerlandGerman, French, ItalianMarch 29, []
&#;AustriaGermanMarch 29, []
&#;RomaniaRomanianApril 18, []
&#;PortugalPortugueseApril 25, []
&#;SlovakiaSlovakApril 25, []
&#;BahrainArabicAugust 16, []
&#;KuwaitArabicAugust 16, []
&#;OmanArabicAugust 16, []
&#;QatarArabicAugust 16, []
&#;Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnian, Croatian, SerbianMarch 17,
&#;BulgariaBulgarianMarch 17, []
&#;CroatiaCroatianMarch 17, []
&#;EstoniaEstonianMarch 17, []
&#;LatviaLatvianMarch 17, []
&#;LithuaniaLithuanianMarch 17,
&#;North MacedoniaMacedonian, Serbian, TurkishMarch 17,
&#;MontenegroSerbian, CroatianMarch 17,
&#;SerbiaSerbianMarch 17,
&#;SloveniaSlovenianMarch 17, []
&#;ThailandThaiApril 1, []
&#;LebanonArabicMay 1, []
&#;Puerto RicoSpanish, EnglishAugust 23,
&#;LuxembourgFrench, German
&#;VietnamVietnameseOctober 1,
&#;LibyaArabicFebruary 1,
&#;TanzaniaEnglish, SwahiliJune 2,
&#;ZimbabweEnglishJune 2,
&#;AzerbaijanAzerbaijaniOctober 12, []
&#;BelarusBelarusian, RussianOctober 12, []
&#;GeorgiaGeorgianOctober 12, []
&#;KazakhstanKazakh, RussianOctober 12, []
&#;IraqArabicNovember 9, [citation needed]
&#;&#;&#;NepalNepaliJanuary 12, []
&#;PakistanUrdu, EnglishJanuary 12, []
&#;Sri LankaSinhala, Tamil, EnglishJanuary 12, []
&#;JamaicaEnglishAugust 4, [citation needed]
&#;MaltaEnglishJune 24,
&#;BoliviaSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;Costa RicaSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;EcuadorSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;El SalvadorSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;GuatemalaSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;HondurasSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;NicaraguaSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;PanamaSpanishJanuary 30,
&#;UruguaySpanishJanuary 30,
&#;ParaguaySpanish, GuaraniFebruary 21,
&#;Dominican RepublicSpanishFebruary 21,
&#;CyprusGreek, TurkishMarch 13,
&#;LiechtensteinGermanMarch 13,
&#;VenezuelaSpanishMarch 10,
&#;Papua New GuineaEnglish
&#;BangladeshBengali, EnglishSeptember 2,

The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen based on the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.[] The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions. Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between and , following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.[][] In October , a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain . The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.[] In March , a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach an agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September [] In April , a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.[]


In January , it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television.[] In , viewers on average watched YouTube on mobile devices for more than an hour every day.[]

In December , two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.[][] On August 5, , YouTube patched the formerly notorious behaviour which caused a video's view count to freeze at "" (later "+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud.[] YouTube view counts once again updated in real time.[]

Since September , subscriber counts are abbreviated. Only three leading digits of channels' subscriber counts are indicated publicly, compromising the function of third-party real-time indicators such as that of Social Blade. Exact counts remain available to channel operators inside YouTube Studio.[]

On November 11, , after testing out this change on March , YouTube announced it would start hiding dislike counts on videos, making them invisible to viewers. The company stated the decision was in response to experiments which confirmed that smaller YouTube creators were more likely to be targeted in dislike brigading and harassment. Creators will still be able to see the number of likes and dislikes in the YouTube Studio dashboard tool, according to YouTube.[][][] The announcement was panned by the YouTube community and prompted a negative response from YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim, who referred to the update as "a stupid idea".[][][] Some creators felt that removing the number of dislikes made it harder for viewers to recognise clickbait or unhelpful videos, and that other features on the platform already existed for creators to limit bullying. Others theorised the removal of dislikes was influenced by YouTube Rewind , which was universally-panned and became the most-disliked video on the platform.[]

Copyright issues

Main article: YouTube copyright issues

Further information: §&#;Revenue to copyright holders

YouTube has faced numerous challenges and criticisms in its attempts to deal with copyright, including the site's first viral video, Lazy Sunday, which had to be taken down, due to copyright concerns.[29] At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws.[] Despite this advice, many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material remain on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCAtakedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.[][] From to organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.[][][]

