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What is the capital of peru a country


what is the capital of peru a country

In Peru, a country located just south of the Equator, there are three climate but owing to the lack of sunshine and the high humidity, the capital's. Get to know the capital city of Peru, where Team USA athletes will be competing this summer at the Parapan American Games from August 23 to. Cusco Peru, cradle of the magnificent Incan Empire. all of Latin America, Peru gained independence and maintained Lima as the country's capital.

: What is the capital of peru a country

What is the capital of peru a country
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what is the capital of peru a country

What is the capital of peru a country -

Geography of Peru

Peru is a country located on the western side of South America between Chile and Ecuador. It also shares borders with Bolivia, Brazil, and Colombia and has a coastline along the South Pacific Ocean. Peru is the fifth most populous country in Latin America and it is known for its ancient history, varied topography, and multiethnic population.

Fast Facts: Peru

  • Official Name: Republic of Peru
  • Capital: Lima
  • Population: 31,, ()
  • Official Languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
  • Currency: Nuevo sol (PEN)
  • Form of Government: Presidential republic
  • Climate: Varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
  • Total Area: , square miles (1,, square kilometers)
  • Highest Point: Nevado Huascaran at 22, feet (6, meters) 
  • Lowest Point: Pacific Ocean at 0 feet (0 meters)

History of Peru

Peru has a long history that dates back to the Norte Chico civilization and the Inca Empire. Europeans did not arrive in Peru until when the Spanish landed on the territory and discovered the Inca civilization. At that time, the Inca Empire was centered in what is present-day Cuzco but stretched from northern Ecuador to central Chile. In the early s, Spain's Francisco Pizarro began searching the area for wealth and by had taken over Cuzco. In , Pizarro founded Lima and in a viceroyalty was established there that gave the city control over all Spanish colonies in the region.

Spanish control of Peru lasted until the early s, at which time Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar began a push for independence. On July 28, , San Martin declared Peru independent and in it achieved partial independence. Spain fully recognized Peru as independent in Following its independence, there were several territorial disputes between Peru and neighboring countries. These conflicts eventually led to the War of the Pacific from to as well as several clashes in the early s. In , Peru and Chile drafted an agreement on where the borders would be. However, it was not fully implemented until —and there are still disagreements about maritime boundaries.

Beginning in the s, social instability led to a period of military rule that lasted from to Military rule began to end when General Juan Velasco Alvarado was replaced by General Francisco Morales Bermudez in due to poor health and problems managing Peru. Bermudez eventually worked at returning Peru to a democracy by allowing a new constitution and elections in May At that time President Belaunde Terry was re-elected (he was overthrown in ).

Despite its return to democracy, Peru suffered severe instability in the s due to economic problems. From to , El Nino caused flooding, drought, and destroyed the country's fishing industry. In addition, two terrorist groups, Sendero Luminoso and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, emerged and caused chaos in much of the country. In , Alan Garcia Perez was elected president and economic mismanagement followed, further devastating Peru's economy from to

In , Alberto Fujimori was elected president and made several large changes in the government throughout the s. Instability continued and in , Fujimori resigned from office after several political scandals. In , Alejandro Toledo took office and put Peru on track to return to democracy. In , Alan Garcia Perez again became Peru's president and since then the country's economy and stability have rebounded.

Government of Peru

Today, Peru's government is considered a constitutional republic. It has an executive branch of government that is made up of a chief of state and a head of government (both of which are filled by the president) and a unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru for its legislative branch. Peru's judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of Justice. Peru is divided into 25 regions for local administration.

Economics and Land Use in Peru

Since , Peru's economy has been on the rebound. It is also known as being varied due to the varied landscape within the country. For example, certain areas are known for fishing, while others feature abundant mineral resources. The main industries in Peru are mining and refining of minerals, steel, metal fabrication, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction, fishing, cement, textiles, clothing, and food processing. Agriculture is also a major part of Peru's economy and the main products are asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guava, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, tomatoes, mango, barley, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, beans, poultry, beef, dairy products, fish, and guinea pigs.

Geography and Climate of Peru

Peru is located in the western part of South America just below the equator. It has a varied topography that consists of a coastal plain in the west, high rugged mountains in its center (the Andes), and a lowland jungle in the east that leads into the Amazon River basin. The highest point in Peru is Nevado Huascaran at 22, feet (6, m).

The climate of Peru varies based on the landscape but it is mostly tropical in the east, desert in the west and temperate in the Andes. Lima, which is located on the coast, has an average February high temperature of 80 degrees (˚C) and an August low of 58 degrees (14˚C).​

References

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

‘We are living in a catastrophe’: Peru's jungle capital choking for breath as Covid hits

In the final hours before Covid claimed her life, Cecilio Sangama watched helplessly as his eldest sister Edith gasped for breath.

Hospitals across Peru’s largest Amazon city had run out of oxygen, and the shortage had pushed the black market price of a cylinder well above $1, (£).

“Her body could not hold on. She needed oxygen but we just couldn’t afford it,” said Sangama, 49, a municipal worker, speaking by telephone from Iquitos.

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“I had promised her: ‘Don’t worry sister, today I will find you a cylinder,’… but in the end, there was nothing I could do.” His voice broke and he fell silent for a few seconds. “My sister died just a few hours ago, we are trying to find the way to give her a Christian burial.”

Hemmed in by a sea of jungle, plagued by dire poverty and already reeling from a dengue fever outbreak, Iquitos is now the second major Amazon city – after Manaus in Brazil – to take a brutal hit from the coronavirus pandemic.

Iquitos faces an added obstacle in efforts to contain the disease: as the largest city in the world which cannot be reached by road, it depends on intermittent air deliveries for essential supplies of medicine, personal protective equipment and oxygen.

“We are living in a catastrophe,” said Graciela Meza, executive director of the regional health office in Loreto, the vast Amazon region which surrounds the city of half a million inhabitants.

The city’s main public hospital was overflowing with nearly five times the number of patients its beds could hold, said Meza, who herself was recovering from the virus.

“I’ve never seen anything like this in my life, or even in my dreams,” said Meza, a lifelong Iquitos resident, who compared the situation to living in a disaster film.

“Most victims have died from a lack of oxygen; 90% have died because of lack of medical supplies,” Meza added.

She had counted dozens of dead every day over the last three weeks, including two nurses, and three doctors – the latest a junior doctor in his twenties.

Just how bad Loreto’s Covid outbreak is remains unclear, but few in Iquitos doubt it exceeds the official count of 62 dead and 1, confirmed cases as of Wednesday.

After more than 50 days under lockdown, Peru’s overall official count of more than 51, confirmed coronavirus cases and 1, dead places it second only to Brazil in Latin America. Brazil, which has reported nearly 8, deaths and has a population nearly seven times that of Peru.

Hundreds of critically-ill patients were seated outside in rocking chairs around the hospital grounds or, in the last few days, in three field hospitals erected in football pitches and stadiums in the city.

