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Buy "Journey west v2" by Corpsecutter as a Essential T-Shirt. Journey west v5 Essential T-Shirt. By Corpsecutter. $ sandy t-shirts. Log into Tapestry. Tapestry is an online journal to help record all the learning and fun of children's early years education. Journey to the West: The Demons Strike Back () Mengke Bateer as Sandy (Sha Wujing).
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Last updated: 05/15/

Sha Wujing (沙悟淨), or “Sandy” for short, is commonly portrayed in modern media wielding a Crescent Moon Spade (Yueya chan, 月牙鏟, a.k.a. &#;Monk&#;s Spade&#;), a wooden polearm capped with a sharpened spade on one end and a crescent-shaped blade on the other (fig. 1). But did you know that the character never wields such a weapon in the novel? Chapter 22 contains a poem that describes his actual weapon and its pedigree. A section of it reads:

For years my staff has enjoyed great fame,
At first an evergreen tree in the moon.
Wu Gang [1] cut down from it one huge limb:
Lu Ban [2] then made it, using all his skills.
Within the hub [is] one solid piece of gold:
Outside it’s wrapped by countless pearly threads.
It’s called the treasure staff for crushing fiends
[…] (Wu & Yu, , Vol. 1, p. )

As you can see it is described as a wooden staff devoid of any metal blades. So how did Sandy become associated with the Monk’s spade? It can be traced to a common motif appearing in late Ming Dynasty woodblock prints. Sha Wujing is just one of a number of famous literary staff-wielding monks to be portrayed brandishing a polearm topped with a small crescent shape (fig. 2). Others include Huiming (惠明) from the Story of the Western Wing (Xixiangji, 西廂記, c. ) (fig. 3) and Lu Zhishen (魯智深) from the Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan, 水滸傳, c. ) (fig. 4) (Shahar, , p. 97).

#12 - Sha Wujing pics for blog entry

Fig. 1 – A modern depiction of Sandy wielding a Monk’s Spade (larger version). Fig. 2 &#; A late Ming Dynasty print of Sha Wujing with the crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 3 – A woodblock print of Monk Huiming with a crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 4 – A late Ming woodblock of Lu Zhishen with a crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 5 – Sha Wujing from Ehon Saiyuki (circa ) (larger version). Fig. 6 – Sha from Xiyou yuanzhi () (larger version). Fig. 7 – A detail from a Long Corridor painting (circa ) (larger version).

The exact origin or purpose of the blade is unknown, however. Martial historian Meir Shahar () comments:

Future research may determine the origins of the crescent shape, which is visible in some Ming period illustrations of the staff. Here I will mention only that an identical design is common in a wide variety of twentieth-century martial arts weapons, whether or not they are wielded by Buddhist clerics. The crescent’s significance in contemporary weaponry can be gauged by its appearance in the names of such instruments as the “Crescent-Shaped (Yueya) [Monk’s] Spade,” “Crescent-Shaped Spear,” “Crescent-Shaped Battle-ax,” and “Crescent-Shaped Rake” (pp. ).

A woodblock print appearing in the first section of Journey to the West Illustrated (Ehon Saiyuki, 画本西遊記), published in , depicts Sandy holding a staff with a large crescent blade (fig. 5), showing how the once small accent had been enlarged by this time to become a more prominent feature of the polearm. This same weapon is echoed in a print from The Original Intent of The Journey to the West (Xiyou yuanzhi, 西遊原旨, ) (fig. 6), as well as in multiple circa JTTW-related paintings from the Long Corridor of the Summer Palace in Beijing (fig. 7, for example). So Ming depictions of Sha Wujing wielding a crescent-tipped staff were most likely associated with the Monk’s Spade due to their physical similarities, and this probably took place no earlier than the early 20th-century.
_________________________________________

Update:

Unlike Sha Wujing, there is a monster in the novel who wields a Crescent Moon spade. Chapter 63 describes the Nine-Headed Beast (Jiutou chong, 九頭蟲), [3] the son-in-law of a dragon king, using such a bladed polearm in a battle against Monkey:

Enraged, Pilgrim shouted, &#;You brazen thievish fiend! What power do you have that you dare mouth such big words? Come up here and have a taste of your father&#;s rod!&#; Not in the least intimidated, the son-in-law parried the blow with his crescent-tooth spade; a marvelous battle thus broke out on top of that Scattered-Rock Mountain (Wu & Yu, , Vol. 3, p. ).

There existed during the Ming Dynasty a military spade with a crescent blade on the top and a dagger-like blade on the bottom (武備志 (四十三) , n.d.) (fig. 8). This is most likely the weapon used by the monster. Notice the similarities with figures five to seven. It&#;s easy to see how the crescent-tipped staff from the Ming woodblock prints could have later been associated with this military weapon. The difference is one of degree and not kind. This polearm was later modified into the modern Monk&#;s Spade, leading to depictions of Sha Wujing wielding the weapon.

Ming Era Crescent Moon Spade

Fig. 8 &#; A Crescent Moon Spade from the Collection of Military Works (Wubei zhi, 武備志, c. ), a Ming treatise on military armaments and fighting techniques (larger version).

_________________________________________

Update:

Feng Dajian of Nankai University was kind enough to direct me to this Ming-era woodblock print (fig. 9) by Shide tang (世德堂本), the original publisher of Journey to the West. Sandy&#;s staff is more evident in the piece. It even lacks the aforementioned crescent shape.

Shide tang print (Sandy vs Pigsy) - Small

Fig. 9 &#; Ming-era Shide tang print of Sandy vs Pigsy (larger version).

Notes:

1) An Immortal of the Han Dynasty.

2) The god of builders.

3) Anthony Yu (Wu & Yu, ) translates the name as &#;Nine-Headed Insect&#;, but the creature&#;s true form is that of a monstrous reptilian bird (vol. 3, p. ). While chong (蟲) usually means &#;insect, worm, or pest&#;, it can also mean &#;tiger&#;. Da chong (大蟲, &#;great beast&#;) is the name of the tiger killed by Wu Song in the Water Margin (c. ) (Børdahl, ). So a better name for our villain would be &#;Nine-Headed Beast&#;.

Sources:

Børdahl, V. (). The Man-Hunting Tiger: From &#;Wu Song Fights the Tiger&#; in Chinese Traditions. Asian Folklore Studies,66(1/2), Retrieved January 7, , from mynewextsetup.us

Shahar, M. (). The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. University of Hawaii Press.

Wu, C., & Yu, A. C. (). The journey to the West (Vol. ). Chicago, Illinois : University of Chicago Press.

武備志 (四十三) . (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, , from mynewextsetup.us

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Newfoundland and Labrador is a big place. With over 29, kilometres of rugged coastline, there’s plenty of room to find yourself – or lose yourself for that matter. But when you have a specific destination in mind, you need to know how to get there and how long it will likely take. The tables below show driving distances (km) and travel times on the island of Newfoundland and in Labrador. To calculate travel times and distances between destinations that are not listed below, use the Road Distance Database provided by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Island of Newfoundland

Port-aux-Basques to St. John’s

Route 1

9h 20min

km

Port-aux-Basques to Argentia

Route and Route 1

9h

km

Port aux Basques – Deer Lake

Route 1

5h

km

Deer Lake to St. Anthony

Route

5h

km

Deer Lake to St. John's

Route 1

7h

km

Grand Falls-Windsor to St. John's

Route 1

4h 45min

km

Gander to St. John's

Route 1

3h 45min

km

Clarenville to St. John's

Route 1

2h

km

St. Anthony to St. John's

Route 1

12h

km

Argentia to St. John’s

Route and Route 1

1h 31min

86km

Labrador

Wabush - Blanc Sablon (Quebec)

Route &

19h 14min

km

Wabush - Churchill Falls

Route

4h 17min

km

Churchill Falls - Happy Valley Goose Bay

Route

5h

km

Happy Valley-Goose Bay - Cartwright Junction

Route &

5h

km

Cartwright Junction - Charlottetown Junction

Route

1h 42min

83km

Charlottetown Junction - Port Hope Simpson

Route

18min

21 km

Port Hope Simpson - St. Lewis Junction

Route

20min

21km

St. Lewis Junction - Mary's Harbour

Route

33min

32km

Mary's Harbour - Red Bay

Route

1h 20min

85km

Red Bay - Blanc Sablon (Quebec)

Route

1h 20min

86km

Blanc Sablon (Quebec) - St. Barbe

Ferry

90min.

35km

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Guānyīn gives this task to the monk and his three protectors in the form of disciples: namely Sūn Wùkōng, Zhū Bājiè and Shā Wùjìng; together with a dragon prince who acts as Xuánzàng's horse mount. These four characters have agreed to help Xuánzàng as an atonement for past sins.

Some scholars propose that the book satirizes the effete Chinese government at the time. Journey to the West has a strong background in Chinese folk religion, Chinese mythology and value systems; the pantheon of Taoist deities and Buddhist bodhisattvas is still reflective of Chinese folk religious beliefs today.

Part of the novel's enduring popularity comes from the fact that it works on multiple levels: it is a first-rate adventure story, a dispenser of spiritual insight, and an extended allegory in which the group of pilgrims journeying toward India stands for the individual journeying toward enlightenment.

Synopsis

The novel comprises chapters that can be divided into four very unequal parts. The first, which includes chapters 1–7, is really a self-contained prequel to the main body of the story. It deals entirely with the earlier exploits of Sūn Wùkōng, a monkey born from a stone nourished by the Five Elements, who learns the art of the Tao, 72 polymorphic transformations, combat and secrets of immortality, and through guile and force makes a name for himself as the Qítiān Dàshèng, or "Great Sage Equal to Heaven". His powers grow to match the forces of all of the Eastern (Taoist) deities, and the prologue culminates in Sūn's rebellion against Heaven, during a time when he garnered a post in the celestial bureaucracy. Hubris proves his downfall when the Buddha manages to trap him under a mountain for five hundred years.

Only following this introductory story is the nominal main character, Xuánzàng, introduced. Chapters 8–12 provide his early biography and the background to his great journey. Dismayed that "the land of the South knows only greed, hedonism, promiscuity, and sins", the Buddha instructs the Bodhisattva Guānyīn to search Táng China for someone to take the Buddhist sutras of "transcendence and persuasion for good will" back to the East. Part of the story here also relates to how Xuánzàng becomes a monk (as well as revealing his past life as the "Golden Cicada" and comes about being sent on this pilgrimage by the Emperor Táng Tàizōng, who previously escaped death with the help of an underworld official).

The third and longest section of the work is chapters 13–99, an episodic adventure story which combines elements of the quest as well as the picaresque. The skeleton of the story is Xuánzàng's quest to bring back Buddhist scriptures from Vulture Peak in India, but the flesh is provided by the conflict between Xuánzàng's disciples and the various evils that beset him on the way.

The scenery of this section is, nominally, the sparsely populated lands along the Silk Road between China and India, including Xinjiang, Turkestan, and Afghanistan. The geography described in the book is, however, almost entirely fantastic; once Xuánzàng departs Cháng'ān, the Táng capital and crosses the frontier (somewhere in Gansu province), he finds himself in a wilderness of deep gorges and tall mountains, all inhabited by flesh-eating demons who regard him as a potential meal (since his flesh was believed to give Immortality to whoever eats it), with here and there a hidden monastery or royal city-state amid the wilds.

The episodic structure of this section is to some extent formulaic. Episodes consist of 1–4 chapters, and usually involve Xuánzàng being captured and his life threatened, while his disciples try to find an ingenious (and often violent) way of liberating him. Although some of Xuánzàng's predicaments are political and involve ordinary human beings, they more frequently consist of run-ins with various goblins and ogres, many of whom turn out to be the earthly manifestations of heavenly beings (whose sins will be negated by eating the flesh of Xuanzang) or animal-spirits with enough Taoist spiritual merit to assume semi-human forms.

Chapters 13–22 do not follow this structure precisely, as they introduce Xuánzàng's disciples, who, inspired or goaded by Guānyīn, meet and agree to serve him along the way, in order to atone for their sins in their past lives.

  • The first is Sun Wukong, or Monkey, previously "Great Sage Equal to Heaven" and literally "Monkey Awakened to Emptiness", trapped by Buddha for rebelling against Heaven. He appears right away in Chapter The most intelligent and violent of the disciples, he is constantly reproved for his violence by Xuánzàng. Ultimately, he can only be controlled by a magic gold band that the Bodhisattva has placed around his head, which causes him excruciating pain when Xuánzàng says certain magic words.
  • The second, appearing in 19, is Zhu Bajie, literally "Pig of Eight-Commandments", sometimes translated as Pigsy or just Pig. He was previously Marshal Tīan Péng, commander of the Heavenly Naval forces, banished to the mortal realm for flirting with the Princess of the Moon Chang'e. He is characterized by his insatiable appetites for food and sex, and is constantly looking for a way out of his duties, but is always kept in line by Sūn Wùkōng.
  • The third, appearing in chapter 22, is the river-ogre Sha Wujing, also translated as Friar Sand or Sandy and literally "Sand Awakened to Purity". He was previously Great General who Folds the Curtain, banished to the mortal realm for dropping (and shattering) a crystal goblet of the Heavenly Queen Mother. He is a quiet but generally dependable character, who serves as the straight foil to the comic relief of Sūn and Zhū who despite this trait, is the nicest out of his two other fellow disciples.
  • Possibly to be counted as a fourth disciple is the third prince of the Dragon-King, Yùlóng Sāntàizǐ, who was sentenced to death for setting fire to his father's great pearl. He was saved by Guānyīn from execution to stay and wait for his call of duty. He appears first in chapter 15, but has almost no speaking role, as throughout most of the story he appears in the transformed shape of a horse that Xuánzàng rides on.

Chapter 22, where Shā is introduced, also provides a geographical boundary, as the river of quicksand that the travelers cross brings them into a new "continent". Chapters 23–86 take place in the wilderness, and consist of 24 episodes of varying length, each characterized by a different magical monster or evil magician. There are impassably wide rivers, flaming mountains, a kingdom ruled by women, a lair of seductive spider-spirits, and many other fantastic scenarios. Throughout the journey, the four brave disciples have to fend off attacks on their master and teacher Xuánzàng from various monsters and calamities.

It is strongly suggested that most of these calamities are engineered by fate and/or the Buddha, as, while the monsters who attack are vast in power and many in number, no real harm ever comes to the four travelers. Some of the monsters turn out to be escaped heavenly animals belonging to bodhisattvas or Taoist sages and spirits. Towards the end of the book there is a scene where the Buddha literally commands the fulfillment of the last disaster, because Xuánzàng is one short of the eighty-one disasters he needs to attain Buddhahood.

In chapter 87, Xuánzàng finally reaches the borderlands of India, and chapters 87–99 present magical adventures in a somewhat more mundane (though still exotic) setting. At length, after a pilgrimage said to have taken fourteen years (the text actually only provides evidence for nine of those years, but presumably there was room to add additional episodes) they arrive at the half-real, half-legendary destination of Vulture Peak, where, in a scene simultaneously mystical and comic, Xuánzàng receives the scriptures from the living Buddha.

Chapter , the last of all, quickly describes the return journey to the Táng Empire, and the aftermath in which each traveler receives a reward in the form of posts in the bureaucracy of the heavens. Sūn Wùkōng and Xuánzàng achieve Buddhahood, Wùjìng becomes the Golden Arhat, the dragon is made a Naga, and Bājiè, whose good deeds have always been tempered by his greed, is promoted to an altar cleanser (i.e. eater of excess offerings at altars).