In August , a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material.[] YouTube's owner Google announced in November that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe fair use defenses apply.[]

In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube.[] He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.[] In April , a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users.[] On November 1, , the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.[]

In April , it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice.[][] As part of YouTube Music, Universal and YouTube signed an agreement in , which was followed by separate agreements other major labels, which gave the company the right to advertising revenue when its music was played on YouTube.[] By , creators were having videos taken down or demonetized when Content ID identified even short segments of copyrighted music within a much longer video, with different levels of enforcement depending on the record label.[] Experts noted that some of these clips said qualified for fair use.[]

Content ID

Main article: Content ID (system)

In June , YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute.[] The system, which was initially called "Video Identification"[][] and later became known as Content ID,[] creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.[] When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video.

By , YouTube had "already invested tens of millions of dollars in this technology".[]

In , YouTube described Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File".[]

By , Content ID accounted for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.[]

An independent test in uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.[] The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use.[] If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.[]

Before , videos were not monetized until the dispute was resolved. Since April , videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute.[] Should the uploader want to monetize the video again, they may remove the disputed audio in the "Video Manager".[] YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.[]

Moderation and offensive content

See also: Criticism of Google §&#;YouTube, and Censorship by Google §&#;YouTube

YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".[] Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior.[] YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's guidelines.[] Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations,[] its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods,[] hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters,[] videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections,[] and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising.[]

YouTube contracts companies to hire content moderators, who view content flagged as potentially violating YouTube's content policies and determines if they should be removed. In September , a class-action suit was filed by a former content moderator who reported developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after an month period on the job. The former content moderator said that she was regularly made to exceed YouTube's stated limited of four hours per day of viewing graphic content. The lawsuit alleges that YouTube's contractors gave little to no training or support for its moderator's mental health, made prospective employees sign NDAs before showing them any examples of content they would see while reviewing, and censored all mention of trauma from its internal forums. It also purports that requests for extremely graphic content to be blurred, reduced in size or made monochrome, per recommendations from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, were rejected by YouTube as not a high priority for the company.[][][]

To limit the spread of misinformation and fake news via YouTube, it has rolled out a comprehensive policy regarding how to planned to deal with technically manipulated videos.[]

Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in [][] In July , the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:

We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.[] (July )

In October , U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki.[] YouTube pulled some of the videos in November , stating they violated the site's guidelines.[] In December , YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.[]

In , YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other fake news, filling the infobox with content from Encyclopedia Britannica and Wikipedia as a means to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of speech.[] In the wake of the Notre-Dame de Paris fire on April 15, , several user-uploaded videos of the landmark fire were flagged by YouTube' system automatically with an Encyclopedia Britannica article on the false conspiracy theories around the September 11 attacks


NFL DFS Week 13 Guide: Stacks, value plays and everything to know while constructing your lineups

Week 12 … what a roller coaster ride that was. Thanksgiving started out great. Hit on the cash games with a few OK scores in tournaments. Then Sunday happened. If you read this column last week then you know I was very high on Cam Newton and Christian McCaffrey. Yuck. Credit the Dolphins defense, but Newton reminded us of his floor, getting benched in the fourth quarter of that game. As for McCaffrey, we've seen it once, we've seen it a million times. I actually compared him to Anthony Davis on the Fantasy Football Today DFS podcast. For anybody who follows the NBA and plays DFS there, you know how maddening both of these players can be. Both McCaffrey and Davis are special talents with the ability to single-handedly win you a slate. They also both leave games with injury way too often.

Ah well, on to Week Onwards and upwards!

We're looking at an game main slate this week with two totals at 50 points or higher: Chargers at Bengals and Bucs at Falcons. The Washington Football Team-Raiders game checks in just below at points. We also have three double-digit spreads as of now with the Bucs in Atlanta, the Colts at the Texans and the Rams hosting the Jaguars. Take a glance at the main slate player pool and you'll notice we're without the Chiefs, Bills, and Cowboys. All three of those teams are playing in prime time so we are without a little bit of firepower in Week We're not completely void of superstars, however, leading to the first decision point in our lineups.

Who to play at running back this week?