“There’s no oxygen in the lungs of the world,” Meza remarked bitterly, referring to the city’s Amazon location. “That should be the headline for your story,” she added.

Her tone switched to anger as she said: “We only have our dreadful authorities to blame for their corruption and decades of chronic under-investment in healthcare.”

The comments reflected growing outrage at the slow response of the regional government amid allegations that private companies were profiteering from a monopoly on oxygen tanks.

The local prosecutor’s office in Iquitos has announced an investigation into reports that the Loreto regional government was paying inflated prices for oxygen cylinders – including alleged purchases from a company owned by the daughter of a councillor.

Growing anger over chronic shortages coincided with a visit by Peru’s health minister, Víctor Zamora, on Monday. The minister pledged to establish daily flights to take medical supplies and oxygen from Lima to Iquitos and replenish the numbers of medical professionals, as more than a dozen doctors infected with Covid were evacuated.

Zamora also promised to build two new oxygen plants in Iquitos, which needs cylinders a day, but warned the construction would take several weeks. The existing plant can produce a maximum of cylinders a day, according to local reports.

Agustina Huilca, president of the local doctor’s federation said it was too little, too late.

“We asked for the medicine more than a month ago,” she said. They desperately need strong antibiotics, anti-coagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs to treat Covid, she said.

“There’s no medicine, there’s no oxygen and I’ve got 40 doctors in hospital [with Covid], am I supposed to wait for them to die one by one?” she exclaimed on Monday. A total of medics had been infected with the virus in the city, a number second only to that of the capital Lima, a city with a population 20 times the size.

“[As doctors] we feel impotent, frustrated and isolated. We feel abandoned by the government,” Huilca added.

The pandemic could not have arrived at a worse time, said Valerie Paz-Soldan, a Peruvian-American social scientist and director of Tulane Health Offices for Latin America.

Iquitos was already struggling with the tail end of a dengue fever outbreak coupled with a bout of leptospirosis. Asia and the Americas had multiple outbreaks of dengue in which was the worst year on record for the disease.

Both dengue and Covid cause fevers which have complicated diagnoses, said Paz-Soldan, while Iquitos’ hot climate, crowded living conditions, poverty and geographic isolation were “a perfect storm of deadly factors”.

“I suspect that in Iquitos the situation is already out of control,” she said.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Peru

The climate in Peru

In Peru, as in all equatorial countries, there is a tropical climate. Unlike in Europe or the USA, there is almost no difference between the seasons. The daylight hours vary little, and the temperature differences between summer and winter are also lesser. Depending on the season, the average daytime temperatures range between 24 and 28 degrees. In some parts of the country the temperature raises up to 35 °C. In the colder months and depending in the region, the temperature lowers down to 14°C in a month's average.

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures


Zoom

Languages

Official language:

Spanish, Quechua, Aymara



Religions

Branchdistribution
Lutherans%
Roman Catholics%
nondenominational%
other%

more

Economy


According to the definition of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Peru is one of the developing countriesbecause of its lower economic performance.



Land use

1% Urban areas:16, km²
19% Agricultural areas:, km²
57% Forest:, km²
0% Water areas:5, km²
23% Others:, km²

more

Transport

Roadways:, km
Railways:1, km
Waterways:8, km
Commercial harbors:97
› Airports:

Most important cities

CityRegionPopulation
Lima / CapitalLima9,,
ArequipaArequipa,
CallaoCallao,
TrujilloLa Libertad,
ChiclayoLambayeque,
IquitosLoreto,
HuancayoJunín,
PiuraPiura,
ChimboteAncash,
CuscoCusco,
PucallpaUcayali,
TacnaTacna,
IcaIca,
JuliacaPuno,
SullanaPiura,
HuánucoHuanuco,
AyacuchoAyacucho,
CajamarcaCajamarca,
PunoPuno,
TumbesTumbes,
HuarazAncash87,
Cerro de PascoPasco79,
AbancayApurímac55,
HuachoLima55,
MoqueguaMoquegua55,
MoyobambaSan Martín44,
HuancavelicaHuancavelica42,
Puerto MaldonadoMadre de Dios38,
ChachapoyasAmazonas20,




Political indicators

(Based on the "Worldwide Governance Indicators" project of the World Bank)


Political stability:

&#;

Rule of law:

&#;

Effectivity:

&#;

Regulatory quality:

&#;

Voice accountability:

&#;

Death penalty:only for serious crimes



Existing trade agreements



Alliances

PositionИсточник: mynewextsetup.us

Peru is a land of natural beauty and rich cultural heritage, though territorial disputes, military coups, corruption and economic inequality have marred the country's history. Peru was home to the fabled Incan Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries.


• Land and People
• Economy and Resources
• History and Politics


Land and People

Located in western South America, Peru borders the Pacific Ocean, with Ecuador to the north and Chile to the south. With a land area slightly smaller than the state of Alaska, Peru is the fourth-largest Latin American nation. The city of Lima is the country's capital as well as its cultural and business center.

The total population of Peru is just under 28 million. The country's ethnic mix is split between Amerindian (45 percent); Mestizo, a mix between Amerindian and white (37 percent); white (15 percent); and black, Japanese and Chinese (the remaining 3 percent).

Peru is one of only three Latin American countries populated mainly by indigenous people. The country's official languages are Quechua, which is spoken by the two largest indigenous groups, and Spanish, which was imported to the area in the 16th century. A large number of Amazonian languages, including Aymara, are also spoken.

Dominated by the Andes, Peru's principal natural features are a desert coast; snow-covered peaks and the mountain ranges they anchor; Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake; and a vast web of tropical rivers. Three types of terrain dominate in Peru: the western coastal plain (la costa), the high and rugged Andes in the country's center (la sierra), and the eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon Basin (la selva).

Peru is home to Machu Picchu, the renowned Incan site located high in the eastern Andean mountain range, at an altitude of 8, feet. Machu Picchu is thought to have been a royal estate and religious retreat built between and C.E. Dense brush and steep rocky slopes surround the so-called Lost City and its architectural wonders. The granite-block structures fit tightly together, and terraced gardens line the hills.

Pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes is one of many environmental challenges facing Peru. The country also suffers from deforestation, sometimes as a result of illegal logging; overgrazing of the slopes of la costa and la sierra, leading to soil erosion; desertification; and air pollution in Lima.

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Economy and Resources

The Peruvian economy underwent major privatization of the mining, electricity and telecommunications industries in the s. Although devastating environmental effects wrought by El Niño weakened the economy from to , unorthodox fiscal policies enacted by the current administration have managed to help stabilize inflation.

Fifty-four percent of Peruvians live below the poverty line, with almost half of those in extreme poverty. The unemployment rate in the Lima metropolitan area is percent and is estimated to be much higher in rural areas.

The land of Peru is rich in deposits of copper, silver, lead, zinc, oil and gold. The mining sector has been a principal provider of the foreign exchange and tax revenue needed to keep the rest of the economy going. In , Peru's mining export revenues of $ billion represented percent of the country's total exports.