Historical context

The classic story of the Journey to the West was based on real events. In real life, Xuanzang (born c. - ) was a monk at Jingtu Temple in late-Sui Dynasty and early-Tang Dynasty Chang'an. Motivated by the poor quality of Chinese translations of Buddhist scripture at the time, Xuanzang left Chang'an in , despite the border being closed at the time due to war with the Gokturks. Helped by sympathetic Buddhists, he traveled via Gansu and Qinghai to Kumul (Hami), thence following the Tian Shan mountains to Turfan. He then crossed what are today Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan, into Gandhara, reaching India in Xuanzang traveled throughout the Indian subcontinent for the next thirteen years, visiting important Buddhist pilgrimage sites and studying at the ancient university at Nalanda.

Xuanzang left India in and arrived back in Chang'an in to a warm reception by Emperor Taizong of Tang. He joined Da Ci'en Monastery (Monastery of Great Maternal Grace), where he led the building of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda in order to store the scriptures and icons he had brought back from India. He recorded his journey in the book Journey to the West in the Great Tang Dynasty. With the support of the Emperor, he established an institute at Yuhua Gong (Palace of the Luster of Jade) monastery dedicated to translating into Chinese the scriptures he had brought back. His translation and commentary work established him as the founder of the Dharma character school of Buddhism. Xuanzang died on March 7, The Xingjiao Monastery was established in to house his ashes.

Popular stories of Xuánzàng's journey were in existence long before Journey to the West was written. In these versions, dating as far back as Southern Song, a monkey character was already a primary protagonist. Before the Yuan Dynasty and early Ming, elements of the Monkey story were already seen.

Relation to Dragon Ball

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)#Relation to Journey to the West

Main characters

Tripitaka or Xuánzàng

Xuánzàng (玄奘) (or Táng-Sānzàng (唐三藏), meaning "Táng-dynasty monk" — Sānzàng (三藏) or "Three Baskets", referring to the Tripitaka, was a traditional honorific for a Buddhist monk) is the Buddhist monk who set out to India to retrieve the Buddhist scriptures for China. He is called Tripitaka in many English versions of the story. Although he is helpless when it comes to defending himself, the bodhisattva Guānyīn helps by finding him powerful disciples (Sūn Wùkōng, Zhū Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng) who aid and protect him on his journey. In return, the disciples will receive enlightenment and forgiveness for their sins once the journey is done. Along the way, they help the Giancarlo by defeating various monsters. The fact that most of the monsters and demons are trying to obtain immortality by eating Xuánzàng's flesh, and are even attracted to him as he is depicted as quite handsome, provides much of the plot in the story.

In Japanese on'yomi, he is known as Genjō, Tō Sanzō or altogether as Genjō Sanzō. And his title of Sanzang Fashi is romanized as Sanzō Hōshi. In some adaptions that mention it, his original incarnation from heaven is Jin Chan Zi (金蝉子), which is romanized as Konzen Dōji (金蝉 童子) in the Japanese adaptation Gensōmaden Saiyūki. Both literally mean "Gold Cicada Child". Originally, Jin Chan Zi was expelled from heaven for mainly ignoring Buddha's teachings (though how he was disobedient and/or banished varies a lot depending on the adaptation), with Xuanzang/Genjō being his 10th reincarnation.

Monkey King or Sūn Wùkōng

Sūn Wùkōng (孫悟空) is the name given to this character by his teacher, Patriarch Subhuti, and means "Monkey Awakened to Emptiness". He is called Sūn Xíngzhě (孫行者, Son Gyouja) by Xuánzàng (with most adaptations still having him named as "Wukong" by Xuánzàng). While he is commonly known as Monkey King in pop culture, with one of his more egotistical titles being the Handsome Monkey King (美猴王, Měi Hóuwáng/Bikō'ō) in English. He is by far, the novel's most iconic character.

He was born out of a rock that had been dormant for ages in Flower Fruit Mountain that was inhabited/weathered by the sun and moon until a monkey sprang forth. He first distinguished himself by bravely entering the Cave of Water Curtains (Shuǐliándòng) at the Flower Fruit Mountain (Huāguǒshān/Kakazan); for this feat, his monkey tribe gave him the title of Měi Hóuwáng ("Handsome Monkey King"). Later, through some misfits during his duties in heaven, it escalated into a full-on rebellion on Wukong's part, and the monkey defeated an army of , celestial soldiers, led by the Four Heavenly Kings, Erlang Shen, and Nezha. Eventually, even when Wukong was sealed inside a special furnace with the intent of turning him into an elixir, he broke free and nearly trashed much of the heavenly palace; the Jade Emperor appealed to Buddha, who subdued and trapped Wukong under a mountain for five centuries to repent. He was only saved when Xuanzang came by him on his pilgrimage and accepted him as a disciple.

His primary weapon is the Rúyì Jīngū Bàng/Nyoi Kinko Bō (如意金箍棒; lit. "Compliant Gold-Rimmed Pole"), which he can shrink down to the size of a needle and keep behind his ear, as well as expand it to gigantic proportions (hence the "will-following" part of the name; some adaptations show the staff to act as if it was alive). The staff, originally a pillar supporting the undersea palace of the East Sea Dragon King, weighs 13, kilograms, which he pulled out of its support and swung with ease. The Dragon King, not wanting him to cause any trouble, also gave him a suit of golden armor. These gifts, combined with his devouring of the peaches of immortality and three jars of immortality pills while in Heaven, plus his ordeal in an eight-trigram furnace (which gave him a steel-hard body and fiery golden eyes), makes Wukong the strongest member by far of the pilgrimage. Besides these abilities, he can also pull hairs from his body and blow on them to transform them into whatever he wishes (usually clones of himself to gain a numerical advantage in battle).

Although he has mastered seventy-two methods of transformations, it does not mean that he is restricted to seventy-two different forms. He can also do a jīndǒuyún/kinto'un (筋斗雲; lit. "Somersault Cloud"), enabling him to travel vast distances in a single leap, or ride on a cloud to cover the same amount of distance with flight-based speed. Wukong uses his talents to fight demons and play pranks. However, his behavior is checked by a band placed around his head by Guanyin, which cannot be removed by Wukong himself until the journey's end. Xuanzang can tighten this band by chanting the Tightening-Crown spell (taught to him by Guanyin) whenever he needs to chastise him.

Wukong's childlike playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind. This, coupled with his acrobatic skills, makes him a likeable hero, though not necessarily a good role model. His antics present a lighter side in what proposes to be a long and dangerous trip into the unknown, and overall develops a sense of endearment to his master and kindness in his heart throughout the journey.

In Japanese on'yomi, Sun Wukong is romanized more famously as Son Gokū, a la popularity of Dragon Ball. His title of Qitian Dasheng (齊天大聖; lit. "Equaling Heaven Great Sage") is known as the Seiten Taisei in Japanese, and is mainly to appease his ego (though it does provide a form of respect as the lesser gods would prove, and his actual prior havoc in heaven also can back such a title up).

Zhū Bājiè

Zhū Bājiè (豬八戒; lit. "Pig of the Eight Commandments") is also known as Zhū Wùnéng (豬悟能; lit. "Pig Awakened to Ability"), and given the name Pigsy, Piggy or Pig in English.

Once an immortal who was the Tiānpéng Yuánshuǎi (天蓬元帥; lit. "Field Marshal Tianpeng") of , soldiers of the Milky Way, during a celebration of gods, he drank too much and attempted to flirt with Cháng'é, the beautiful moon goddess, resulting in his banishment into the mortal world. He was supposed to be reborn as a human, but ended up in the womb of a sow due to an error at the Reincarnation Wheel, which turned him into a half-man half-pig monster. Staying within Yúnzhan-dòng ("cloud-pathway cave"), he was commissioned by Guanyin to accompany Xuanzang to India and given the new name Zhu Wuneng.

However, Wuneng's desire for women led him to Gao Village, where he posed as a normal being and took a wife. Later, when the villagers discovered that he was a monster, Wuneng hid the girl away. At this point, Xuanzang and Wukong arrived at Gao Village and helped subdue him. Renamed Zhu Bajie by Xuanzang, he consequently joined the pilgrimage to the West.

His weapon of choice is the jiǔchǐdīngpá ("Nine-toothed Rake/nine-tooth iron rake"). He is also capable of thirty-six transformations (as compared to Wukong's seventy-two), and can travel on clouds, but not as fast as Wukong. However, Bajie is noted for his fighting skills in the water, which he used to combat Sha Wujing, who later joined them on the journey. He is the second strongest member of the team.

He is often noted to be quite gluttonous, perverted and a bit cowardly, putting himself at odds with Wukong quite often. But nonetheless he is loyal to his friends deep down and is trusting of his master and vice versa, as well as often getting along with Wujing. Many adaptations of the novel tend to paint him in a light for the sake of comic relief, while also making him act as a positive force that differs from Wukong's antics.

In Japanese on'yomi, Zhu Bajie's current name is known as Cho Hakkai, and his original name before being renamed by Xuanzang is Cho Gonō. His original incarnation's name, Tianpeng, is known as Tenpō Gensui in Japanese as well (via Gensōmaden Saiyūki).

Shā Wùjìng

Shā Wùjìng (沙悟凈; lit. "Sand Awakened to Purity"), also named Shā Sēng (沙僧) in Mandarin Chinese and given the name Friar Sand or Sandy in English, was once the Juǎnlián Dàjiàng (捲簾大将; lit. "Rolling Curtain General"), who stood in attendance by the imperial chariot in the Hall of Miraculous Mist. He was exiled to the mortal world and made to look like a monster because he accidentally smashed a crystal/jade goblet belonging to the Heavenly Queen Mother during the Peach Banquet. The now-hideous immortal took up residence in the Flowing Sands River, terrorizing the surrounding villages and travelers trying to cross the river. However, he was subdued by Sūn Wùkōng and Zhū Bājiè when the Xuānzàng party came across him. They consequently took him in to be a part of the pilgrimage to the West.

Shā Wùjìng's weapon is the yuèyáchǎn ("Moon-Fang-Spade" or "Monk's Spade"). Aside from that, he knows eighteen transformations and is highly effective in water combat. He is about as strong as Bājiè, and is much stronger than Wùkōng in water. However, Bājiè can beat Wujing in a test of endurance, and Wùkōng can beat him out of water.

Shā Wùjìng is known to be the most obedient, logical, and polite of the three disciples, and always takes care of his master, seldom engaging in the bickeries of his fellow-disciples. Ever reliable, he carries the luggage for the travelers. Perhaps this is why he is sometimes seen as a minor character; the lack of any particular perks confers the lack of distinguishing and/or redeeming characteristics.

Wùjìng eventually becomes an Arhat at the end of the journey, giving him a higher level of exaltation than Bājiè, who is relegated to cleaning every altar at every Buddhist temple for eternity, but is still lower spiritually than Wùkōng or Xuānzàng who are granted Buddhahood.

In Japanese on'yomi, Sha Wujing is romanized as Sha Gojō, with his original incarnation's name romanized as Kenren Taishō in Gensōmaden Saiyūki. In Japanese, the character for "jing/jō" is written differenly in Japanese due to conflicting writing systems, with 淨 being the older form closer to Chinese, and 浄 being the current character used.

List of Demons

There are many demons in the story. Examples are listed below:

  • Black-Bear-Demon (pinyin: Hēixióngguài)
  • Yellow Wind Demon (Huángfēngguài)
  • Zhen Yuan Holy Man (He is not a demon, but an immortal, who got annoyed by those disciples who stole his precious immortal-fruits (Ginseng Fruits, 人参果).
  • White-Bone-Demon (pinyin: Báigǔjīng)
  • Yellow Robe Demon (pinyin: Huángpáoguài)
  • Gold-Horn and Silver-Horn (pinyin: Jīnjiǎo and Yínjiǎo)
  • Red-Boy a.k.a. Holy Baby King (pinyin: Hóng-hái'ér; Japanese: Kōgaiji)
  • Tiger Power, Deer Power, and Goat (or Antelope) Power
  • Black River Dragon Demon (Hēi Shǔi Hé Yuan Lóng Gài)
  • Carp Demon (Li Yu Jīng)
  • Green-Ox-Demon (pinyin: Qīngniújīng)
  • Scorpion-Demon (pinyin: Xiēzijīng)
  • Six Ear Monkey Demon (a.k.a Fake Sun Wukong, Lìuěrmíhóu)
  • Ox-Demon-King (pinyin: Niúmówáng; Japanese: Gyūmaō): The inspiration for the Ox King, who also shares the same name in the Asian scripts/dubs as the original Ox-Demon-King.
  • Demon Woman (Luo Cha Nǚ)
  • Jade-Faced Princess (pinyin: Yùmiàn-gōngzhǔ; Japanese: Gyokumen-kōshū)
  • Boa Demon (Hóng Shé Jīng)
  • Nine-Headed Bird Demon (Jiǔ Tou Fu Ma)
  • Seven-Spider-Demons (pinyin: Zhīzhū-jīng)
  • Hundred-Eyed Taoist (Bǎi Yan Mo Jun)
  • Green Lion Demon (pinyin: Qīngshījīng)
  • White-Elephant-Demon (pinyin: Báixiàngjīng)
  • Falcon Demon (Sun Jīng)
  • Biqiu Country Minister a.k.a Deer Demon
  • Gold-Nosed, White Mouse Demon (Lao Shu Jīng)
  • Dream-Demon

Notable English-language translations

  • Monkey: A Folk-Tale of China (), an abridged translation by Arthur Waley. For many years, the best translation available in English; it only translates thirty out of the hundred chapters. (Penguin reprint ISBN )
  • Journey to the West, a complete translation by W.J.F. Jenner published by the Foreign Languages Press in Beijing (three volumes; / edition: ISBN , ISBN , ISBN )
  • The Journey to the West (–), a complete translation in four volumes by Anthony C. Yu.
    University of Chicago Press: HC ISBN , ISBN , ISBN , ISBN ; PB ISBN , ISBN ; ISBN ; ISBN

Media adaptations

Stage

  • Journey to the West: The Musical: A stage musical which received its world premiere at the New York Musical Theatre Festival on September 25,
  • Monkey: Journey to the West: A stage musical version created by Chen Shi-zheng, Damon Albarn (frontman of British rock band Blur) and Jamie Hewlett, the latter two better known as creators of the Gorillaz musical project. It premiered as part of the Manchester International Festival at the Palace Theatre on June
  • The Monkey King: A production by the Children's Theater Company in Minneapolis, MN in

Film

  • A Chinese Odyssey by Stephen Chow.
  • A Chinese Tall Story: live action movie starring Nicholas Tse as Xuánzàng.
  • Heavenly Legend: A film by Tai Seng Entertainment starring Kung Fu kid Sik Siu Loong is partially based on this legend.
  • Monkey Goes West: The Shaw Brothers' Hong Kong film (Cantonese: Sau yau gei). Also known as "Monkey with 72 Magic"
  • The Forbidden Kingdom: live action movie starring Jackie Chan and Jet Li which is said to be based on the Legend of the Monkey King, the same legend as the TV show Monkey. Towards the end, Li's character is revealed to be the Monkey King of the legend.[1]

Live-action television

  • Monkey (–): A well-known s Japanese television series based on Journey to the West translated into English by the BBC.
  • Journey to the West (): A TV series produced by CCTV.
  • Journey to the West (): A popular series produced by Hong Kong studio TVB, starring Dicky Cheung.
  • Journey to the West II (): The sequel to TVB's Journey to the West series, starring Benny Chan.
  • The Monkey King (): Sci Fi Channel's TV adaptation of this legend, also called The Lost Empire.
  • The Monkey King: Quest for the Sutra (): A loose adaptation starring Dicky Cheung, who also portrayed Sun Wukong in the TVB series.
  • Saiyūki (): A Japanese television series starring the SMAP star Shingo Katori.