It's not often we have too many players to use at running back on a main slate but here we are. There are legitimately eight running backs I really like on the slate, ranging from $5, on the low end all the way up to $9, over on DraftKings. To no surprise, Jonathan Taylor represents the high-end of that range, is the most expensive player on the slate and rightfully so. He now has at least 95 scrimmage yards and a touchdown in nine straight games. Taylor leads the NFL with 1, rushing yards and 16 touchdowns. No other player is over 1, yards yet. He also leads the NFL with 70 red-zone opportunities. Leonard Fournette is next closest with 51, just a massive discrepancy. On top of all that, this is an absolute smash of a matchup. The Texans are allowing yards per carry to running backs, the highest mark in the NFL. The only problem with Taylor is that he's projecting to be highest owned player on the slate. He's somebody who makes sense in cash games, but you might want to look elsewhere in tournaments.

I mentioned there were eight running backs I really like. Here are the four priced over $7, on DraftKings if you're looking to spend up:

The other four I'm targeting are at $6, or less. My two favorites in this group are Antonio Gibson and Jamaal Williams. Gibson is coming off career-highs in both carries (29) and receptions (7) last week and it looks like J.D. McKissic is going to miss this game. That's 15% of the target share gone from their offense and third-string running back Jaret Patterson does not project well in that McKissic role. Give Gibson all of the touches he can handle. The Raiders are also allowing the fifth most Fantasy points to running backs over the past four weeks of the season. As for Williams, he's just too cheap with D'Andre Swift expected out. Williams handled 20 touches with Swift banged up last week, including five receptions. We know Jared Goff will dump off to his running backs and Williams is a more than capable pass catcher. Are you having trouble deciding which running back to play? Let my buddies from Fantasy Football Today DFS help you out:

"I just think Gibson is in for such a giant workload and this is a Washington team that is very motivated… They need to win every single game and Gibson I think is going to be the key to get them there," said Sia Nejad. He wasn't the only one, however. "I think if McKissic is out, Gibson projects almost as well as Najee Harris and Leonard Fournette. I think he's just an every lineup smash play," said special guest Jacob Gibbs.

Here are those four running backs at $6, or less:

Figuring out stacks this week

As I mentioned earlier, we're without some elite quarterback talent on this main slate. It has made finding stacks a little harder than usual this week. Before I get into who I like, let me just spread a word of caution on this Chargers-Bengals game. The last time the Chargers traveled east for an early start, they lost against the Baltimore Ravens. Plus, both secondaries in this game have played relatively well this season. There's definitely a chance this blows up in my face, but I'm a little more nervous about this one. I'm not completely avoiding stacks here, but they aren't my favorite. One of my main stacks will be Derek Carr with Hunter Renfrow and/or Foster Moreau. Carr is priced at just $6, on DraftKings and has the best matchup on the slate. It's also easier to figure out which players to stack him with when you consider their injuries. Darren Waller is likely out and DeSean Jackson missed practice Thursday with a calf injury. Renfrow leads the team with a 22% target share since Week 9 and Moreau went receiving when he filled in for Waller back in Week 7. The Raiders are a stack I like quite a bit and even one I am considering using in cash games this week.

Here are the stacks I'll be targeting in Week

We don't talk about tight ends often enough here, but maybe we should.

Handling the tight end position

You likely don't need me to tell you this but I just want to caution you on Foster Moreau. He's extremely cheap and sets up for a similar role to Darren Waller, assuming he's out. As a result, Moreau is going to be very popular this week. I have absolutely no issue using him in cash games this week, but I'd recommend getting different in bigger-field tournaments. If you're looking to spend up at the position, I do like George Kittle as a one-off in that game. Drop down a little further and you find Gronkowski, who I like stacked with Brady. Drop down a little further and we get to Dallas Goedert and Pat Freiermuth, who are separated by just $ on DraftKings this week. Goedert let us down last week, but he's facing the Jets. Enough said. Freiermuth has a fantastic role in the Steelers offense right now, especially with Eric Ebron on Injured Reserve.

If you need pivots off Moreau in his price range, I don't mind Jack Doyle at $3, or James O'Shaughnessy at $2, Doyle went for last week and has one of the better matchups for tight ends going up against the Texans. Unfortunately, our boy Dan Arnold went down with injury, but O'Shaughnessy played a bunch in his place. He was on the field for 81% of the offensive snaps and ran a route on 36 of Trevor Lawrence's 45 drop-backs last week.

Here's a single-entry GPP lineup I've already built out for Week

  • Derek Carr, $6,
  • Antonio Gibson, $5,
  • James Conner, $5,
  • Hunter Renfrow, $5,
  • Justin Jefferson, $8,
  • Diontae Johnson, $6,
  • Foster Moreau, $2,
  • Jamaal Williams, $5,
  • Cardinals DST, $3,
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