Other major industries include petroleum extraction and refining and fishing. The country's major legal exports, outside of mining, are crude petroleum and coffee. Coca production and cocaine trade, both illegal, continue to be major contributors to the economy.

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History and Politics

At its height, the Incan Empire was the largest nation on Earth. The city of Cuzco, located in present-day Peru, was the center of Inca life and a hub of wealth and sophistication.

In C.E., Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro arrived in the middle of an Incan Empire that had been weakened by civil war. At the Battle of Cajamarca, Pizarro managed to capture and order the execution of the Inca leader, Atahuallpa. Today, Cajamarca is the site of Yanacocha, one of the most profitable gold mines in the world.

Peru remained under Spanish control for almost years, finally achieving emancipation in Spain did not recognize Peru's independence until

The end of the 19th century saw Peru ruled by a succession of dictators, and the early 20th century was a time of economic struggle for the nation. From to , Peru was under military rule. Even after the restoration of democracy, however, Peru was deeply divided politically and economically.

In the s, the Peruvian government began to increase private ownership of land. At the same time, Maoist rebels from a group known as Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), led by Abimael Guzman, waged a brutal guerrilla war against the state. During the Shining Path war and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, nearly 70, people were killed in terrorist attacks or counter-terrorist campaigns. Today, the groups no longer control large parts of the country, but violence is still a problem.

In , Alberto Fujimori was elected president of Peru. Although Fujimori made progress in some areas, his administration was notoriously corrupt, and in , he resigned from office and exiled himself to Japan.

In the spring of , Alejandro Toledo was elected president. His term in office has been plagued with allegations of corruption; Toledo's approval rating has ranged from about 8 percent to 14 percent over the course of his term. Most Peruvians complain that they feel unsafe on the streets because of an increase in crime.

The next presidential election in Peru is in

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Sources: BBC News; Bloomberg; CIA World Factbook; Global InfoMine; Journey to Planet Earth, PBS; U.S. Library of Congress; Wikipedia.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

15 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Peru

Written by Lana Law
May 4,

We may earn a commission from affiliate links ()

Peru is a country of history, culture, beauty, and adventure, with a full spectrum of possibilities for travelers. The ancient Inca City of Machu Picchu is one of the highlights of any trip to South America, but there is much more to discover throughout Peru.

You can take a boat trip on the highest navigable lake in the world, look out over one of the deepest canyons in the world, try your luck sandboarding in the dunes, hike in the Andes, or fish for piranha in the Amazon. Other things to do in Peru include exploring the mysteries of the Nazca lines, walking through ancient ruins in the Sacred Valley, or experiencing modern Peru while wandering the streets of Lima.

The diversity of the landscape, the people, and the experiences here make Peru one of the most unique destinations on the continent. Find the best places to visit with our list of the top tourist attractions in Peru.

Note: Some businesses may be temporarily closed due to recent global health and safety issues.

1. Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu

Perched high upon a ridge, meters above the Urubamba River, the majestic Inca City of Machu Picchu is one of the most dramatic settings of a ruined city anywhere in the world. Almost as impressive as the ruins themselves is the spectacular backdrop of steep, lush, and often cloud-shrouded mountains.

Standing near the caretaker's hut, looking out over Machu Picchu, the jungle-covered mountains, and the river far below, you can imagine why the Incas chose this place to build their city.

Hiram Bingham came across Machu Picchu in and believed until his death that it was the "Lost City of the Incas," first documented by Spanish soldiers in the s. However, historians believe the real lost city of the Incas was at Esp&#;ritu Pampa, a ruin Bingham knew of but discounted as being insignificant.

The journey is also part of the experience of visiting Machu Picchu, whether it's by hiking the Inca Trail or seeing the route by train. In either case, it's impossible not to be inspired by the scenery. Trains leave from Cusco, Ollantaytambo, or Urubamba to Aguas Calientes.

From Aguas Calientes, the town below Machu Picchu, a bus takes you up to Machu Picchu, about a minute drive along a harrowing switchback road. It is possible to walk up this road to the site, but this is a long, uphill climb and not recommended.

As of January , new admission rules are in place for Machu Pichu. You must tour with a guide, you must follow a set tour route, and you must enter the park at a designated time.

The high season is June to August, but the two months on either side of this also see decent weather and can be a good time to visit with fewer crowds.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Machu Picchu

2. The Inca Trail

The Inca Trail

The famous Inca Trail is a four-day hike, which terminates at Machu Picchu, and is regarded by many as the highlight of their trip to Peru. This scenic trail is often more demanding than what many people are expecting, but also more rewarding.

A couple of different starting points for the Inca Trail exist, but the traditional four-day hike begins at km 82 of the Cusco - Aguas Calientes rail line. From this point, the trail passes more than 30 Inca ruins and traverses through spectacular scenery. The most difficult portion of the trail is the second day of the hike, with a climb of 1, meters in elevation gain and two high passes.

The hike must be done with an agency, and reservations should be booked well in advance, particularly in the high season of June to August.

Some agencies offer a shorter version of the hike, which entails either the last two days or just the last day of the hike. There are campgrounds at intervals along the trail and one at the base of Machu Picchu.

Depending on the type of tour, hikers can either carry their own backpack or have it transported for them. The daily number of hikers and porters on the trail is strictly enforced.

3. Cusco's Architectural Treasures

Cusco's Architectural Treasures

Walking through the streets of Cusco is like wandering through a museum, with history built upon history in this UNESCO World Heritage Site. Inca ruins have been used in the foundations of many of the lovely old colonial buildings lining the narrow roads, showcasing the city's long history.

The main square, Plaza de Armas, in the city center is home to the Cathedral and La Compania, two equally impressive structures. The square is also a great place to start a walking tour, grab a meal, or people watch during the day.

And while there are countless buildings and museums worth visiting, the church of Santo Domingo, resting on the ruins of the Inca site of Coricancha, is one of Cusco's must-see attractions.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Cusco

4. Lake Titicaca

Isla Amantani

The sparkling blue water of Lake Titicaca is surrounded by rolling hills and traditional small villages. The lake area is a mix of beautiful scenery and culture that sets it apart from other regions of the country. Sitting at 3, meters above sea level, Lake Titicaca is known for being the highest navigable lake in the world.

A boat trip to the islands and surrounding villages is the best way to appreciate the lake. One of the main tourist attractions is the Uros Floating Islands (Islas Flotantes), which sustain small communities of Uros Indians. These are man-made islands constructed of reeds that have sustained a traditional way of life since the time of the Incas.

What you'll see on tours to these islands is designed for tourism, but it does offer a glimpse into a traditional way of life. The floating islands are only one very small part of Lake Titicaca's attraction, with the real charm lying in the small villages in the hills along the shores of Titicaca and on the main islands of Isla Taquile and Isla Amantani.