Comics, manga and anime

  • Alakazam the Great: One of the first anime films produced by Toei Animation, a retelling of first part of the story based on the characters designed by Osamu Tezuka.
  • Gensōmaden Saiyūki: manga and anime series inspired by the legend. Follow-up series include Saiyūki Reload and Saiyūki Reload Gunlock. This is one of the other better known adaptions that packs the most elements to the original, such as several of the names in the legend all romanized in Japanese.
    • Coincidentally, both the version of Wukong/Goku and Wujing/Goku share traits of the original Bajie/Hakkai; the former shares Bajie's hunger (akin to Dragon Ball's version of Wukong/Goku), while the latter shares Bajie's lust/perversions for women. Both of them also often argue back to back, akin to Wukong and Bajie's dynamics in the original source material.
  • Havoc in Heaven (also known as Uproar in Heaven): Original animation from China.
  • Iyashite Agerun Saiyūki: A adult anime [1]
  • Monkey Magic: An animated retelling of the legend.
  • Monkey Typhoon: A manga and anime series based on the Journey to the West saga, following a futuristic steampunk-retelling of the legend.
  • Starzinger: An animated science fiction version of the story.
  • The Monkey King: A gruesome manga inspired by the tale.

Works referencing Journey to the West

  • American Born Chinese: An American graphic novel by Gene Yang. Nominated for the National Book Award ().
  • Doraemon: A special tells the story of Journey To The West, casting the Doraemon characters as the characters of the legend.
  • Dragon Ball: Japanese manga and anime series loosely based on Journey to the West.
  • Eyeshield 21: Three of the players for the Shinryuji Nagas are referred to as the Saiyuki Trio based upon their appearances and personalities.
  • InuYasha: The characters meet descendants of three of the main characters of the Journey of the West, lead by Chokyukai (a boardemon), in one episode. Also, the main character Kagome Higurashi says a few lines about the whole book and story, and explains it to the others who live in Feudal Japan, ergo have not heard about the Journey to the West.
  • Kaleido Star: The cast performs Saiyuki on stage a few times in the beginning of the second half of the series.
  • Love Hina: The characters put on a play based on the story in anime episode
  • Naruto: A character named Temari is based on Princess Iron Fan from the legend. Enma is a summoned monkey who bears resemblance to Sun Wukong. He has the ability to transform into a staff similar to the rúyì-jīngū-bàng, which can alter its size at will. Also, one of the Tailed Beasts (also known as Bijū) is named Son Gokū, sporting horns which resemble the diadem worn by Sun Wukong.
  • Ninja Sentai Kakuranger: The Super Sentai series, where four of the five rangers are inspired by the main characters of Journey to the West
  • GoGo Sentai Boukenger: The Super Sentai series, where its final episode involved the Rúyì-jīngū-bàng
  • Juken Sentai Gekiranger: The Super Sentai series, where one of its villains fighting style is homeage to Sun Wukong.
  • Patalliro Saiyuki: A shōnen-ai series in both anime and manga formats with the Patalliro cast playing out the Zaiyuji storyline with a yaoi twist.
  • Ranma 1/2: Pastiches of the characters appear throughout the manga and movies.
  • Read or Die (OVA): One of the villains is a clone of Xuanzang, who seems to have the powers of Sun Wukong and Xuanzang.
  • Sakura Wars: The Imperial Flower Troupe Performs the play of Journey to the West. Ironically, Mayumi Tanaka, who voices Krillin and Yajirobe in the Dragon Ball franchise, voices the monkey king Son Goku in the play.
  • Shinzo: An anime loosely based on Journey to the West.
  • XIN: An American comic mini-series produced by Anarchy Studio.
  • Pokémon: Infernape, a Fire/Fighting Pokémon, has a design based on motifs related to Sun Wukong and Emboar, another Fire/Fighting Pokémon, has a design based on motifs similar to Zhu Bajie.
  • The God of Highschool: A Korean web-toon that barrows a lot of the elements from every mythology notable, with few of the main cast based on characters from the novel. The main character, Jin Mo-Ri, being based off the Monkey King as well as Dragon Ball's Son Goku.

Games

  • Yuu Yuu Ki: A video game for the Famicom Disk System, based directly on the story.
  • Journey to the West: An unlicensed Famicom game by Taiwanese developer TXC Corp, [2]
  • Pokémon Diamond and Pearl: A video game and multiseries in which the Pokémon creatures Chimchar, Monferno, and mainly Infernape are based on Sūn Wùkōng.
  • Saiyuki: Journey West: A tactical role-playing game (RPG) videogame for the PlayStation developed by Koei.
    • Coincidentally, the portrayal of Zhu Bajie/Cho Hakkai is voiced by Naoki Tatsuta, who also voices Oolong with Bajie being his inspiration. Toshihiko Seki also voices the male version of Sanzang/Sanzou while also voicing one of his other portrayals in the aforementioned Gensomaden Saiyuki.
  • Fuun Gokuu Ninden: An action game for the PlayStation. The characters of the game are based on the characters of Journey to the West.[3]
  • Saiyu Gouma Roku: A arcade game by Technos, based in the original story and characters. The North American version is named "China Gate".[4]
  • SonSon: A video game and character of the same name created by Capcom whose title character is a caricature of Sūn Wùkōng. The granddaughter of SonSon (also named SonSon, or SonSon III) appears in Marvel vs. Capcom 2.
  • Westward Journey: A massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG).
  • Whomp 'Em: NES game whose Japanese version is based on the story (the American version features an Indian boy instead of Wukong). Although a marketing failure, it is also a cult classic.
  • League of Legends: A MOBA (multiplayer online battle arena) game which features a playable character named "Wukong: The Monkey King", a very obvious reference to Sūn Wùkōng. Many of the abilities and alternate champion skins of the character also make reference to Sūn Wùkōng and other characters in the novel. One of the other characters, Master Yi, who trained Wukong, is a possible reference to Bodhi training Wukong for his powers and Sanzang.
    • Likewise, the two other MOBA games, Smite and Heroes of the Werwerth, also feature the original Sun Wukong as a playable character, with the former having removed him from the game for a visual rework to resemble the original figure, and the latter being simply known as "Monkey King" and possessing a skin that's a close reference to Dragon Ball in general (almost resembling Goku's Super Saiyan 4 form). Smite also has other characters pertaining to the legend or similar ones that tie into Journey into the West in general, such as the East Sea Dragon King and Nezha/Nata (the former also received a similar rework). Defense of the Ancients 2 has also recently revealed their own version of the Monkey King as well.
    • More so however, Masako Nozawa, the Japanese voice actress of Goku, also voices Wukong in the Japanese dub of League of Legends as a direct allusion. Meanwhile, Sean Schemmel has voiced the reworked Wukong in Smite as another allusion.
  • Asura's Wrath (アスラズ ラース, Asurazu Rāsu): A video game' developed by CyberConnect2 and published by Capcom. The game is playable on PlayStation 3, Xbox , Xbox One via backwards compatibility, and the PlayStation 4 and PC via PlayStation Now. The game follows the title character, the demigod Asura as he seeks revenge on the pantheon of other demigods who betrayed him.
  • In Dragon Ball Z: Dokkan Battle, there are two cards based upon the Journey to the West inspired outfits worn by Goku and Gohan. Goku's is called Courage to the Max! Goku card and Gohan's is Brazen Courage Gohan (Kid) card. Both cards are Legendary Rare cards that feature Super Attacks featuring Goku and Gohan wielding their respective Power Poles (Gohan's Power Pole design features a more Journey to the West-style design rather than the Dragon Ball style design of Goku's Power Pole). Both characters ride a Flying Nimbus to fit the Sun Wukong motif.
  • In Dragon Ball Xenoverse, there is an unlockable Saiyuki outfit which is described as a Journey to the West-style outfit, which can be unlocked by making a wish of "I want to dress up!" to Shenron. It is based on the Journey to the West inspired outfit worn by Gohan on Manga cover page for DBZ: 13 "Son Gohan, the Inconsolable" and Gohan also wears the same outfit in Detekoi Tobikiri Zenkai Power!. There is also an NPC Shapeshifter Nema who also wears the costume as part of one of her transformations, though she has no idea as to who the transformation is supposed to be.
  • In Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2, the Saiyuki outfit, Saiyuki Hood, Journey to the West Costume, and Journey to the West Hood can be unlocked. The Journey to the West Costume & Hood is based on the outfit worn by Goku dressed as a Journey to the West character.
    • After the Update, the Future Warrior can purchase Gifts which are special costumes that they can give to Instructors which can then be worn via Partner Customization. Gift (Goku) unlocks Goku's Journey to the West Costume for Goku to wear (it comes complete with Hood though the Hood will be removed when Goku transforms into any of his available Super Saiyan forms). Gift (Gohan (Kid)) unlocks his Saiyuki Costume (Journey to the West Costume) from DBZ: 13 "Son Gohan, the Inconsolable" and Detekoi Tobikiri Zenkai Power! (it also comes complete with Hood as well). Both Gifts can be purchased at the TP Medal Shop for TP Medals ( TP for both Gifts).

References

External links

Источник: mynewextsetup.us
Istorija

Botany Bay, between popular Margate and Broadstairs is a splendid, undeveloped sandy bay with white cliffs and sea caves. Botany Bay Hotel offeres pub lunches on the clifftop. At low tide, the intrepid can paddle round to the secret bay to the right. Cliff chambers are obvious in the cliffs here, where smugglers once hid their booty; you can still climb up into them. There are also beaches at Kingsgate Bay or Joss Bay.

Driving time from London: 80 minutes
Find it: From Broadstairs follow B north past Joss Bay (a great spot for surfing) and Kingsgate Bay, then turn right after a mile down Botany Road. (, )

  1. Shellness, Leysdown, Isle of Sheppey

Not for the prudish, Shellness beach - a sign reads 'Clothing need not be worn for bathing, sun bathing, and general recreation'. There are beautiful shells, great swimming at high tide, and several cafés up at the Leysdown (non-naturist) end. The huge beach is on the Isle of Harty cycle route, a mile cycle trail which snakes past many key sites in the history of aviation - this was where the Short brothers flew the first circular mile in

Driving time from London: 65 minutes
Find it: Park at Shellness Car Park, just east of Leysdown-on-Sea (ME12 4RJ). There's a beach here or walk 1km further along the shore, past beach houses towards Shellness hamlet (, ).

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Sha Wu Jing


 

Name

Sha Wu Jing

Meaning: Sha - surname meaning sand. Taken from his home, the River of Flowing Sand (Liu Sha He).

               Wu - Awareness

               Jing - Purity

Origin: Given to him by the Goddess Guanyin when he agreed to protect Tang San Zang on his journey.

 

Variations: Sha Wujing

 

English name(s): Sandy, Friar Sand, Sand.

 

Japanese pronunciation:

Sha Wu Jing - Sha Gojyo

 

 


 

Age

Unknown. Possibly in the range of Ba Jie's age.

 

Status

Water Demon.

 

Original Location

River of Flowing Sand.

 


 

Titles/Other Names

(1) Juan Lian Jiang Jun

His title of his post in heaven. The meaning translates roughly into General of Lifting Curtains.

Japanese pronunciation: Kenren Taisho

 

(2) Sha He Shang

The name Tan San Zang gave him when he became his disciple. He Shang means 'monk'. How creative. >D

 

(3) Golden Lohan

His title when he finally attained Buddha status (zheng guo). Doesn't mean anything special actually.

 

(4) Sha Seng

Seng means monk in Chinese. So, literally, 'Sand Monk' or 'Sha Monk'. So actually it's the same as Sha He Shang and is frequently used as a substitute for it.

 


 

Weapon

Demon Slaying Staff

It's kind of a monk staff, usually depicted with a crescent at one end and a wide double-curved blade with metal rings at the other. Supposedly, according to one of Wu Jing's poems, it can change its size as he wishes, but we don't see him taking advantage of this at all. Therefore I have to conclude that he was simply boasting. It's weight is probably not as heavy as the weapons of his two brothers, especially Wu Kong, but it also falls into the ultra-heavy category. Still, it's really not as impressive as its name implies. (Staff: Hey! It's not as if it's MY fault!) Oh. Yeah. >D That's possibly due to Wu Jing's mediocre fighting skills.

 


 

Magical Powers

(1) Cloud Riding

Flying. About the same speed as Ba Jie, which is not very fast.

 

(2) Transformation

I once said he has 'absolutely no remotely useful magical skills whatsoever'. I kinda forgot he could transform. *sweats* Yeah, he does transform, but only once, which kinda explains why I overlooked the whole thing. When Wu Kong wanted to trick the three demon Taoists, he helped by transforming into one of the three gods that the Taoists worship.

 


 

Abilities

(1) Water

He is an adept at fighting in deep waters, mainly because he spent a huge amount of time trapped at the bottom of a huge river. Therefore, he comes in handy when there's underwater fighting to be done, as Wu Kong can't fight underwater. Ba Jie and him team up against most of the underwater monsters they have to face, as Wu Jing can't hold his own.

 

(2) Fighting

He is the weakest of the three brothers at fighting. He's okay for taking down the minor demons and all the small fry but totally useless against the stronger demons. Oh, he's strong compared to humans of course, but compared to Wu Kong, Wu Jing is worse than mediocre. Wu Jing's only useful for clean-up work, or protecting San Zhang whenever demons are NOT around.

 

Probably his most useful ability is carrying the luggage. >D And acting as mediator between his quarreling brothers.

 


 

History

Wu Jing, when he was the Juan Lian Jiang Jun, accidentally broke a glass lamp during the Empress's Peach Banquet. He was given strokes and banished to Earth by the Jade Emperor. All because of a single glass lamp. From this you can glimpse how corrupt and irrational the Jade Emperor is. The glass lamp was probably a favourite of his wife the Empress, and to pacify her, he had no qualms about banishing one of his generals from Heaven. It's at times like this that I wish that Wu Kong had killed him and taken over Heaven. At least he wouldn't have done something as nonsensical as that. And that's not the worst. Wu Jing was changed into a demon, and once every week, flying swords were sent down from Heaven to penetrate his chest a few hundred times over. He had nothing to eat, so every few days he had to go out of the river to eat a passerby. One day he attacked the Goddess Guanyin by accident and she advised him to redeem his sins by becoming San Zang's disciple and protecting him throughout his journey to the west. So he bided his time in the River of Flowing Sand until San Zang, Wu Kong and Ba Jie finally came along. Not knowing that they were the pilgrims, they fought and in the end because he couldn't fight in water Wu Kong had to ask for help from Guanyin. When Wu Jing realized that they were the pilgrims, he surrendered immediately, became San Zang's disciple, and joined them on their journey to the West.

 


 

Personality

He doesn't have one.