The main gateway to Lake Titicaca is the city of Puno, where you'll find hotels, restaurants, and travel agencies. There are trains and buses to Puno and flights in and out of the nearby city of Juliaca.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Puno

5. Colca Canyon (Ca&#;on del Colca)

Colca Canyon (Cañon del Colca)

Although it was once thought to be the deepest canyon in the world, Colca Canyon (Ca&#;on del Colca), twice as deep as the Grand Canyon, is the second deepest after nearby Cotahuasi Canyon. The canyon reaches a depth of 3, meters and is the result of a seismic fault between two volcanoes. At the base far below is a winding river.

The Colca Canyon area has been inhabited for thousands of years and was home to the Collagua, Cabana, and eventually the Inca peoples. Stone terracing along the canyon walls dates to AD and is still in use today.

The canyon is about a four-hour drive from Arequipa. Day trips to the canyon are available from Arequipa but two or more days are recommended considering the driving time involved in accessing the canyon. Besides gazing out at the canyon, there are also hot springs, churches, villages, and Inca ruins to explore. Condors are also a big attraction in Colca Canyon as they soar past the cliff walls.

6. Nazca Lines

Nazca Lines

The mysterious Nazca lines are an unusual sight that will leave you with a sense of awe. These huge images on the desert floor were relatively undiscovered until planes flying over the area in the s saw the lines from the air and realized they formed distinct patterns and images.

Until that time there was some recognition of the hillside drawings near Nazca and Paracas, which can be seen from ground level. However, the huge drawings on the flat desert floor are so large that it requires an aerial view to be appreciated.

From the air, it is possible to see 70 different plant and animal drawings as well as hundreds of lines and other geometrical shapes. Some of these lines stretch as long as 10 kilometers, and they are spread over hundreds of square kilometers. Most notable among the figures are a lizard measuring meters long, a condor with a meter wingspan, and several others that include a monkey, hummingbird, killer whale, and spider.

Although it is not known exactly who created the lines or how and why, theories hold that the lines were the product of the Paracas and Nazca cultures sometime between BC and AD Why they were created is the subject of much debate. Some of the theories put forward suggest the lines were a type of astronomical calendar for agriculture, an alien landing pad, a running track, walkways joining ceremonial sites, or part of a water cult.

The lines were created by removing the dark surface layer of stones and piling them at the sides of the lines, creating a contrast between the dark stones and the exposed lighter soil below. Flights can be booked in advance or on a walk-in, first-come first-serve basis.

Approximately four kilometers outside of Nazca are the Cantalloc Aqueducts. Built around AD to , the aqueducts were designed to provide a year-round water source for the area. They conduct water from the mountain springs down to Nazca by means of underground canals. Some of the Cantalloc Aqueducts are still used by farmers in the area.

Also of interest in the area is the Cemetery of Chauchilla, which contains Nazca remains and mummies.

7. The Sacred Valley

The Sacred Valley

Less than an hour's drive north of Cusco is the beautiful Sacred Valley and the towns of Pisac, Urubamba, and Ollantaytambo. This fertile valley has many Inca ruins worth exploring but is also a peaceful area to spend some time wandering through markets or soaking up local culture.

Main highlights in the valley are the Pisac Ruins, the Sunday Market in Pisac (smaller market days are held on Tuesdays and Thursdays), and the ruins and fortress at the beautiful little town of Ollantaytambo. A little out of the way but worth the trip is the town of Moray with circular terracing used as an agricultural testing area by the Incas, and the salt mines at Salinas, which have been in use since the time of the Incas.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in the Sacred Valley

8. Arequipa's Historical City Center

Arequipa's Historical City Center

Arequipa, at more than 2, meters, is often regarded as Peru's most beautiful city. Set against a backdrop of snow-capped mountains, the city center is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. Arequipa's main claim to fame is the old architecture constructed of sillar stone, a volcanic rock that radiates a bright color in the sunlight. Most of the colonial buildings in the historic city center are made from this stone, giving rise to its nickname of the "white city."

Arequipa is also often a stopping-off point for those looking to visit the Colca Canyon (Ca&#;on del Colca), which is about a four hour's drive from the city.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Arequipa

9. Puerto Maldonado and the Amazon

Amazon River at Puerto Maldonado

Just a half hour flight from Cusco, Puerto Maldonado is a key jumping-off point for tours of the Amazon. This is a completely different experience than what you will find in other parts of Peru, with hot humid jungle and a chance to see all kinds of unique wildlife. Caimans, capybara, monkeys, parrots, turtles, and piranhas are what you can expect to find in this part of the country.

The Reserva Nacional Tambopata and the Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene are the two main attractions, and they are well serviced by a number of jungle lodges. The Reserva Nacional Tambopata jungle lodges are approximately a one-hour boat ride from Puerto Maldonado. Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene is across the river from the Parque Nacional Madidi in Bolivia and takes about four hours to reach by boat. Tours typically range from a couple of days to week-long adventures.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Puerto Maldonado

Lima's Historic Center

Lima's Historic Center

Lima's Historic Center is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city was founded in the s and, although many of the original structures were destroyed, it still holds significant historical value and is a beautiful place to wander around.

One of the most pleasant places to visit in Lima is the main square, Plaza de Armas (Plaza Mayor), in the heart of the city's historic district. A majority of the structures were rebuilt following the devastating earthquake of The highlights around the Plaza de Armas are the cathedral on the east side and Government Palace (Palacio del Gobierno) on the north side. Also of interest are the Archbishop's Palace and the Casa del Oidor.

Leading off the square is the pedestrian street, Jiron de la Union, with shops, restaurants, and the historic Iglesia de La Merced.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Lima

Ica and the Sand Dunes at Huacachina

Ica and the Sand Dunes at Huacachina

For the sporting type looking to try something a little different, the oasis resort of Huacachina on the outskirts of Ica has just the answer. This picture-perfect, palm-fringed resort town just west of Ica is situated around a lagoon surrounded by huge sand dunes, some of which reach 1, meters in height.

People come here to try out the sport of sandboarding. Similar to snowboarding, sandboarding involves surfing down the sand dunes on specially made sand-boards, which can be rented in the area. For the less coordinated, renting dune buggies is another great way to get out and enjoy the landscape.

Ica is slightly higher than the ocean and consequently is not affected by the usual coastal mist like other towns along this stretch. The town has a year-round sunny and dry climate, making it a good place to visit at any time.

Pisco and the Ballestas Islands (Islas Ballestas)

Penguins in the Ballestas Islands

The main reason to come to Pisco, about kilometers south of Lima, is to see the nearby Islas Ballestas and the Reserva Nacional de Paracas on the Paracas Peninsula. Almost directly west of Pisco, the Islas Ballestas, sometimes referred to as the "poor man's Galapagos," are home to hundreds of thousands of birds, large colonies of sea lions, pelicans, penguins, and dolphins.

Boat tours from Paracas and Pisco, which visit the islands daily, leave in the morning. The full tour takes you past the "Candelabra," a hillside geoglyph seen from the coast, and then spends a considerable amount of time boating around the islands watching for wildlife. This tour is generally a half-day trip, returning around noon.

The Paracas Peninsula, jutting out into the Pacific Ocean just south of Pisco, is home to the Reserva Nacional Paracas and the largest section of protected coastline in Peru. The shoreline of the Paracas Peninsula supports a huge variety of wildlife, with approximately species of seabirds, two types of sea lions, a rare type of otter, and the endangered Humboldt penguins.

Sillustani

Sillustani

Sillustani, outside the city of Puno and not far from Lake Titicaca, is the site of some of the area's most impressive funerary towers (chullpas). Standing as high as 12 meters, these structures were built by the Colla people around AD to bury their nobility. Entire families, along with food and personal possessions, were buried in these cylinders.

Most of the towers are set in a scenic area along the bank of Lake Umayo, just walk up a hill from the parking lot to the plateau above. The towers stand at the far end of the field with the lake behind. Below the parking lot is a small marshy lake where locals can be seen poling along in their boats, harvesting reeds.

Barranco

Barranco

The quaint hillside district of Barranco, just south of Central Lima and Miraflores, is a charming area within easy commuting distance of downtown Lima. With unassuming colorful colonial architecture lining the narrow streets and hillside ocean views, the area offers a much more relaxed pace than the city.

The area has long been popular with artists and poets, giving it a Bohemian feel. This is a great place to wander in the afternoon or enjoy a meal, particularly at sunset, at one of the restaurants overlooking the ocean. Besides the atmosphere, the one main tourist attraction in Barranco is the Puente de Los Suspiros (Bridge of Sighs).

Cordillera Blanca

Cordillera Blanca

A stunning area of mountains and valleys, the Cordillera Blanca draws mountain climbers, hikers, and outdoor enthusiasts from around the world. The Cordillera Blanca is home to Peru's highest peak, Huascaran. Also located in the same area of the Andes are sixteen other mountains over 6, meters in height.

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What is the capital of peru a country -

Peru is a land of natural beauty and rich cultural heritage, though territorial disputes, military coups, corruption and economic inequality have marred the country's history. Peru was home to the fabled Incan Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries.


• Land and People
• Economy and Resources
• History and Politics


Land and People

Located in western South America, Peru borders the Pacific Ocean, with Ecuador to the north and Chile to the south. With a land area slightly smaller than the state of Alaska, Peru is the fourth-largest Latin American nation. The city of Lima is the country's capital as well as its cultural and business center.

The total population of Peru is just under 28 million. The country's ethnic mix is split between Amerindian (45 percent); Mestizo, a mix between Amerindian and white (37 percent); white (15 percent); and black, Japanese and Chinese (the remaining 3 percent).

Peru is one of only three Latin American countries populated mainly by indigenous people. The country's official languages are Quechua, which is spoken by the two largest indigenous groups, and Spanish, which was imported to the area in the 16th century. A large number of Amazonian languages, including Aymara, are also spoken.

Dominated by the Andes, Peru's principal natural features are a desert coast; snow-covered peaks and the mountain ranges they anchor; Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake; and a vast web of tropical rivers. Three types of terrain dominate in Peru: the western coastal plain (la costa), the high and rugged Andes in the country's center (la sierra), and the eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon Basin (la selva).

Peru is home to Machu Picchu, the renowned Incan site located high in the eastern Andean mountain range, at an altitude of 8, feet. Machu Picchu is thought to have been a royal estate and religious retreat built between and C.E. Dense brush and steep rocky slopes surround the so-called Lost City and its architectural wonders. The granite-block structures fit tightly together, and terraced gardens line the hills.

Pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes is one of many environmental challenges facing Peru. The country also suffers from deforestation, sometimes as a result of illegal logging; overgrazing of the slopes of la costa and la sierra, leading to soil erosion; desertification; and air pollution in Lima.

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Economy and Resources

The Peruvian economy underwent major privatization of the mining, electricity and telecommunications industries in the s. Although devastating environmental effects wrought by El Niño weakened the economy from to , unorthodox fiscal policies enacted by the current administration have managed to help stabilize inflation.

Fifty-four percent of Peruvians live below the poverty line, with almost half of those in extreme poverty. The unemployment rate in the Lima metropolitan area is percent and is estimated to be much higher in rural areas.

The land of Peru is rich in deposits of copper, silver, lead, zinc, oil and gold. The mining sector has been a principal provider of the foreign exchange and tax revenue needed to keep the rest of the economy going. In , Peru's mining export revenues of $ billion represented percent of the country's total exports.

Other major industries include petroleum extraction and refining and fishing. The country's major legal exports, outside of mining, are crude petroleum and coffee. Coca production and cocaine trade, both illegal, continue to be major contributors to the economy.

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History and Politics

At its height, the Incan Empire was the largest nation on Earth. The city of Cuzco, located in present-day Peru, was the center of Inca life and a hub of wealth and sophistication.

In C.E., Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro arrived in the middle of an Incan Empire that had been weakened by civil war. At the Battle of Cajamarca, Pizarro managed to capture and order the execution of the Inca leader, Atahuallpa. Today, Cajamarca is the site of Yanacocha, one of the most profitable gold mines in the world.

Peru remained under Spanish control for almost years, finally achieving emancipation in Spain did not recognize Peru's independence until

The end of the 19th century saw Peru ruled by a succession of dictators, and the early 20th century was a time of economic struggle for the nation. From to , Peru was under military rule. Even after the restoration of democracy, however, Peru was deeply divided politically and economically.

In the s, the Peruvian government began to increase private ownership of land. At the same time, Maoist rebels from a group known as Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), led by Abimael Guzman, waged a brutal guerrilla war against the state. During the Shining Path war and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, nearly 70, people were killed in terrorist attacks or counter-terrorist campaigns. Today, the groups no longer control large parts of the country, but violence is still a problem.

In , Alberto Fujimori was elected president of Peru. Although Fujimori made progress in some areas, his administration was notoriously corrupt, and in , he resigned from office and exiled himself to Japan.

In the spring of , Alejandro Toledo was elected president. His term in office has been plagued with allegations of corruption; Toledo's approval rating has ranged from about 8 percent to 14 percent over the course of his term. Most Peruvians complain that they feel unsafe on the streets because of an increase in crime.

The next presidential election in Peru is in

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Sources: BBC News; Bloomberg; CIA World Factbook; Global InfoMine; Journey to Planet Earth, PBS; U.S. Library of Congress; Wikipedia.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

What is capital Peru?

Lima
Peru/Capitals

Is Lima the capital of Argentina?

Lima is a town in Zárate Partido, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina with a population of 8, ( census [INDEC]). This article about a place in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina is a stub….Lima, Buenos Aires.

Is there a Lima in Spain?

The Spanish city of Lima was founded by Pizarro on Jan. 18, , as the Ciudad de los Reyes (“City of the Kings”).

Why is Lima the capital of Peru?

Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro in , who chose it as the capital due to its strategic location and its main port, Callao, which was a focal point on the “coast of Peru and South America”. In colonial times the city was considered the most important metropolis in Latin America.

What is Peru is known for?