 

Okay, so that might be a exaggeration, but Wu Jing has a bland, pale, tasteless personality compared to his other two brothers. He doesn't play a very major part in the plot, except for a few times. His main function in the story is to carry the luggage. Really. Well, you can say he loves his brothers and master very much, as he is always worried to death whenever San Zhang disappears, and once when Wu Kong is almost killed by the Red Child, he cries while holding Wu Kong's cold body in his arms. That said, he never stands up for Wu Kong when he is in trouble with San Zhang. Probably because he doesn't have the backbone. But he helps, yes, he helps when Wu Kong and Ba Jie quarrel and he is very dedicated to the quest and San Zhang unlike Ba Jie. And one time, when San Zang ignores Wu Kong's warning AGAIN and saves a kid who turns out to be the Red Child who then abducts him, and Wu Kong gets unusually discouraged and is tempted to give up, and Ba Jie takes advantage of this, suggesting that they disband and just go home, Wu Jing is the one who protests! He tells off his brothers and makes Wu Kong snap out of his depression. In fact, if it weren't for Wu Jing speaking out at moments like the one above, the journey would never have been completed. So, Wu Jing can be seen as the glue holding the group together, the good guy, the ever-dedicated one, the patient one, the baggage-carrier. Basically, Wu Jing is your average, normal, nice guy as normal as a water demon turned Buddhist monk can be.

 


Images

 

Before and After *grin*

 


 

If you have information or comments about Sha Wu Jing please tell me.

 

 

back to character profiles

back to main page

 

 

Источник: mynewextsetup.us
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Istorija

Sha Wu Jing


 

Name

Sha Wu Jing

Meaning: Sha - surname meaning sand. Taken from his home, the River of Flowing Sand (Liu Journey to the west sandy He).

               Wu - Awareness

               Jing - Purity

Origin: Given to him by the Goddess Guanyin when he agreed to protect Tang San Zang on his journey.

 

Variations: Sha Wujing

 

English name(s): Sandy, Friar Sand, Sand.

 

Japanese pronunciation:

Sha Wu Jing - Sha Gojyo

 

 


 

Age

Unknown. Possibly in the range of Ba Jie's age.

 

Status

Water Demon.

 

Original Location

River of Flowing Sand.

 


 

Titles/Other Names

(1) Juan Lian Jiang Jun

His title of his post in heaven. The meaning translates roughly into General of Lifting Curtains.

Japanese pronunciation: Kenren Taisho

 

(2) Sha He Shang

The name Tan San Zang gave him when he became his disciple. He Shang means 'monk'. How creative. >D

 

(3) Golden Lohan

His title when he finally attained Buddha status (zheng guo). Doesn't mean anything special actually.

 

(4) Sha Seng

Seng means monk in Chinese. So, literally, 'Sand Monk' or 'Sha Monk'. So actually it's the same as Sha He Shang and is frequently used as a substitute for it.

 


 

Weapon

Demon Slaying Staff

It's kind of a monk staff, usually depicted with a crescent at one end and a wide double-curved blade with metal rings at the other. Supposedly, according to one of Wu Jing's poems, it can change its size as he wishes, but we don't see him taking advantage of this at all. Therefore I have to conclude that he was simply boasting. It's weight is probably not as heavy as the weapons of his two brothers, especially Wu Kong, but it also falls into the ultra-heavy category. Still, it's really not as impressive as its name implies. (Staff: Hey! It's not as if it's MY fault!) Oh. Yeah. >D That's possibly due to Wu Jing's mediocre fighting skills.

 


 

Magical Powers

(1) Cloud Riding

Flying. About the same speed as Ba Jie, which is not very fast.

 

(2) Transformation

I once said he has 'absolutely no remotely useful magical skills whatsoever'. I kinda forgot he could transform. *sweats* Yeah, he does transform, but only once, which kinda explains why I overlooked the whole thing. When Wu Kong wanted to trick the three demon Taoists, he helped by transforming into one of the three gods that the Taoists worship.

 


 

Abilities

(1) Water

He is an adept at fighting in deep waters, mainly because he spent a huge amount of time trapped at the bottom of a huge river. Therefore, he comes in handy when there's underwater fighting to be done, as Wu Kong can't fight underwater. Ba Jie and him team up against most of the underwater monsters they have to face, as Wu Jing can't hold his own.

 

(2) Fighting

He is the weakest of the three brothers at fighting. He's okay for taking down the minor demons and all the small fry but totally useless against the stronger demons. Oh, he's strong compared to humans of course, but compared to Wu Kong, Wu Jing is worse than mediocre. Wu Jing's only useful for clean-up work, or protecting San Zhang whenever demons are NOT around.

 

Probably his most useful ability is carrying the luggage. >D And acting as mediator between his quarreling brothers.

 


 

History

Wu Jing, when he was the Juan Lian Jiang Jun, accidentally broke a glass lamp during the Empress's Peach Banquet. He was given strokes and banished to Earth by the Jade Emperor. All because of a single glass lamp. From this you can glimpse how corrupt and irrational the Jade Emperor is. The glass lamp was probably a favourite of his wife the Empress, and to pacify her, he had no qualms about banishing one of his generals from Heaven. It's at times like this that I wish that Wu Kong had killed him and taken over Heaven. At least he wouldn't have done something as nonsensical as that. And that's not the worst. Wu Jing was changed into a demon, and once every week, flying swords were sent down from Heaven to penetrate his chest a few hundred times over. He had nothing to eat, so every few days he had to go out of the river to eat a passerby. One day he attacked the Goddess Guanyin by accident and she advised him to redeem his sins by becoming San Zang's disciple and protecting him throughout his journey to the west. So he bided his time in the River of Flowing Sand until San Zang, Wu Kong and Ba Jie finally came along. Not knowing that they were the pilgrims, they fought and in the end because he couldn't fight in water Wu Kong had to ask for help from Guanyin. When Wu Jing realized that they were the pilgrims, he surrendered immediately, became San Zang's disciple, and joined them on their journey to the West.

 


 

Personality

He doesn't have one.

 

Okay, so that might be a exaggeration, but Wu Jing has a bland, pale, tasteless personality compared to his other two brothers. He doesn't play a very major part in the plot, except for a few times. His main function in the story is to carry the luggage. Really. Well, you can say he loves his brothers and master very much, as he is always worried to death whenever San Zhang disappears, and once when Wu Kong is almost killed by the Red Child, he cries while holding Wu Kong's cold body in his arms. That said, he never stands up for Wu Kong when he is in trouble with San Zhang. Probably because he doesn't have the backbone. But he helps, yes, he helps when Wu Kong and Ba Jie quarrel and he is very dedicated to the quest and San Zhang unlike Ba Jie. And one time, when San Zang ignores Wu Kong's warning AGAIN and saves a kid who turns out to be the Red Child who then abducts him, and Wu Kong gets unusually discouraged and is tempted to give up, and Ba Jie takes advantage of this, suggesting that they disband and just go home, Wu Jing is the one who protests! He tells off his brothers and makes Wu Kong snap out of his depression. In fact, if it weren't for Wu Jing speaking out at moments like the one above, the journey would never have been completed. So, Wu Jing can be seen as the glue holding the group together, the good guy, the ever-dedicated one, the patient one, the baggage-carrier. Basically, Wu Jing is your average, normal, nice guy as normal as a water demon turned Buddhist monk can be.

 


Images

 

Before and After *grin*

 


 

If you have information or comments about Sha Wu Jing please tell me.

 

 

back to character profiles

back to main page

 

 

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This article is about the
real world.

Akira Toriyama with his pet cat, Koge ()

Journey to the West (西遊記, Xīyóujì in Mandarin Chinese and Saiyūki in Japanese) is a 16th-century Chinese legend and one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, which Dragon Ball is loosely based upon. Originally published anonymously in the s during the Ming Dynasty, it has been ascribed to the scholar Wú Chéng'ēn since the 20th century, even though no direct evidence of its authorship survives.

The tale is also often known simply as Monkey. This was one title used for a popular, abridged translation by Arthur Waley. The Waley translation has also been published as Adventures of the Monkey God; and Monkey: [A] Folk Novel of China; and The Adventures of Monkey.

Overview

The novel is a fictionalized account of the legends around the Buddhist monk Xuánzàng's pilgrimage to India during the Táng dynasty in order to obtain Buddhist religious texts called sutras. On instruction from the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Kuan Yin Guānyīn gives this task to the monk and his three protectors in the form of disciples: namely Sūn Wùkōng, Zhū Bājiè and Shā Wùjìng; together with a dragon prince who acts as Xuánzàng's horse mount. These four characters have agreed to help Xuánzàng as an atonement for past sins.

Some scholars propose that the book satirizes the effete Chinese government at the time. Journey to the West has a strong background in Chinese folk religion, Chinese mythology and value systems; the pantheon of Taoist deities and Buddhist bodhisattvas is still reflective of Chinese folk religious beliefs today.

Part of the novel's enduring popularity comes from the fact that it works on multiple levels: it is a first-rate adventure story, a dispenser of spiritual insight, and an extended allegory in which the group of pilgrims journeying toward India stands for the individual journeying toward enlightenment.

Synopsis

The novel comprises chapters that can be divided into four very unequal parts. The first, which includes chapters 1–7, is really a self-contained prequel to the main body of the story. It deals entirely with the earlier exploits of Sūn Wùkōng, a monkey born from a stone nourished by the Five Elements, who learns the art of the Tao, 72 polymorphic transformations, combat and secrets of immortality, and through guile and force makes a name for himself as the Qítiān Dàshèng, or "Great Sage Equal to Heaven". His powers grow to match the forces of all of the Eastern (Taoist) deities, and the prologue culminates in Sūn's rebellion against Heaven, during a time when he garnered a post in the celestial bureaucracy. Hubris proves his downfall when the Buddha manages to trap him under a mountain for five hundred years.

Only following this introductory story is the nominal main character, Xuánzàng, introduced. Chapters 8–12 provide his early biography and the background to his great journey. Dismayed that "the land of the South knows only greed, hedonism, promiscuity, and sins", the Buddha instructs the Bodhisattva Guānyīn to search Táng China for someone to take the Buddhist sutras of "transcendence and persuasion for good will" back to the East. Part of the story here also relates to how Xuánzàng becomes a monk (as well as revealing his past life as the "Golden Cicada" and comes about being sent on this pilgrimage by the Emperor Táng Tàizōng, who previously escaped death with the help of an underworld official).

The third and longest section of the work is chapters 13–99, an episodic adventure story which combines elements of the quest as well as the picaresque. The skeleton of the story is Xuánzàng's quest to bring back Buddhist scriptures from Vulture Peak in India, but the flesh is provided by the conflict between Xuánzàng's disciples and the various evils that beset him on the way.

The scenery of this section is, nominally, the sparsely populated lands along the Silk Road between China and India, including Xinjiang, Turkestan, and Afghanistan. The geography described in the book is, however, almost entirely fantastic; once Xuánzàng departs Cháng'ān, the Táng capital and crosses the frontier (somewhere in Gansu province), he finds himself in a wilderness of deep gorges and tall mountains, all inhabited by flesh-eating demons who regard him as a potential meal (since his flesh was believed to give Immortality to whoever eats it), with here and there a hidden monastery or royal city-state amid the wilds.

The episodic structure of this section is to some extent formulaic. Episodes consist of 1–4 chapters, and usually involve Xuánzàng being captured and his life threatened, while his disciples try to find an ingenious (and often violent) way of liberating him. Although some of Xuánzàng's predicaments are political and involve ordinary human beings, they more frequently consist of run-ins with various goblins and ogres, many of whom turn out to be the earthly cabin homes for sale in texas of heavenly beings (whose sins will be negated by eating the flesh of Xuanzang) or animal-spirits with enough Taoist spiritual merit to assume semi-human forms.

Chapters 13–22 do not follow this structure precisely, as they introduce Xuánzàng's disciples, who, inspired or goaded by Guānyīn, meet and agree to serve him along the way, in order to atone for their sins in their past lives.

  • The first is Sun Wukong, or Monkey, previously "Great Sage Equal to Heaven" and literally "Monkey Awakened to Emptiness", trapped by Buddha for rebelling against Heaven. He appears right away in Chapter The most intelligent and violent of the disciples, he is constantly reproved for his violence by Xuánzàng. Ultimately, he can only be controlled by a magic gold band that the Bodhisattva has placed around his head, which causes him excruciating pain when Xuánzàng says certain magic words.
  • The second, appearing in 19, is Zhu Bajie, literally "Pig of Eight-Commandments", sometimes translated as Pigsy or just Pig. He was previously Marshal Tīan Péng, commander of the Heavenly Naval forces, banished to the mortal realm for flirting with the Princess of the Moon Chang'e. He is characterized by his insatiable appetites for food and sex, and is constantly looking for a way out of his duties, but is always kept in line by Sūn Wùkōng.
  • The third, appearing in chapter 22, is the river-ogre Sha Wujing, also translated as Friar Sand or Sandy and literally "Sand Awakened to Purity". He was previously Great General who Folds the Curtain, banished to the mortal realm for dropping (and shattering) a crystal goblet of the Heavenly Queen Mother. He is a quiet but generally dependable character, who serves as the straight foil to the comic relief of Sūn and Zhū who despite this trait, is the nicest out of his two other fellow disciples.
  • Possibly to be counted as a fourth disciple is the third prince of the Dragon-King, Yùlóng Sāntàizǐ, who was sentenced to death for setting fire to his father's great pearl. He was saved by Guānyīn from execution to stay and wait for his call of duty. He appears first in chapter 15, but has almost no speaking role, as throughout most of the story he appears in the transformed shape of a horse that Xuánzàng rides on.

Chapter 22, where Shā is introduced, also provides a geographical boundary, as the river of quicksand that the travelers cross brings them into a new "continent". Chapters 23–86 take place in the wilderness, and consist of 24 episodes of varying length, each characterized by a different magical monster or evil magician. There are impassably wide rivers, flaming mountains, a kingdom ruled by women, a lair of seductive spider-spirits, and many other fantastic scenarios. Throughout the journey, the four brave disciples have to fend off attacks on their master and teacher Xuánzàng from various monsters and calamities.

It is strongly suggested that most of these calamities are engineered by fate and/or the Buddha, as, while the monsters who attack are vast in power and many in number, no real harm ever comes to the four travelers. Some of the monsters turn out to be escaped heavenly animals belonging to bodhisattvas or Taoist sages and spirits. Towards the end of the book there is a scene where the Buddha literally commands the fulfillment of the last disaster, because Xuánzàng is one short of the eighty-one disasters he needs to attain Buddhahood.

In chapter 87, Xuánzàng finally reaches the borderlands of India, and chapters 87–99 present magical adventures in a somewhat more mundane (though still exotic) setting. At length, after a pilgrimage said to have taken fourteen years (the text actually only provides evidence for nine of those years, but presumably there was room to add additional episodes) they arrive at the half-real, half-legendary destination of Vulture Peak, where, in a scene simultaneously mystical and comic, Xuánzàng receives the scriptures https www suntrust online banking the living Buddha.

Chapterthe last of all, quickly describes the return journey to the Táng Empire, and the aftermath in which each traveler receives a reward in the form of posts in the bureaucracy of the heavens. Sūn Wùkōng and Xuánzàng achieve Buddhahood, Wùjìng becomes the Golden Arhat, the dragon is made a Naga, and Bājiè, whose good deeds have always been tempered by his greed, is promoted to an altar cleanser (i.e. eater of excess offerings a million ways to die in the west part 2 altars).