Peru is famous for Machu Picchu, an impressive citadel built in the s by the Incas, an ancient civilization that came from the Peruvian highlands in the early s. The Incas ruled Peru for over years until the Spanish conquered them in At its peak, the Incas were one of the largest Empires in the world.

Where is the city of Lima Peru located?

It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area.

Which is the capital city of South America?

Lima is a city, the capital of Peru, a country in South America. Is lima a country? Lima is the Capital City of Peru. Lima is the capital city of this South American country?

Where is the national capital of Peru located?

As the national capital, the three branches of the Peruvian government operate in Lima. The Government Palace, located in the Plaza Mayor, serves as the headquarters of the government’s executive branch and ministries.

Which is the most populous city in Peru?

What Is The Capital Of Peru? Lima sits along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Lima is Peru’s capital, as well as the country’s most populous city. The city covers an area of 2, square km, while the Lima Metropolitan Area, which includes the city and the seaport of Callao, has a total area of is 2, square km and a population of 12,,

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

The World Bank In Peru

Detailed performance results may be found at  Peru - Performance and learning review of the country partnership strategy for the period FYFY

 

Productivity for growth

The first pillar of the World Bank’s Country Partnership Framework with Peru (CPF) focuses on productivity and covers four objectives: improve connectivity, ease the barriers to formalization, facilitate absorption of skills and technology by small and medium size business and enhance the environment for sustainable private investments. Significant advances have been made in this pillar.

TheSierra Rural Development Project supported improving assets and economic conditions of local producers from six regions (Apurimac, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Junín, Huánuco and Pasco). The increase in the value of principal productive assets of local producers was estimated to be percent, benefiting 56, households. Moreover, the business plans implemented under the project exhibited high performance. At closing, the project reported an increase of 35 percent in net sales volume.

The Second Rural Electrification Project installed infrastructure with the capacity to connect 42, rural households (about , people), thus increasing the country’s rural electricity coverage by percent. The program was also instrumental in consolidating an innovative model for regulated service by electricity distribution companies using solar PV systems to serve people that could not be reached by the grid. Moreover, it supported family producers, small and micro-enterprises, and cooperatives to adopt electricity and use it for multiple purposes. It is estimated that the program has benefited directly 4, rural producers, including 1, women producers.

The Basic Education Project sought to improve the Ministry of Education’s (Minedu) capacity to evaluate student learning, instructional practice and school leadership in Basic Education. Minedu’s capacity to assess student learning outcomes has been strengthened, as measured by the number of cycles of preschool, primary, and secondary education levels with student learning outcomes analyzed by the project. In addition, Minedu’s strengthened capacity to monitor instructional practice is reflected in the publication of a comprehensive report analyzing pedagogical practices over the course of four national studies of classroom instructional practice. Likewise, Minedu’s strengthened capacity to evaluate school leadership resulted in 18, school management positions staffed through the competitive evaluation of over 53, candidates.

The Higher Education Quality Improvement Project aimed at improving Peru’s higher education quality assurance system through the promotion of self and external evaluations, the financing of improvement plans, and the provision of information. There was notable achievement in both the number of self-evaluations and external evaluations finalized. The project provided technical assistance to higher education institutions. This supported quality committees and instances of technical assistance. Financing under the Fund for Quality Enhancement (Fondo de Estímulo de la Calidad) was provided to 60 public pedagogic and technological institutes that required external evaluation as a final step in the process of accreditation of National System for Evaluation, Accreditation, and Certification of the Quality of Education (SINEACE). By completion, 1, self-evaluations had been carried out in Quality Assurance Information (SAES) and external evaluations had been finalized as part of the process of higher education quality assurance. Nearly 80 percent of the institutes that received financing for carrying out external evaluations under the project obtained the necessary accreditation from SINEACE.

The Social Inclusion Technical Assistance Loan aimed at strengthening the Ministry of Inclusion and Social Development’s (Midis) systems and capacity to improve the performance of its programs and to monitor social inclusion policy. With the support of the project, Midis consolidated and launched several information systems with the objective of improving the internal management processes of the social inclusion sector, and to strengthening the transparency and accountability of its programs, including the National Register of Social Programs, the National Social Registry and Peru's Household Targeting System (Sistema de Focalización de Hogares, SISFOH), amongst others. The project, through the support of these systems, also improved the performance of the Midis programs. All Midis programs, with the exception of Juntos, uninterruptedly increased their coverage during the period Finally, cash transfers through Juntos and Pension 65 do show a positive effect on poverty, as they can explain as much as percentage points of extreme poverty reduction in rural areas for

Services for citizens across the territory

The CPF’s second pillar focuses on improving the delivery of services and involves three objectives: improve water and sanitation services in key urban areas, modernize delivery of health and nutrition services for the poor, and expedite the processing of family and commercial cases by the justice system. Significant contributions have been made in this regard.

The Results Nutrition for Juntos Project aimed at increasing the demand for nutrition services by strengthening the operational effectiveness of Juntos (a conditional cash transfer program). The percentage of children under 12 months that received the complete health checkups scheme (CRED) according to their age in the areas of intervention of the Juntos Program targeted by this operation increased from % in to % in and the same indicator in children under 36 months increased from % in to 70% in Added to that the percentage of children younger than 36 months affiliated to SIS and with complete and timely CRED in the areas of intervention of Juntos in Amazonas, Cajamarca, and Huánuco regions increased from 43% in to % in

The Justice Service Improvement Project II supported improving the quality of justice services, through the successful implementation of the e-filing and electronic notification systems that translated into quicker and more secure processes. In addition, in the case of the Judicial Academy (AMAG), the project successfully supported the development of a training program for magistrates and prosecutors. The consolidation of the AMAG’s training programs raised the technical capacity of legal service providers as evidenced by the increase in the number of average lecture hours per participant from 23 in to 44 hours in Furthermore, the implementation of the online training platform allowed to increase the reach, as evidenced by the increase in the number of judges and prosecutors trained from in to 4, by

Natural resources and climate change risk management

Finally, the CPF’s third, and last pillar, focuses on strengthen the management of natural resources and climate change risk management.

The Cusco Regional Development Project aimed at improving the quality of tourism and solid waste management services and increase the resilience of the tourism sector to the impacts of natural disasters in the provinces of Calca, Urubamba, and Cusco. The project completed the Urubamba sanitary landfill, one of the first of its kind in Peru and the one with the largest capacity in Cusco, and purchased machinery to operate the landfill and equipment for trash collection, recycling and street sweeping.

 

Last Updated: Apr 05,

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Flag of Peru

The flag of Peru consists of three horizontal stripes, where the side ones are red and the middle one is white. In the center of the white stripe, a shield taken from the national character that was designed before by José Georgiou Parades is placed. The shield is divided into three fields, where the first one depicts vicuna - a national animal of Peru belonging to the same family as camel does. Next to vicuna, there is a portrait of cinchona tree, from which alkaloid quinine, which is used to cure malaria, is extracted. At the bottom of the coat of arms, a horn full of coins that should point to the mineral wealth of the country is displayed.