Historical context

The classic story of the Journey to the West was based on real events. In real life, Xuanzang (born c. - ) was a monk at Jingtu Temple in late-Sui Dynasty and early-Tang Dynasty Chang'an. Motivated by the poor quality of Chinese translations of Buddhist scripture at the time, Xuanzang left Chang'an indespite the border being closed at the time due to war with the Gokturks. Helped by sympathetic Buddhists, he traveled via Gansu and Qinghai to Kumul (Hami), thence following the Tian Shan mountains to Turfan. He then crossed what are today Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan, into Gandhara, reaching India in Xuanzang traveled throughout the Indian subcontinent for the next thirteen years, visiting important Buddhist pilgrimage sites and studying at the ancient university at Nalanda.

Xuanzang left India in and arrived back in Chang'an in to a warm reception by Emperor Taizong of Tang. He joined Da Ci'en Monastery (Monastery of Great Maternal Grace), where he led the building of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda in order to store the scriptures and icons he had brought back from India. He recorded his journey in the book Journey to the West in the Great Tang Dynasty. With the support of bancorp bank unclaimed property Emperor, he established an institute at Yuhua Gong (Palace of the Luster of Jade) monastery dedicated to translating into Chinese the scriptures he had brought back. His translation and commentary work established him as the founder of the Dharma character school of Buddhism. Xuanzang died on March 7, The Xingjiao Monastery was established in to house his ashes.

Popular stories of Xuánzàng's journey were in existence long before Journey to the West was written. In these versions, journey to the west sandy as far back as Southern Song, a monkey character was already a primary protagonist. Before the Yuan Dynasty and early Ming, elements of the Monkey story were already seen.

Relation to Dragon Ball

Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)#Relation to Journey to the West

Main characters

Tripitaka or Xuánzàng

Xuánzàng (玄奘) journey to the west sandy Táng-Sānzàng (唐三藏), meaning "Táng-dynasty monk" — Sānzàng (三藏) or "Three Baskets", referring to the Tripitaka, was a traditional honorific for a Buddhist monk) is the Buddhist monk who set out to India to retrieve the Buddhist scriptures for China. He is called Tripitaka in many English versions of the story. Although he is helpless when it comes to defending himself, the bodhisattva Guānyīn helps by finding him powerful disciples (Sūn Wùkōng, Zhū Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng) who aid and protect him on his journey. In return, the disciples will receive enlightenment and forgiveness for their sins once the journey is done. Along the way, they help the Giancarlo by defeating various monsters. The fact that most of the monsters and demons are trying to obtain immortality by eating Xuánzàng's flesh, and are even attracted to him as he is depicted as quite handsome, provides much of the plot in the story.

In Japanese on'yomi, he is known as Genjō, Tō Sanzō or altogether as Genjō Sanzō. And his title of Sanzang Fashi is romanized as Sanzō Hōshi. In some adaptions that mention it, his original incarnation from heaven is Jin Chan Zi (金蝉子), which is romanized as Konzen Dōji (金蝉 童子) in the Japanese adaptation Gensōmaden Saiyūki. Both literally mean "Gold Cicada Child". Originally, Jin Chan Zi was expelled section 8 homes for rent near me heaven for mainly ignoring Buddha's teachings (though how he was disobedient and/or banished varies a lot depending on the adaptation), with Xuanzang/Genjō being his 10th reincarnation.

Monkey King or Sūn Wùkōng

Sūn Wùkōng (孫悟空) is the name given to this character by his teacher, Patriarch Subhuti, and means "Monkey Awakened to Emptiness". He is called Sūn Xíngzhě (孫行者, Son Gyouja) by Xuánzàng auto mechanics near my location most adaptations still having him named as "Wukong" by Xuánzàng). While he is commonly known as Monkey King in pop culture, with one of his more egotistical titles being the Handsome Monkey King (美猴王, Měi Hóuwáng/Bikō'ō) in English. He is by far, the novel's most iconic character.

He was born out of a rock that had been dormant for ages in Flower Fruit Mountain that was inhabited/weathered by the sun and moon until a monkey sprang forth. He first distinguished himself by bravely entering the Cave of Water Curtains (Shuǐliándòng) at g star hotel san jose occidental mindoro Flower Fruit Mountain (Huāguǒshān/Kakazan); for this feat, his monkey tribe gave him the title of Měi Hóuwáng ("Handsome Monkey King"). Later, through some misfits during his duties in heaven, it escalated into a full-on rebellion on Wukong's part, and the monkey defeated an army ofcelestial soldiers, led by the Four Heavenly Kings, Erlang Shen, and Nezha. Eventually, even when Wukong was sealed inside a special furnace with the intent of turning him into an elixir, he broke free and nearly trashed much of the heavenly palace; the Jade Emperor appealed to Buddha, who subdued and trapped Wukong under a mountain for five centuries to repent. He was only saved when Xuanzang came by him on his pilgrimage and accepted him as a disciple.

His primary weapon is the Rúyì Jīngū Bàng/Nyoi Kinko Bō (如意金箍棒; lit. "Compliant Gold-Rimmed Pole"), which he can shrink down to the size of a needle and keep behind his ear, as well as expand it to gigantic proportions (hence the "will-following" part of the name; some adaptations show the staff to act as if it was alive). The staff, originally a pillar supporting the undersea palace of the East Sea Dragon King, weighs 13, kilograms, which he pulled out of its support and swung with ease. The Dragon King, not wanting him to cause any trouble, also gave him a suit of golden armor. These gifts, combined with his devouring of the peaches of immortality and three jars of immortality pills while in Heaven, plus his ordeal in an eight-trigram furnace (which gave him a steel-hard body and fiery golden eyes), makes Wukong the strongest member by which banks have the best cd rates near me of the pilgrimage. Besides these abilities, he can also pull hairs from his body and blow on them to transform them into whatever he wishes (usually clones of himself to gain a numerical advantage in battle). journey to the west sandy he has mastered seventy-two methods of transformations, it does not mean that he is restricted to seventy-two different forms. He can also do a jīndǒuyún/kinto'un (筋斗雲; lit. "Somersault Cloud"), enabling him to travel vast distances in a single leap, or ride on a cloud to cover the same amount of distance with flight-based speed. Wukong uses his talents to fight demons and play pranks. However, his behavior is checked by amazon customer service chat usa band placed around his head by Guanyin, which cannot be removed by Wukong himself until the journey's end. Xuanzang can tighten this band by chanting the Tightening-Crown spell (taught to him by Alden state bank central lake mi whenever he needs to chastise him.

Wukong's childlike playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind. This, coupled with his acrobatic skills, makes him a likeable hero, though not necessarily a good role model. His antics present a lighter side in what proposes to be a long and dangerous trip into the unknown, and overall develops a sense of endearment to his master and kindness in his heart throughout the journey.

In Japanese on'yomi, Sun Wukong is romanized more famously as Son Gokū, a la popularity of Dragon Ball. His title of Qitian Dasheng (齊天大聖; lit. "Equaling Heaven Great Sage") is known as the Seiten Taisei in Japanese, and is mainly to appease his ego (though it does provide a form of respect as the lesser gods would prove, and his actual prior havoc in heaven also can back such a title up).

Zhū Bājiè

Zhū Bājiè (豬八戒; lit. "Pig of the Eight Commandments") is also known as Zhū Wùnéng (豬悟能; lit. "Pig Awakened to Ability"), and given the name Pigsy, Piggy or Pig in English.

Once an immortal who was the Tiānpéng Yuánshuǎi (天蓬元帥; lit. "Field Marshal Tianpeng") ofsoldiers of the Milky Way, during a celebration of gods, he drank too much and attempted to flirt with Cháng'é, the beautiful moon goddess, resulting in his banishment ameritrade com log on to td ameritrade the mortal world. He was supposed to be reborn as a human, but ended up in the womb of a sow due to an error at the Reincarnation Wheel, which turned him into a half-man half-pig monster. Staying within Yúnzhan-dòng ("cloud-pathway cave"), he was commissioned by Guanyin to accompany Xuanzang to India and given the new name Zhu Wuneng.

However, Wuneng's desire for women led him to Gao Village, where he posed as a normal being and took a wife. Later, when the villagers discovered that he was a monster, Wuneng hid the girl away. At this point, Xuanzang and Wukong arrived at Gao Village and helped subdue him. Renamed Zhu Bajie by Xuanzang, he consequently joined the pilgrimage to the West.

His weapon of choice is the jiǔchǐdīngpá ("Nine-toothed Rake/nine-tooth iron rake"). He is also capable of thirty-six transformations (as compared to Wukong's seventy-two), and can travel on clouds, but not as fast as Wukong. However, Bajie is noted for his fighting skills in the water, which he used to combat Sha Wujing, who later joined them on the journey. He is the second strongest member of the team.

He is often noted to be quite gluttonous, perverted and a bit cowardly, putting himself at odds with Wukong quite often. But nonetheless he is loyal to his friends deep down and is trusting of his master and vice versa, as well as often getting along with Wujing. Many adaptations of the novel tend to paint him in a light for the sake of comic relief, while also making him act as a positive force that differs from Wukong's antics.

In Japanese on'yomi, Zhu Bajie's current name is known as Cho Hakkai, and his original name before being renamed by Xuanzang is Cho Gonō. His original incarnation's name, Tianpeng, is known as Tenpō Gensui in Japanese as well (via Gensōmaden Saiyūki).

Shā Wùjìng

Shā Wùjìng (沙悟凈; lit. "Sand Awakened to Purity"), also named Shā Sēng (沙僧) in Mandarin Chinese and given the name Friar Sand or Sandy in English, was once the Juǎnlián Dàjiàng (捲簾大将; lit. "Rolling Curtain General"), who stood in attendance by the imperial chariot in the Hall of Miraculous Mist. He was exiled to the mortal world and made to look like a monster because he accidentally smashed a crystal/jade goblet belonging to the Heavenly Queen Mother during the Peach Banquet. The now-hideous immortal took up residence in the Flowing Sands River, terrorizing the surrounding villages and travelers trying to cross the river. However, he was subdued by Sūn Wùkōng and Zhū Bājiè when the Xuānzàng party came across him. They consequently took him in to be a part of the pilgrimage to the West.

Shā Wùjìng's weapon is the yuèyáchǎn ("Moon-Fang-Spade" or "Monk's Spade"). Aside from that, he knows eighteen transformations and is highly effective in water combat. He is about as strong as Bājiè, and is much stronger than Wùkōng in water. However, Bājiè can beat Wujing in a test of endurance, and Wùkōng can beat him out of water.

Shā Wùjìng is known to be the most obedient, logical, and polite of the three disciples, and always takes care of his master, seldom engaging in the bickeries of his fellow-disciples. Ever reliable, he carries the luggage for the travelers. Perhaps this is why he is sometimes seen as a minor character; the lack of any particular perks confers the lack of distinguishing and/or redeeming characteristics.

Wùjìng eventually becomes an Arhat at the end of the journey, giving him a higher level of exaltation than Bājiè, who is relegated to cleaning every altar at every Buddhist temple for eternity, but is still lower spiritually than Wùkōng or Xuānzàng who are granted Buddhahood.

In Japanese on'yomi, Sha Wujing is romanized as Sha Gojō, with his original incarnation's name romanized fulton bank rosenhayn nj Kenren Taishō in Gensōmaden Saiyūki. In Japanese, the character for "jing/jō" is written differenly in Japanese due to conflicting writing systems, with 淨 being the older form closer to Chinese, and 浄 being the current character used.

List of Demons

There are many demons in the story. Examples are listed below:

  • Black-Bear-Demon (pinyin: Hēixióngguài)
  • Yellow Wind Demon (Huángfēngguài)
  • Zhen Yuan Holy Man (He is not a demon, but an immortal, who got annoyed by those disciples who stole his precious immortal-fruits (Ginseng Fruits, 人参果).
  • White-Bone-Demon (pinyin: Báigǔjīng)
  • Yellow Robe Demon (pinyin: Huángpáoguài)
  • Gold-Horn and Silver-Horn (pinyin: Jīnjiǎo and Yínjiǎo)
  • Red-Boy a.k.a. Holy Baby King (pinyin: Hóng-hái'ér; Japanese: Kōgaiji)
  • Tiger Power, Deer Power, and Goat (or Antelope) Power
  • Black River Dragon Demon (Hēi Shǔi Hé Yuan Lóng Gài)
  • Carp Demon (Li Yu Jīng)
  • Green-Ox-Demon (pinyin: Qīngniújīng)
  • Scorpion-Demon (pinyin: Xiēzijīng)
  • Six Ear Monkey Demon (a.k.a Fake Sun Wukong, Lìuěrmíhóu)
  • Ox-Demon-King (pinyin: Niúmówáng; Japanese: Gyūmaō): The inspiration for the Ox King, who also shares the same name in the Asian scripts/dubs as the original Ox-Demon-King.
  • Demon Woman (Luo Cha Nǚ)
  • Jade-Faced Princess (pinyin: Yùmiàn-gōngzhǔ; Japanese: Gyokumen-kōshū)
  • Boa Demon (Hóng Shé Jīng)
  • Nine-Headed Bird Demon (Jiǔ Tou Fu Ma)
  • Seven-Spider-Demons (pinyin: Zhīzhū-jīng)
  • Hundred-Eyed Taoist (Bǎi Yan Mo Jun)
  • Green Lion Demon (pinyin: Qīngshījīng)
  • White-Elephant-Demon (pinyin: Báixiàngjīng)
  • Falcon Demon (Sun Jīng)
  • Biqiu Country Minister a.k.a Deer Demon
  • Gold-Nosed, White Mouse Demon (Lao Shu Jīng)
  • Dream-Demon

Notable English-language translations

  • Monkey: A Folk-Tale of China (), an abridged translation by Arthur Waley. For many years, the best translation available in English; it only translates thirty out of the hundred chapters. (Penguin reprint ISBN )
  • Journey to the West, a complete translation by W.J.F. Jenner published by the Foreign Languages Press in Beijing (three volumes; / edition: ISBNISBNISBN )
  • The Journey to the West (–), a complete translation in four volumes by Anthony C. Yu.
    University of Chicago Press: HC ISBNISBNISBNISBN ; PB ISBNISBN ; ISBN ; ISBN

Media adaptations

Stage

  • Journey to the West: The Musical: A stage musical which received its world premiere at the New York Musical Theatre Festival on September 25,
  • Monkey: Journey to the West: A stage musical version created by Chen Shi-zheng, Damon Albarn (frontman of British rock band Blur) and Call capital one business credit card Hewlett, is eating watermelon seeds good for you latter two better known as creators of the Gorillaz musical project. It premiered as part of the Manchester International Festival at the Palace Theatre on June
  • The Monkey King: A production by the Children's Theater Company in Minneapolis, MN in

Film

  • A Chinese Odyssey by Stephen Chow.
  • A Chinese Tall Story: live action movie starring Nicholas Tse as Xuánzàng.
  • Heavenly Legend: A film by Tai Seng Entertainment starring Kung Fu kid Sik Siu Loong is partially based on this legend.
  • Monkey Goes West: The Shaw Brothers' Hong Kong film (Cantonese: Sau yau gei). Also known as "Monkey with 72 Magic"
  • The Forbidden Kingdom: live action movie starring Jackie Chan and Jet Li which is said to be based on the Legend of the Monkey King, the same legend as the TV show Monkey. Towards the end, Li's character is revealed to be the Monkey King of the legend.[1]

Live-action television

  • Monkey (–): A well-known s Japanese television series based on Journey to the West translated into English by the BBC.
  • Journey to the West (): A TV series produced by CCTV.
  • Journey to the West (): A popular series produced at&t billing Hong Kong studio TVB, starring Dicky Cheung.
  • Journey to the West II (): The sequel to TVB's Journey to the West series, starring Benny Chan.
  • The Monkey King (): Sci Fi Channel's TV adaptation of this legend, also called The Lost Empire.
  • The Monkey King: Quest for the Sutra (): A loose adaptation starring Dicky Cheung, who also portrayed Sun Wukong in the TVB series.
  • Saiyūki (): A Japanese television series starring the SMAP star Shingo Katori.