Country information

IndependentYes
Country codesPE, PER (ISO )
Official nameRepublic of Peru
Capital cityLima
ContinentSouth America
Member ofUnited Nations, Organization of American States, Union of South American Nations
Population32   ()
Total area1   km2
Highest pointHuascarán (6  m, 22  ft)
Lowest pointBayóvar Depression ( m,  ft)
GDP per capita$ 6  (World Bank, )
CurrencyPeruvian sol (S/., PEN)
Calling code+51
Internet TLD.pe

Flags of neighboring countries

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Country profile - Peru

peru

Peru is perhaps most well known as the land of the Incas, one of the last ancient Andean civilisations. The Incas were warriors, but they were also accomplished farmers, growing a diverse range of native crops including root crops, grains and legumes. Where climate and terrain posed a significant challenge, Inca engineering was up to the task. Extensive terracing with built-in irrigation and drainage systems turned steep hillsides into workable farmlands, which were fertilised with manure from llama and alpaca herds. Up to 15 million people were fed under these farming systems and an elaborate road system allowed transport of food throughout the region.

Poverty in the mountains

Today the Incas are gone but their descendants still farm the Peruvian highlands, growing many of the same crops, the majority of which remain unknown outside the Andes. But whereas the Incas were a privileged people, their descendants are among the poorest in present-day Peru. Some of the challenges that faced the Incas still hold - erratic rainfall, difficult terrain - but lack of support for rural development by recent governments has not helped the livelihoods of highland Peruvians.

Inca terracing

Inca terracing

Most are smallholder farmers, struggling to grow enough food for their families. Potato is the most important food security crop, and over different varieties are known. Other crops include other roots and tubers like yacon, oca and maca, and grains such as quinoa at higher altitudes; maize and vegetables at lower altitudes; and lower still a range of tropical crops. Indeed, the marked variations in elevation and microclimate, and the efforts of farmers over thousands of years, have made this one of the world's most important centres of plant domestication: potatoes, maize, peppers, cotton and cassava are just some of the crops that Andean farmers have given to the world. Yet today these farmers and their families still have no or very limited access to education and health services, good transport, financial services, and basic farming needs like quality seed. It may not be coincidence that this region was the birthplace of the Shining Path terrorist group, which sought to right these injustices.

The rise of asparagus

Things are rather different for Peruvians farming the narrow coastal region to the west of the Andes. The area is desert, with almost no rainfall year round, but surprisingly it is the most agriculturally productive in Peru, generating an estimated 50 per cent of the gross agricultural product from an area that comprises just 4 per cent of the national land total. The secret is elaborate irrigation systems, some built thousands of years ago, that exploit the many small rivers running from the Andes to the Pacific Ocean. Flat land, good temperatures year round, and plenty of guano and fishmeal fertilisers from the nearby coast have also contributed to the farming success of the region.

But the fortunes of the farmers have fluctuated over the years. Before the Land Reform Act of about 80 per cent of the farmland in this region was owned by a small number of wealthy families. The Act transferred ownership to cooperatives comprising the former employees but this measure created its own problems, among them lack of individual incentives, and in many cases productivity fell. At the beginning of the s the land was mostly converted into individual holdings, which has allowed farmers to seek and benefit from new opportunities.

Meanwhile the population in the region has been increasing rapidly. Lima, with its present population of approximately 8 million, lies on the coast and altogether more than 50 per cent of Peru's population now lives in the region. Farmers have diversified to supply these urban markets and at the same time have looked outside the country for other lucrative options. Asparagus, with its high international demand and high prices, has proved an astute choice, bringing about US$ million into the country in and displacing coffee as Peru's leading agriculture export. Year-round production has provided the advantage for Peru, but the market is thought to have reached a mature point with demand unlikely to increase dramatically in the coming years. Sugarcane and cotton are the more traditional cash crops in the region.

Fruits of the forest

Peru's third main ecoregion comprises the lush eastern slopes of the Andes with their cascading rivers, which level out into the Amazon basin with its huge meandering waterways and dense rainforest. And here again, life is very different. The people have traditionally lived in small villages, fishing the rivers, hunting, farming by slash-and-burn methods and accumulating knowledge of the medicinal properties of the plants.

The tremendous natural wealth of the region, which covers 63 per cent of Peru, has long been recognised and frequently been exploited. Gold and rubber have had their day; unsustainable logging of hardwood species is an ongoing issue; and natural gas is the latest controversial forest extract. The plan is to transfer the large gas reserves by pipeline to Lima, and also potentially outside Peru; the problem is the environmental damage caused by construction of the pipeline, which is currently underway. The Inter-American Development Bank recently acknowledged the potential severe negative impacts by delaying a US$75 million loan to the project, but it seems unlikely that the project will not go to completion.

Peru's most infamous agriculture export is also from the rainforest. Now farmed in large illegal plantations higher up the hillsides, Peruvian coca supplies a large part of the international cocaine trade, bringing up to US$ million into the country annually. Attempts to curb these activities have had some success, with the UN recently reporting a reduction in area under coca to 44, hectares (from an estimated , hectares in ). Farmers are however defending the right to grow coca for legal traditional uses; and the fall in cocoa and coffee prices means that government subsidies will be needed to make other crops viable options for the farmers. Meanwhile both growing and not growing coca are causing damage to the environment: the plantations have led to serious deterioration of soils and the environment generally, while chemical spraying and clearing of vegetation are measures for eliminating the illegal crop.

Peru's current president, Alejandro Toledo, came to power in largely on the strength of his promises to help the rural poor - he himself grew up in a poor family in the highlands. But so far the promised actions have failed to materialise: the economy is growing at a steady 4 per cent annually and inflation was down to around 2 per cent last year, but poverty is not declining. The government is said to have 'lost its vision of the future' and Toledo's popularity has plummeted. He recently said that he will give greater freedom to his ministers while he redoubles his efforts to fight poverty - Peru's mountain farmers are among those who are eager to see him succeed.

Statistical information

  • Country: Peru
  • Capital: Lima
  • Area: 1,, sq km
  • Population: 27,,
  • Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
  • Life expectancy: 71 for women, for men
  • GDP: (purchasing power parity) - US$ billion ( est.)
  • GDP per capita: (PPP)- US$ ( est.)
  • GDP composition by sector: services %, agriculture %, industry 26% ( est.)
  • Major industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
  • Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas.
  • Agricultural products: asparagus, brazil nuts, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
  • Export commodities:fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, asparagus, brazil nuts, coffee, sugar, cotton
  • Land use: arable land %, permanent crops %, other % ( est.)

Date published: September

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‘We are living in a catastrophe’: Peru's jungle capital choking for breath as Covid hits

In the final hours before Covid claimed her life, Cecilio Sangama watched helplessly as his eldest sister Edith gasped for breath.

Hospitals across Peru’s largest Amazon city had run out of oxygen, and the shortage had pushed the black market price of a cylinder well above $1, (£).