Comics, manga and anime

  • Alakazam the Great: One of the first anime films produced by Toei Animation, a retelling of first part of the story based on the characters designed by Osamu Tezuka.
  • Gensōmaden Saiyūki: manga and anime series inspired by the legend. Follow-up series include Saiyūki Reload and Saiyūki Reload Gunlock. This is one of the other better known adaptions that packs the most elements to the original, such as several of the names in the legend all romanized in Japanese.
    • Coincidentally, both the version of Wukong/Goku and Wujing/Goku share traits of the original Bajie/Hakkai; the former shares Bajie's hunger (akin to Dragon Ball's version of Wukong/Goku), while the latter shares Bajie's lust/perversions for women. Both of them also often argue back to back, akin to Wukong and Bajie's dynamics in the original source material.
  • Havoc in Heaven (also known as Uproar in Heaven): Original animation from China.
  • Iyashite Agerun Saiyūki: A adult anime [1]
  • Monkey Magic: An animated retelling of the legend.
  • Monkey Typhoon: A manga and anime series based on the Journey to the West saga, following a futuristic steampunk-retelling of the legend.
  • Starzinger: An animated science fiction version of the story.
  • The Monkey King: A gruesome manga inspired by the tale.

Works referencing Journey to the West

  • American Born Chinese: An American graphic novel by Gene Yang. Nominated for the National Book Award ().
  • Doraemon: A special tells the story of Journey To The West, casting the Doraemon characters as the characters of the legend.
  • Dragon Ball: Japanese manga and anime series loosely based on Journey to the West.
  • Eyeshield 21: Three of the players for the Shinryuji Nagas are referred to as the Saiyuki Trio based upon their appearances and personalities.
  • InuYasha: The characters meet descendants of three of the main characters of the Journey of the West, lead by Oostburg state bank phone number (a boardemon), in one episode. Also, the main character Kagome Higurashi says a few lines about the whole book and story, and explains it to the others who live in Feudal Japan, ergo have not heard about the Journey to the West.
  • Kaleido Iboc church scandal The cast performs Saiyuki on stage a few times in the beginning of the second half of the series.
  • Love Hina: The characters put on a play based on the story in anime episode
  • Naruto: A character named Temari is based on Princess Iron Fan from the legend. Enma is a summoned monkey who bears resemblance to Sun Wukong. He has the ability to transform into a staff similar to the rúyì-jīngū-bàng, which can alter its size at will. Also, one of the Tailed Beasts (also known as Bijū) is named Son Gokū, sporting horns which resemble the diadem worn by Sun Wukong.
  • Ninja Sentai Kakuranger: The Super Sentai series, where four of the five rangers are inspired by the main characters of Journey to the West
  • GoGo Sentai Boukenger: The Super Sentai series, where its final episode involved the Rúyì-jīngū-bàng
  • Juken Sentai Gekiranger: The Super Sentai series, where one of its villains fighting style is homeage to Sun Wukong.
  • Patalliro Saiyuki: A shōnen-ai series in both anime and manga formats with the tips to play f chord on guitar cast playing out the Zaiyuji storyline with a yaoi twist.
  • Ranma 1/2: Pastiches of the characters appear throughout the manga and movies.
  • Read or Die (OVA): One of the villains is a clone of Xuanzang, who seems to have the powers of Sun Wukong and Xuanzang.
  • Sakura Wars: The Imperial Flower Troupe Performs the play of Journey to the West. Ironically, Mayumi Tanaka, who voices Krillin and Yajirobe in the Dragon Ball franchise, voices the monkey king Son Goku in the play.
  • Shinzo: An anime loosely based on Journey to the West.
  • XIN: An American comic mini-series produced by Anarchy Studio.
  • Pokémon: Infernape, a Fire/Fighting Pokémon, has a design based on motifs related to Sun Wukong and Emboar, another Fire/Fighting Pokémon, has a design based on motifs similar to Zhu Bajie.
  • The God of Highschool: A Korean web-toon that barrows a lot of the elements from every mythology notable, with few of the main cast based on characters from the novel. The main character, Jin Mo-Ri, being based off the Monkey King as well as Dragon Ball's Son Goku.

Games

  • Yuu Yuu Ki: A video game for the Famicom Disk System, based directly on the story.
  • Journey to the West: An unlicensed Famicom game by Taiwanese developer TXC Corp, [2]
  • Pokémon Diamond and Pearl: A video game and multiseries in which the Pokémon creatures Chimchar, Monferno, and mainly Infernape are based on Sūn Wùkōng.
  • Saiyuki: Journey West: A tactical role-playing game (RPG) videogame for the PlayStation developed by Koei.
    • Coincidentally, the portrayal of Zhu Bajie/Cho Hakkai is voiced by Naoki Tatsuta, who also voices Oolong with Bajie being his inspiration. Toshihiko Seki also voices the male version of Sanzang/Sanzou while also voicing one of his other portrayals in the aforementioned Gensomaden Saiyuki.
  • Fuun Gokuu Ninden: An action game for the PlayStation. The characters of the game are based on the characters of Journey to the West.[3]
  • Saiyu Gouma Roku: A arcade game by Technos, based in the original story and characters. The North American version is named "China Gate".[4]
  • SonSon: A video game and character of the same name created by Capcom whose title character is a caricature of Sūn Wùkōng. The granddaughter of SonSon (also named SonSon, or SonSon III) appears in Journey to the west sandy vs. Capcom 2.
  • Westward Journey: A massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG).
  • Whomp 'Em: NES game whose Japanese version is based on the story (the American version features an Indian boy instead of Wukong). Although a marketing failure, it is also a cult classic.
  • League of Legends: A MOBA (multiplayer online battle arena) game which features a playable character named "Wukong: The Monkey King", a very obvious reference to Sūn Wùkōng. Many of the abilities and alternate champion skins of the character also make reference to Sūn Wùkōng and other characters in the novel. One of the other characters, Master Yi, who trained Wukong, is a possible reference to Bodhi training Wukong for his powers and Sanzang.
    • Likewise, the two other MOBA games, Smite and Heroes of the Werwerth, also feature the original Sun Wukong as a playable character, why can t i sleep if i m hungry the former having removed him from the game for a visual rework to resemble the original figure, and the latter being simply known as "Monkey King" and possessing a skin that's a close reference to Dragon Ball in general (almost resembling Goku's Super Saiyan 4 form). Smite also has other characters pertaining to the legend or similar ones that tie into Journey into the West in general, such as the East Sea Dragon King and Nezha/Nata (the former also received a similar rework). Defense of the Ancients 2 has also recently revealed their own version of the Monkey King as well.
    • More so however, Masako Nozawa, the Japanese voice actress of Goku, also voices Wukong in the Japanese dub of League of Legends as a direct allusion. Meanwhile, Sean Schemmel has voiced the reworked Wukong in Smite as another allusion.
  • Asura's Wrath (アスラズ ラース, Asurazu Rāsu): A video game' developed by CyberConnect2 and published by Capcom. The game is playable on PlayStation 3, XboxXbox One via backwards compatibility, and the PlayStation 4 and PC via PlayStation Now. The game follows the title character, the demigod Asura as he seeks revenge on the pantheon of other demigods who betrayed him.
  • In Dragon Ball Z: Dokkan Battle, there are two cards based upon the Journey to the West inspired outfits worn by Goku and Gohan. Goku's is called Courage to the Max! Goku card and Gohan's is Brazen Courage Gohan (Kid) card. Both cards are Legendary Rare cards that feature Super Attacks featuring Goku and Gohan wielding their respective Power Poles (Gohan's Power Pole design features a more Journey to the West-style design rather than the Dragon Ball style design of Goku's Power Pole). Both characters ride a Flying Nimbus to fit the Sun Wukong motif.
  • In Dragon Ball Xenoverse, there is an unlockable Saiyuki outfit which is described as a Journey to the West-style outfit, which can be unlocked by making a wish of "I want to dress up!" to Shenron. It is based on the Journey to the West inspired outfit worn by Gohan on Manga cover page for DBZ: 13 "Son Gohan, capital one car loan login Inconsolable" and Gohan also wears the same outfit in Detekoi Tobikiri Zenkai Power!. There is also an NPC Shapeshifter Nema who also wears the costume as part of one of her transformations, though she has no idea as to who the transformation is supposed to be.
  • In Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2, the Saiyuki outfit, Saiyuki Hood, Journey to the West Costume, and Journey to the West Hood can be unlocked. The Journey to the West Costume & Hood is based on the outfit worn by Goku dressed as a Journey to the West character.
    • After the Update, the Future Warrior can purchase Gifts which are special costumes that they can give to Instructors which can then be worn via Partner Customization. Gift (Goku) unlocks Goku's Journey to the West Costume for Goku to wear (it comes complete with Hood though the Hood will be removed when Goku transforms into any of his available Super Saiyan forms). Gift (Gohan (Kid)) unlocks his Saiyuki Costume (Journey to the West Costume) from DBZ: 13 "Son Gohan, the Inconsolable" and Detekoi Tobikiri Zenkai Power! (it also comes complete with Hood as well). Both Gifts can be purchased at the TP Medal Shop for TP Medals ( TP for both Gifts).

References

External links

Источник: mynewextsetup.us
Istorija

Literature / Journey to the West

mynewextsetup.us

Journey to the West (Traditional: &#;&#;&#;; Simplified: &#;&#;&#;; Pinyin: X&#; Yóu Jì; Pronounced roughly shee-yo-jee) is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature alongside Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin, and Dream of the Red Chamber, and first published in the s, although it is plainly based on much older folk-legends. It is Inspired by&#; the pilgrimage undertaken by the Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang, who nearly a thousand years earlier travelled to India to study Buddhism at its source and obtain accurate copies of Buddhist texts (the "Three Baskets Scriptures") known in China only through inaccurate nth-generation copies.

In the novel, Xuanzangnote Xuanzang is also called Sanzang, which is the name of the Three Baskets Scriptures in Chinese, or Tripitaka, which is their name in Sanskrit. is accompanied (at the request of the bodhisattva Guan Yin) by three supernatural beings who have been assigned to guide and protect him as penance for past misdeeds. Zhu Bajie, pig-like in appearance and a greedy hog in behavior, and Sha Wujing, a river monster whose fierce appearance belies his thoughtful nature, are former heavenly dignitaries exiled to their current existences. The third companion is Sun Wukong.

Sun Wukong deserves a paragraph to himself. Warrior, magician, and trickster, the Handsome Monkey King (by acclamation of his subjects) and Great Sage Equal of Heaven (self-proclaimed) gets seven chapters devoted to his rise and fall before the novel's nominal hero first appears, and continues to steal the limelight throughout with practiced ease. Every reader has a favourite Sun Wukong story — the one about his bet with the Buddha is particularly popular — but south florida state college campus map, this page is too small to do them all justice. He also hastons and tons of imitators.

There's also Yulong, a dragon who eats Xuanzang's horse and in restitution is required to transform into horse shape and carry Xuanzang the rest of the way. But even the author seems to forget most of the time that he's not just a horse.

After many adventures, in which Sun Wukong and his allies defend Xuanzang from thieves, robbers, cannibals, vamps, false priests and wlbz weather bangor maine of all varieties (not to mention the horrifying affair of the escaped goldfish), they reach India and everybody lives happily ever after. Yay!

Journey to the West has been adapted to television many times - especially in Japan, where the story is called Saiyuki and the characters are Genjo Sanzo, Cho Hakkai, Sha Gojo, and Son Goku (all just the on'yomi Japanese reading of the Chinese character names). Many anime series have at least one Shout-Out, and some go for outright plunder (from Gensomaden Saiyuki to, of all things, Dragon Ball - yes, that Son Goku was inspired directly by and named after this Son Goku). One Japanese live-action adaption of the s, and its thoroughly gender-bent cast (the role of Xuanzang/Tripitaka/Genjo Sanzo is traditionally played by a woman), is still fondly remembered simply as Monkey in English-speaking countries from the irreverent (almost Gag Dub) BBC translated version, with its annoyingly catchy disco theme-song "Monkey Magic" (directly taken from the Japanese broadcast where it was also sung in Surprisingly Good English). The most recent TV adaptation as of this writing is 's Journey to the West. Another notable Japanese adaptation was a film by none other than Osamu Tezuka that was localized in the west as Alakazam the Great; this film, while generally obscure, is best known for being the inspiration for Bowser from the Super Mario Bros. series.

While it is popular in Japan, it's omnipresent in its native China. For example, there was a s Journey to the West TV series in China that was so popular, it's said that to this day there's always at least one television station rerunning it anywhere in the nation (and also in Vietnam, where it's victoria secret perfume black angel as famous and widely loved.) The show is amusing even if you don't understand Chinese.

The tetralogy from Shaw Brothers made in the late 60s, The Monkey Goes West, is in particular the first instance of a ground-breaking adaptation of the novel series. Jeff Lau's A Chinese Odyssey films renewed the popularity of the novel for young Hong Kong audiences during the mid-'90s.

The movie The Forbidden Kingdom adapts the encounter of Xuanzang and Sun Wukong, complete with the "main" character being named Jason Tripitakas, and just like in Journey to the West, Xuanzang/Jason has the carpet pulled out from under him by the Monkey King.

The team responsible for Gorillaz, Damon Albarn (of Blur) and Jamie Hewlett (of Tank Girl fame), adapted the story into an opera in They also did a two-minute animated version for the Beijing Olympic Games, which was used as a title sequence for the BBC television coverage of the event.

There are many works based, more or less, on Journey to the West; for a list, see the Referenced By page. (The distinction between "based on Journey to the West" and "contains many references to Journey to the West" is not always clear.)

You can read the whole story here.


This story provides examples of:

  • Achilles in His Tent: When Wukong quits the quest (sometimes at the same time as being fired by Tang Sang Zang) he goes back to his mountain kingdom of monkey demons, and does not come back until Tang Sanzang has been turned into a tiger and everyone has been trounced by the demon. Bajie is sent to plead for Wukong's help, but he doesn't succeed until he tricks Wukong by saying the demon was insulting him.
  • Action Girl: Several she-devils qualify as this when they're not busy seducing Tripitaka. Bonus points if they are animal demons and have fighting styles that match, i.e. spider demons.
  • Adaptational Attractiveness: The original novel gleefully describes how hideous Tripitaka's three disciples are at every opportunity (Wukong apparently has red eyes and a "face like a thunder god"), and it's even a minor plot point at several parts. Most of the adaptations - especially the cartoons - tone this down a lot.
  • Adaptational Heroism: The portrayals of Sun Wukong and Rabobank secure login Sanzang in the novel aren't so noble compared to the more popular adaptations. In the original, Sun Wukong lacks mercy in countless instances and Tang Sanzang is continually naive and acts inconsistently or even hypocritically. Their two-dimensional individual characterization and negative portrayals can both be explained by dissonance with today's values, and also by the fact that the novel's main characters were intended to be an allegory for the state of a single individual's spiritual journey - each character represents a different aspect of human nature.
  • Adaptation Species Change: Probably due to some form of Lost in Translation. Sha Wujing was originally a demon dwelling in a river of sand. When the story was brought over to Japan, it seems the part about the river being sand got left out, and so Sha Wujing, now Sha Gojyo, was turned into their river-dwelling man-eating (ish) monster, the kappa, hence why all Japanese references to Sha Gojyo at least give him kappa traits.
  • A Day in the Limelight: Whenever the enemy has a lair underwater, and only then, Sha Wujing and Zhu Bajie will outshine Wukong.
  • Adventure-Friendly World: Ur-Example. Humans are clustered together in walled-off cities, with all the land in between being infested with man-eating demons, but the cities themselves are somehow demon-free (with a few exceptions) despite this. Even within the cities, there seems to always be a quest of some sort in need of conveniently-timed protagonists to solve, usually involving killing something and/or proving the righteousness of Buddhism in some way.
  • Almighty Janitor:
    • When Wukong demands a place in Heaven near the beginning, he gets assigned the job of Heavenly Stable Boy. This becomes a Chekhov's Skill later in the story because all horses gain an innate respect/fear for Wukong because of this. Cultural joke because monkeys were once kept with horses because people believed they could keep horses healthy. Wukong's literal title for this job is "Ban Horse Plague."
    • Bajie's reward for completing the quest is to become the deity who is charged with actually eating all of the food and drink that is sacrificed to Buddha from every altar in the world, for the rest of eternity. Buddha explains that Bajie, for all he improved, is still far too crude and earthy to become a Boddhistva like the others, but he still deserves a reward and it was hoped that this would suffice. Needless to say, as far as Bajie is concerned, he has the best job in Heaven.
  • Always Someone Better:
    • Sun Wukong manages to thrash the entire celestial army, but Erlang Shen matches him in single combat. You can read more into this if you remember Erlang Shen is supposed to have the same powers as Wukong. Also an example of Conservation of Ninjutsu.
    • The Buddha is the one who finally and definitively subdues Wukong by winning their bet and dropping a mountain on him.
    • Wukong also respects/fears the Goddess of Mercy Guanyin because she's got a bunch of equipment that can genuinely hurt him (such as the infamous the Headband of Agony), but also because she's usually nice to him and helps them out.
    • In the book it's implied that the Big Three Religions/Representative Heads (Buddhism/Buddha, Taoism/Laozi, Confucianism/Jade Emperor) are having a power struggle in the background. Buddhism consistently wins out in many instances, although Laozi likes to show off every now and again too. The author also makes it a point that Buddha is the one that beats Wukong, and that Wukong has only kowtowed to three people: Buddha, Guanyin, and Xuanzang.
  • Ascend to a Higher Plane of Existence: Xuanzang and company after they successfully bring back the sacred scriptures. At least, Xuanzang and Wukong do. Bajie and Wujing were already immortals in the first place, and Wujing gets the best promotion as arhat. The dragon horse gets to be a naga.
  • Badass Boast: These are frequent and often in verse. Usually proceeded by "Listen to my recital." Can be about everything from powers, to weapons, to really simple things. In later chapters, Wukong and Bajie do this just to recite their backstory for the demons' benefit.
  • Big Damn Heroes: Sun Wukong and Zhu Bajie do it all the time. The dragon horse tried it once, but didn't succeed. Wujing does not get to do this.
  • Blade on a Stick: This is ancient China, so expect to see spears and halberds everywhere. And long, swoony poetry about their weapons.
  • Blow You Away:
    • The Yellow Wind Demon King, whose fiendish winds can blind even Sun Wukong.
    • One Fetch Quest was to get a magical fan so that they could blow out a supernaturally powerful volcano and pass through the area unharmed. Unfortunately, said magical fan was owned by Princess Iron Fan, the mother of Red Boy (Hong Hai'er), whose ass Wukong had soundly kicked in an earlier story arc. Princess Iron Fan is not very welcoming. Unfortunately, they not only cannot continue on the quest without blowing out the volcano, the volcano was created by Wukong when he burst out of Laozi's Eight Trigrams Brazier.
  • Boring Return Journey: The journey to the West takes 86 chapters. The return to the East (with supernatural assistance loaned by the Buddha) takes 1.
  • Bring My Brown Pants: Literally happens to Baije during one run-in with a monster though he has the decency to drop trou.
  • Broken Aesop: Buddhism is supposedly very important. In contrast, most of the conflicts are solved through a combination of cunning and violence.
  • &#;But He Sounds Handsome: In chapter 42, Sun Wukong takes the appearance of the father of Red Boy (Hong Hai'er), a monster who kidnapped his master. Under this disguise, he tells the monster that Sun Wukong is an unrivaled fighter.
  • Can't Default to Murder: Sun Wukong frequently has to be held back from killing people by the Buddhist monk Xuanzang via the enchanted headband stuck on his head, even when it's genuinely the best solution.
  • Carry a Big Stick:
    • Wukong's weapon is an iron rod/cudgel that is able used mobile home axles for sale near me grow to an enormous size and is said to weigh kg. (Acquired, full size, from an undersea dragon king that had no idea what to do with it. Which was then journey to the west sandy with monkey magic. And put behind Wukong's ear.) It also qualifies as Simple Staff, or at least this is how Wukong usually uses it.
    • Sha Wujing and several other demons frequently employ clubs and hammers as weapons.
  • Casanova Wannabe: The story introduces you to Bajie as a demon that Wukong must subdue, because he pretended to be a normal man and convinced a rich man to marry off his daughter to him. After he got drunk at the wedding and his disguise wore off, he locked the girl in a part of the house and refused to let her leave. As the story goes on, Bajie fights a continual battle against gluttony and lust. (The whole reason he ended up as a pig-demon in the first place was that he made inappropriate remarks to Chang'E, the goddess of the moon. In one translation, he actually committed sexual harassment/tried to rape her.) Bajie does not improve by the end of the story, although that's largely because he represents the base human desires/id, including sexual desire.
  • Cave Behind the Falls: Sun Wukong's home and some other fiendish lairs. Wukong's home is literally behind a giant waterfall. He becomes the Handsome Monkey King by betting the other monkeys he could jump through the waterfall. He does, finds the beautiful cavern home, and duly is crowned the Monkey King.
  • Celestial Bureaucracy: All of reality works because of the Emperor issuing decrees to lesser officials who do a given duty. For instance, he tells a water dragon where to send rain. Sun Wukong occasionally uses his connections/influence with certain officials to acquire some object or other objective. For someone who was sentenced as a criminal twice by Heaven, he gets along shockingly well with many Heavenly immortals. During the quest he manages to borrow a number of precious objects from other immortals, and also gets a few of them to help him fight off the demons.
  • Celibate Hero: Xuanzang is a celibate monk, but keeps getting abducted by beautiful women and female demons who find him attractive, good to eat, or both because of the rumor that eating Xuanzang would grant you immortality and magical power. For female demons, they get the option of not only eating Xuanzang, but also having sex with him to achieve the same goal. The big deal, is that the female demons only want him for sex, which depending on the monster is either physically harmless (Xuanzang considers it A Fate Worse Than Death) or Out with a Bang. Either way, they want him to make the first move and keep it consensual. Then there's the part that by having him consent to journey to the west sandy, he would be breaking his vows which is kind of important. Because monks believe that you should preserve your inner "essence" and not have sex, having sex was believed to remove some of that essence from you.
  • Character Development: Just as important as kicking demon-ass is Monkey's personal journey to becoming a decent person. He is not so much fundamentally-bad as he is a selfish Manchild who needed the guidance of a loving, patient and wise father-figure to truly grow up, which he found in Tripitaka. By the time he is deemed worthy of truly joining the Gods at the end of his journey, he has grown from a tantrum-throwing tyrant into a kind-hearted, compassionate and noble protector of the weak.
  • Chronic Hero Syndrome: The Journey would not have taken nearly so long if Xuanzang didn't insist on helping everyone they met along the way. However, this is part of the point of the journey; we find out that 81 trials/hardships are demanded by the Buddha as part of their quest to reach enlightenment, and he even adds an extra one after they've finally gotten the scriptures and are on their way back because he realized they're still one short.
  • Conservation of Ninjutsu: Any time a large group of nameless beings appear expect them to be be defeated by a single character to showcase how powerful said character is.
    • In the opening chapter, Monkey almost single-handedly with the aid of his clones routs the best warriors of Heaven along withheavenly troops only to be defeated by Erlang Shen.
    • Whenever the group encounters large numbers of nameless demons expect Monkey or Pigsy to kill all of them on their own.
    • Monkey suffers from this whenever he uses he makes copies of himself once the journey begins. The demon he is fighting always has a power or weapon that defeats the copies.
  • Continuity Nod: Occasionally the group will meet characters they met earlier or talk about previous adventures, such as the "River of Heaven" arc where Xuanzang complains about always having trouble at river crossings.
  • Cool Sword: Many demons wield trolls hello is it me you re looking for and swords in battle. The most notable one is the Seven Star Sword.
  • Covering for the Noise: In the animated adaptation, Zhu Bajie was supposed to be pretending to be a mute to remain undercover. However when he speaks in agreement and almost tips off the authorities, Sun Wukong covers for him by saying that was the sound of his stomach growling.
  • Crossover Cosmology: Taoism and Confucianism with their immortals and celestial bureaucracy is shown as existing in (sorta) harmony with the bodhisattvas of Buddhism.
  • Deus ex Machina: Whenever Wukong can't resolve something himself, he generally goes to Guan Yin for help, or if it's beyond her abilities, Buddha himself. He's also lodged his share of complaints against the Celestial Court.
  • Diabolus ex Nihilo: The Scorpion-Woman. There were no mountains (for once) so she literally just appears in a crowd.
  • Did You Just Flip Off Cthulhu?: Wukong's various pranks during the banquet of Heaven.
  • Did You Just Punch Out Cthulhu?:
    • Wukong beats up whole armies, including several gods.
    • By the time of the journey, he already is one of the strongest and most feared of all beings but the Scorpion Lady, who has managed to hurt Buddha himself in the past, manages to defeat Wukong with one tail strike.
  • Disproportionate Retribution: Sh&#; Wùjìng, a general of heaven, was given lashings, forced to reincarnate into a flesh-eating demon, and every week a flying sword would come and stab him in the breast and in the side times. The only way he could avoid this last part was to hide in a river. His crime? Aula virtual uib breaking a crystal cup at one of the Festivals of Immortal Peaches.
  • Distressed Dude: Being abducted (for food or otherwise), deceived and generally harassed seems to be a main occupation of Xuanzang. Usually just to show how badass Sun Wukong is.
  • The Dreaded: Sun Wukong once fought every army in Heaven. Alone. And almost won. Anyone who knows who he is tends to freak out and panic in his presence purely because of how nightmarishly powerful he is, even people who are on his side.
  • Do Not Taunt Cthulhu: Wukong finally meets his match with Buddha, who imprisons him for years under a mountain after he wins their bet. The bet was that Wukong could somersault out of Buddha's palm. He does, and sees five pillars at the end of the earth. Wukong writes Great Sage Equal vans chima review Heaven was Here, and then pees on one of the pillars, and somersaults back. Then Buddha shows him his hand, which says the same message on it and even smells faintly of monkey pee. Buddha then flips his hand over and traps him under the Five Phases Mountain to lie there until Guanyin recruits him for Xuanzang's journey.
  • Doorstopper: As per usual with the Chinese classics, unspooling all those logograms into letters can bulk the text up to ~ pages. Due to the book's episodic nature, more "Western friendly" translations deal with the problem by sticking only to the essential stories.
    • For example, the abridgement by Arthur Whaley (missing out most of the chapters and nearly all of the poetry) is about a fifth the size of the full 4-volume translation by Anthony Yu
  • Enlightenment Superpower: Many of Sun Wukong's powers, including the shapeshifting, the ability to summon duplicates of himself, and the ability to leap large distances in a single bound, were gained as side-effects of studying the secrets of the universe under the sage Subhuti. Subhuti eventually asked him to leave when he realized he was more interested in the superpowers than the enlightenment, and forbids Wukong from telling anyone who he learned his skills from.
  • Everything's Better with Monkeys: Sun Wukong, the handsome king of the monkeys!
  • Evil Twin: After Wukong is falsely accused of murdering some bandits, Xuanzang kicks him out of the group again and Wukong runs off in tears. Then Xuanzang runs into another Wukong that knocks him out and steals their stuff. By the end of the story, the whole team ends up with their own Dopplegangers; naturally, Sun Wukong's is the hardest to deal with. Buddha later explains the fake Wukong is actually a six-eared macaque, although the animal had never been heard of before and never again makes an appearance in the series. The fake Wukong could represent Xuanzang's own false beliefs about Wukong's character, and at the end he is set right. Conspiracy theories have suggested it could have been Wukong's own double, and he did it to get back at Xuanzang.
  • Find Out Next Time: Each chapter ends with the narrator encouraging the reader to proceed to the next chapter to find out what happens next.
    • This may be a throwback to the oral storytelling tradition, where a marketplace storyteller would entice his audience to come back (and pay him again) the next day to hear another part of the story.
  • Giant Spider: The Seven Spider Ladies. Bonus points for them being sexy and having webs everywhere.
  • Gone Swimming, Clothes Stolen: In chapter 72, the seven spider ladies are bathing in a hot spring. Sun Wukong in the guise of a falcon steals their clothes, so they are forced to stay in the water until Zhu Bajie attacks them.
  • Horny Devils: At least three female demons (the Scorpion Woman, the Earth Flow Lady and the Jade Hare) are very beautiful and want to achieve immortality by taking Tripitaka's "yang". (or having sex journey to the west sandy him, if you prefer.) Literal evil temptation.
  • Horrible Judge of Character: Sanzang always, always, always thinks that he's being approached by a harmless old lady, or a nice stranger offering their Sacred Hospitality for the night, or
  • Human Pack Mule: The horse carries Xuanzang, but Zhu Bajie carries everything else — when he's not convincing Sha Wujing to do it for him.
  • I Ate WHAT?!: Sun Wukong, Zhu Bajie and Sha Wujing trick some Taoists into drinking their urine by passing it off as holy water. The Taoists get mad and challenge the four travelers to various magical challenges, like meditating on a stack of tables, using magic to survive decapitation, and taking a bath in boiling oil. Wukong makes sure to succeed in all of them, and then uses the challenges to kill off each of the Taoists.
  • Impossible Task: Jumping out of the Buddha's palm. Monkey's legendary leap only takes him to the end of the Buddha's fingers. It's an allegory.