“Her body could not hold on. She needed oxygen but we just couldn’t afford it,” said Sangama, 49, a municipal worker, speaking by telephone from Iquitos.

map

“I had promised her: ‘Don’t worry sister, today I will find you a cylinder,’… but in the end, there was nothing I could do.” His voice broke and he fell silent for a few seconds. “My sister died just a few hours ago, we are trying to find the way to give her a Christian burial.”

Hemmed in by a sea of jungle, plagued by dire poverty and already reeling from a dengue fever outbreak, Iquitos is now the second major Amazon city – after Manaus in Brazil – to take a brutal hit from the coronavirus pandemic.

Iquitos faces an added obstacle in efforts to contain the disease: as the largest city in the world which cannot be reached by road, it depends on intermittent air deliveries for essential supplies of medicine, personal protective equipment and oxygen.

“We are living in a catastrophe,” said Graciela Meza, executive director of the regional health office in Loreto, the vast Amazon region which surrounds the city of half a million inhabitants.

The city’s main public hospital was overflowing with nearly five times the number of patients its beds could hold, said Meza, who herself was recovering from the virus.

“I’ve never seen anything like this in my life, or even in my dreams,” said Meza, a lifelong Iquitos resident, who compared the situation to living in a disaster film.

“Most victims have died from a lack of oxygen; 90% have died because of lack of medical supplies,” Meza added.

She had counted dozens of dead every day over the last three weeks, including two nurses, and three doctors – the latest a junior doctor in his twenties.

Just how bad Loreto’s Covid outbreak is remains unclear, but few in Iquitos doubt it exceeds the official count of 62 dead and 1, confirmed cases as of Wednesday.

After more than 50 days under lockdown, Peru’s overall official count of more than 51, confirmed coronavirus cases and 1, dead places it second only to Brazil in Latin America. Brazil, which has reported nearly 8, deaths and has a population nearly seven times that of Peru.

Hundreds of critically-ill patients were seated outside in rocking chairs around the hospital grounds or, in the last few days, in three field hospitals erected in football pitches and stadiums in the city.

“There’s no oxygen in the lungs of the world,” Meza remarked bitterly, referring to the city’s Amazon location. “That should be the headline for your story,” she added.

Her tone switched to anger as she said: “We only have our dreadful authorities to blame for their corruption and decades of chronic under-investment in healthcare.”

The comments reflected growing outrage at the slow response of the regional government amid allegations that private companies were profiteering from a monopoly on oxygen tanks.

The local prosecutor’s office in Iquitos has announced an investigation into reports that the Loreto regional government was paying inflated prices for oxygen cylinders – including alleged purchases from a company owned by the daughter of a councillor.

Growing anger over chronic shortages coincided with a visit by Peru’s health minister, Víctor Zamora, on Monday. The minister pledged to establish daily flights to take medical supplies and oxygen from Lima to Iquitos and replenish the numbers of medical professionals, as more than a dozen doctors infected with Covid were evacuated.

Zamora also promised to build two new oxygen plants in Iquitos, which needs cylinders a day, but warned the construction would take several weeks. The existing plant can produce a maximum of cylinders a day, according to local reports.

Agustina Huilca, president of the local doctor’s federation said it was too little, too late.

“We asked for the medicine more than a month ago,” she said. They desperately need strong antibiotics, anti-coagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs to treat Covid, she said.

“There’s no medicine, there’s no oxygen and I’ve got 40 doctors in hospital [with Covid], am I supposed to wait for them to die one by one?” she exclaimed on Monday. A total of medics had been infected with the virus in the city, a number second only to that of the capital Lima, a city with a population 20 times the size.

“[As doctors] we feel impotent, frustrated and isolated. We feel abandoned by the government,” Huilca added.

The pandemic could not have arrived at a worse time, said Valerie Paz-Soldan, a Peruvian-American social scientist and director of Tulane Health Offices for Latin America.

Iquitos was already struggling with the tail end of a dengue fever outbreak coupled with a bout of leptospirosis. Asia and the Americas had multiple outbreaks of dengue in which was the worst year on record for the disease.

Both dengue and Covid cause fevers which have complicated diagnoses, said Paz-Soldan, while Iquitos’ hot climate, crowded living conditions, poverty and geographic isolation were “a perfect storm of deadly factors”.

“I suspect that in Iquitos the situation is already out of control,” she said.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Peru

The climate in Peru

In Peru, as in all equatorial countries, there is a tropical climate. Unlike in Europe or the USA, there is almost no difference between the seasons. The daylight hours vary little, and the temperature differences between summer and winter are also lesser. Depending on the season, the average daytime temperatures range between 24 and 28 degrees. In some parts of the country the temperature raises up to 35 °C. In the colder months and depending in the region, the temperature lowers down to 14°C in a month's average.

Average daytime and nighttime temperatures


Zoom

Languages

Official language:

Spanish, Quechua, Aymara



Religions

Branchdistribution
Lutherans%
Roman Catholics%
nondenominational%
other%

more

Economy


According to the definition of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Peru is one of the developing countriesbecause of its lower economic performance.



Land use

1% Urban areas:16, km²
19% Agricultural areas:, km²
57% Forest:, km²
0% Water areas:5, km²
23% Others:, km²

more

Transport

Roadways:, km
Railways:1, km
Waterways:8, km
Commercial harbors:97
› Airports:

Most important cities

CityRegionPopulation
Lima / CapitalLima9,,
ArequipaArequipa,
CallaoCallao,
TrujilloLa Libertad,
ChiclayoLambayeque,
IquitosLoreto,
HuancayoJunín,
PiuraPiura,
ChimboteAncash,
CuscoCusco,
PucallpaUcayali,
TacnaTacna,
IcaIca,
JuliacaPuno,
SullanaPiura,
HuánucoHuanuco,
AyacuchoAyacucho,
CajamarcaCajamarca,
PunoPuno,
TumbesTumbes,
HuarazAncash87,
Cerro de PascoPasco79,
AbancayApurímac55,
HuachoLima55,
MoqueguaMoquegua55,
MoyobambaSan Martín44,
HuancavelicaHuancavelica42,
Puerto MaldonadoMadre de Dios38,
ChachapoyasAmazonas20,




Political indicators

(Based on the "Worldwide Governance Indicators" project of the World Bank)


Political stability:

&#;

Rule of law:

&#;

Effectivity:

&#;

Regulatory quality:

&#;

Voice accountability:

&#;

Death penalty:only for serious crimes



Existing trade agreements



Alliances

PositionИсточник: mynewextsetup.us

Comments

  1. @MoneyTech PH di po ba nakakatakot sa gcash dame ko kasi nababasa na nawawalan daw sila nh pera at prone daw sa hacking?

  2. @Nimat Allen I will do my best to get in touch with a state rep in Pennsylvania because right now and I am living in Ohio. The information you've given me has help me more than anything over the last 3 weeks. Every time I tried to call I just get nothing but busy signals or the phone☎️ just hangs up as soon as I call😮. I hope you're having a great weekend : ).

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