  • Improbable Weapon User: Zhu Bajie's nine jade-toothed rake. Other examples include pots, bells, cymbals, an iron gorse, a scraper and a pestle. That said, a weapon that looked very much like a rake was actually used as a part of Chinese warfare at one point.
  • In a Single Bound: Wukong can travel ", li" in a single backflip.note That's about 35, to 45, kilometres depending on what definition you use for "li", an ancient Chinese unit of length that has varied considerably over the centuries. For comparison, the length of the equator is about 40, km. It's basically hyperbole for "a very long distance" and is a significant number in Buddhism, because it's a multiple of nine.
  • Indy Ploy: What Sun Wukong usually does after Xuanzang gets kidnapped again, only his go off like he's really Crazy-Prepared. At one point, Sun Wukong lampshades this, by explaining to another character the structure of a typical adventure episode.
  • Informed Ability: Tripitaka's much-vaunted holiness is undercut by his tendency to tell petty lies, how easily he can be swayed by Bajie, his readiness to torture Sun Wukong, and the fact that his Buddhist stoicism breaks down any time he thinks his journey might be delayed. He also stops asking his disciples not to kill after the first couple of times. Allegorical as he represents the normal person and their struggle between human nature and enlightenment.
  • Jerkass Gods:
    • Sun Wukong, journey to the west sandy his imprisonment, literally beats up, steals from, and terrorizes nearly everyone he meets. He scares a Dragon God to such an extent that he gives Wukong the nail holding the Milky Way in place just to get him out of his house. He gets better sort of.
    • After they collect the scriptures, the Buddha's servants hand over a bunch of blank scrolls after realising that the pilgrims didn't bring any gifts, although Buddha does comment that blank scriptures like them are true scriptures. Zen, eh?
    • While Xuanzang and co. were being flown back to China by the Eight Vajrapanis, Guanyin asked how many ordeals they had suffered on their way to him. After finding out it was 80, she decided to have them go through another one because they were one short of the number required to reach the truth, and as soon as the Vajrapanis hear of the command they instantly drop the group where they are.
    • All the gods in the series, to some extent, are this. They know full well that they can subdue all the monsters on Earth and save countless humans, yet they refuse to do so. It's only when the monsters get in Xuanzang's way that they decide to take action. The fact that many monsters were formerly their pets, and only became monsters because they failed to contain them increases their moral failing. Sort of excused by saying that Heaven orchestrated this whole journey for Xuanzang, and made sure there were enough demons along the way to challenge him. But Heaven can also just be cruel in general
    • In one story, a kingdom had been suffering under a heavy drought for years, because the king once had an argument with his wife and he got so mad he overturned the table of offerings for Heaven onto the floor. Then he let the dogs clean it up. To answer this double insult, Heaven organized for a mountain of rice, a mountain of flour, and a padlock hanging above a single lamp. Until this one chicken ate all the rice, and one dog licked up all the flour, AND the padlock finally melted, Heaven would not grant rain to the kingdom.
  • Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Wukong, journey to the west sandy he was stuck under a rock for a few centuries, is so grateful to Xuanzang that he swears everlasting loyalty (though Xuanzang, being a monk, doesn't approve of Wukong's more violent problem solving methods).
  • Just Eat Him: Some larger devils try to get rid of Sun Wukong by swallowing him. They end up with an awful case of stomach ache to say the least. In some stories Wukong realizes how effective his threats are when he says them inside someone's stomach, so he actively finds ways to get swallowed in order to rescue Xuanzang.
  • Killer Rabbit: Even a goldfish can turn into a fearsome ogre. To make it worse, it was one of Guanyin's goldfish, and the demon had been forcing the village to sacrifice small children for him to eat once a year.
  • Kilroy Was Here: Wukong leaves his name (and piss) on what he thinks is a mighty pillar when trying to escape from Buddha's grasp. Nope, those were Buddha's fingers. It's an allegory.
  • Knight Templar: Sun Wukong can be like this when it comes to dealing with demons and bandits, all of whom he sees as evil monsters who prey on the weak (especially those who want to eat Xuanzang). This is most notably seen during the White Bone Demon and the Doppelgänger chapters. In some adaptations, Xuanzong kicks Wukong out not because of what he did (like killing an innocent human which was actually a demon in disguise or a group of bandits), but because of his Knight Templarish attitude.
  • Let's You and Him Fight: Zhu Bajie and Sha Wujing each fight Sun Wukong before discovering that they're on the same side. Then they each give up their demon lifestyle and become one of Xuanzang's disciples.
  • Last of His Kind: The 6-eared Macaque. Then Wukong makes sure the species is extinct.
  • Living Forever Is Awesome: There are no end to mortals who 'cultivated their conduct' and/or 'refined their spirit' to become immortal and love it. The Wuzhuang temple has a community of immortals because of a ginsheng tree that produces life extending fruit and are extremely protective of it. The Jade Emperor has immortality-granting peaches and immortality wine, and Laozi can make immortality pills. Wukong manages to consume a surprising amount of all of these things.
    • Many yaoguai are either secretly minor immortals or immortal creatures, or are animals that have cultivated their conduct and begun working towards enlightenment.
  • MacGuffin: The Three Baskets scriptures in the Thunder Monastery are the reason for the pilgrimage.
  • Made of Indestructium: Wukong survived being thrown into a brazier first federal midwest online banking with samadhi fire, said to be able to kill immortals and gods, for 49 days! That he had previously gorged himself on the Peaches of Immortality, the Elixir of Immortality, and the Pills of Immortality helped. In fact, all the fire did (having originally been used to produce the immortality medicines) was cause them to harden inside his body, making him not just immortal but Made of Diamond as well. The smoke of the fire also affected Wukong's eyes, granting him the ability to see through illusions, disguises and transformations. Some versions of the story however state that Wukong survived because he stood in the currents of wind made by the fanning of the servants to keep the fire going. Either way, Heaven really screwed itself over big time.
  • Mister Seahorse: Although it was averted before something actually happened, there is a section of the novel (beginning in chapter 53) about Sun Wukong going to retrieve a pregnancy antidote because Zhu Bajie and Xuanzang unknowingly drank magical pregnancy-inducing river water flowing through a town filled with nothing but women. Wukong then has to fight a demon that's been hoarding the magical abortion water to himself, before Bajie and Xuanzang have to give birth.
  • Morphic Resonance: An extreme case — although his 72 transformations include many perfectly shaped animal disguises, Sun Wukong can only turn his head into that of a human and must conceal the rest of his body. His tail also comically never seems to cooperate with the transformations.
  • Munchkin: Sun Wukong's abilities are utterly over the top.
    • Small list of examples: Flying on either a magical cloud or by turning somersaults that propel him several tens of thousands of miles with each turn, changing into 72 different shapes, being able to change his hairs into different shapes (such as dozens of miniature versions of himself to help fight), see through illusions of all sorts, Super Strength, can't die due to a mixture of having crossed himself out of the Book of the Dead and eating immortality substances before being baked in a divine furnace, and is able to see for miles. And then there are his abilities to see through illusions, disguises and transformations, manipulate the wind, part the waters, create barriers, summon gods, walk through fire unharmed, survive underwater, pass through metal and rock, walk on Solid Clouds, freeze any kind of creature, including demons and gods, or make them fall asleep, have horses listen to his every whim, learn new spells with just a few glances and the bare minimum of instruction and open any lock. Wukong also has great knowledge of medicine and his 72 transformations actually allow him to take the form of anyone and anything, including growing extra body parts and transforming other objects by spitting his blood on it. Wukong can go as far as turning objects into living beings and then using them as puppets (though they lack souls. Movement and speech needs to be programmed into them). Add in Wukong's indestructibility plus his ability to fly across the Earth with a single somersault and you've got the most bizarre/awesome set of powers in classic literature.
    • In one instance, Wukong acts as a traditional Chinese medicine doctor and takes a king's pulse and diagnosis, in another room, with only some thread tied to the king's wrist. The diagnosis was heartache and severe constipation. In another instance, Wukong puts out a fire happening miles away by taking a glass of wine and throwing it behind him.
    • This is partly because Chinese mythology largely does not have specific hardline rules regarding powers. Some deities have specialties, but very few specific limits and even less regard for rules like physics. The overarching theme is that Heaven still holds all the cards, and you are merely a pawn on Heaven's chessboard. You can't fight destiny or change your fate. As a political allegory, Wukong is refreshing as a character with the ability to see the truth and the strength to see it through, no matter how powerful the higher authority is or how restrictive the class hierarchy is. It's a novel concept for a culture deeply steeped in Confucianism's idea of don't rock the boat.
  • Nepotism: Why the Black River God couldn't get the celestial bureaucracy to kick out Tuolong/Kid Croc after he usurped the river. Ironically, Tuolong's uncle, the Western Dragon King Ao Run was very not okay with said usurpation.
  • Non-Action Guy: Xuanzang does nothing but pray and complain and despair. Ironically, his nine-ringed staff is a khakkhara, which monks can use to fight with. He does not use it to fight.
  • Not in This for Your Revolution: The other main characters keybank center box office all bound to Xuanzang out of duty rather than personal choice to begin with. Though all three, to varying degrees, come to genuinely care about the monk as a father-figure.
  • Not Quite Flight: Wukong travels via very, very powerful jumping. Either that or riding on a cloud.
  • One-Man Army: During the journey, Wukong is able to fight and defeat just about every Mook, Elite Mook and the fricking Dragon of the Heavens, each said to fight like a god himself. Before that, he fought the heavenly army ofstrong at the same time, ripped through heaven's greatest champions and not just survived every single thing they could throw at him, but HE GOT EVEN STRONGER. By the time he was punished by the Buddha, he was on the brink of actually becoming the Emperor of Heaven himself.
  • Only the Chosen May Wield: The Dragon King of the Eastern Ocean has in his armory a piece of magic iron that was used to measure the depth of the Milky Way. It is 20 feet long and as thick as a barrel. No one can lift it. Then one day it begins to glow, selco community credit union online banking soon Wukong arrives seeking a weapon. He picks up the rod and tells it to become smaller: it shrinks to fit him (but is still as thick as a rice bowl and weighs many thousand pounds). He can get it to be any size he wants, and when not in use, he reduces it to the size of a needle and stores it in his ear.
  • Only You Can Repopulate My Race: During a hilarious incident in a kingdom entirely populated by women. They can reproduce without him via a magic spring, but they understandably want men too. Poor, poor Xuanzang
  • Our Dragons Are Different: Probably they're the least dangerous type of demons met by Sun Wukong.
    • It may also be culture shock for some to walmart credit card login com the Dragon Kings talk and act like regular people, including having pretty human-looking wives. Generally they are depicted as standing upright, wearing richly-made silk robes, and participating in Heaven's bureaucracy.
    • Xuanzang rides one, after the dragon submits to being made into a horse as penance for his errors. The dragon is also a prince, and like the other dragons, can turn into a human.
  • Our Vampires Are Different: The Lady of the Earth Flow is actually the spirit of an albino bat/rat, dual wields swords and has a bit of Horny Devils too.
  • Out of Focus: As one DeviantArt user said, "No one likes you, Yu Lung. Not even your dad." The author even seems to occasionally forget he's not a real horse and what few moments of action he does are only because Wukong's gone and everyone else has been captured. He also never gets an actual name, and is only referred to by different nicknames.
  • Paper Fan of Doom: The Banana Leaf Fan, which manipulates fire. The aptly named Iron Fan Princess wields a magical fan which can Blow You Away.
  • Playing with Fire: Several examples, including the Gold Horned King's Banana Leaf Fan, Red Boy's Samadhi of Fire and a magical bell which can summon flames.
  • Plot Hole: Early on, Stone Monkey and a bunch of other monkeys find a palace in a cave behind a waterfall. The palace has bowls of food, plates, and beds, but no actual inhabitants. Rather than ponder who built this palace and where the inhabitants went, thy just set up shop in there themselves. Fortunately for them nobody ever comes home to kick them out.
  • Purple Prose: It's not purple is hemp milk good for you, it's friggin' purple poetry, but descriptive asides peppering the novel defy any other definition. It gets downright florid when they reach Thorn Ridge and Xuanzang takes part in essentially a freestyle poetry jam with some magical sentient human-looking trees. One is an female apricot tree that tries to seduce him after he's shown off his superior poetry skills.
  • Physical God: Ironically, The Buddha matches this much, much better than the gods themselves. This is as much a translation issue than anything else as Eastern gods aren't really equivalent to the Western idea of such.
  • Quest to the West: The whole premise and reason for the novel is Xuanzang has to bring the holy Three Baskets sutras from India, and he needs protection and help on the way, opening the way to a lot of wacky hijinks. This four-people quest format has led to a lot of adaptations and loosely inspired works, such as Inuyasha.
  • Rage Against the Heavens: Sun Wukong takes on the Celestial Bureaucracy single-handed and almost wins.
  • Redemption Quest: The whole reason Sun Wukong and the other bodyguards go on the quest is to earn redemption for past crimes.
  • Remember When You Blew Up a Sun?: Any given story arc has a good chance of someone mentioning how Monkey trashed Heaven years ago.
  • Restraining Bolt: Sun Wukong has a circlet around his head which contracts if Xuanzang chants a sutra and is most often used when Wukong goes on a There Is No Kill Like Overkill rampage. Rather hilariously, his demon companions trick Xuanzang into saying the word every chance they get. It becomes particularly relevant to the plot when dealing with the Evil Twin.
    • Allegorical as Wukong represents Xuanzang's mind and an enlightened mind. There are times when Xuanzang doesn't believe Wukong is telling the truth and punishes him by giving him magical migraines, thus showing that Xuanzang isn't enlightened yet.
  • Rhino Rampage: The three rhino kings near the end. The Rhinoceros King, despite his name and single horn, is actually a bull.
  • Running Gag: Whenever Xuanzang is in trouble, Zhu Bajie suggests that he, Sun Wukong and Sha Wujing should share out the luggage and go back to where they came from.
  • Seductive Spider: The series spider-demoness and her cronies, shapeshifting spider-women who tries to seduce Tripitaka into giving up his quest and submitting under their order. Their default forms are giant spiders, while there are adaptations that depicts them as the classical half-woman half-spider seductress.
  • Shapeshifter Showdown:
    • Early in the story, Sun Wukong transforms himself to escape the god Erlang. However, Erlang's magical third eye gives him an advantage, as no matter what form Wukong takes, Erlang can see through the disguise and transform into an appropriate predator. Wukong tries to make a last escape by disguising himself as a temple, but Erlang catches him and ultimately brings the Monkey King to Heaven for trial.
    • During the journey itself, Sun Wukong engages in another such battle against the Bull Demon King. It climaxes with the Bull Demon King turning into his true form, a colossal white bull, and Wukong making himself gigantic in turn. The ensuing Behemoth Battle proves so intense that the gods have to intervene and help Sun Wukong subdue the Bull Demon King for good.
  • Side Quest: Take a drink every time Wukong and company get sidetracked because 1) Xuanzang got kidnapped and/or 2) the locals are being menaced by a demon.
    • Take a drink everytime Wukong or someone else mentions his past conflict with Heaven, or whenever Bajie is complaining or being lazy.
  • Spell My Name with an "S": Sun Wukong's teacher, Bodhi/Bhuti/Subhuti/Xuputi.
  • Spotlight-Stealing Squad: Thy name is Sun Wukong.
  • Stock Shout-Out: The modus operandi of many East Asian artists seems to be: "When really, really, really stumped for ideas, nick them from Journey To The West."
  • Stock Wushu Weapons: Nearly all the immortals and monsters encountered are experts of martial arts to varying extents. When they aren't Improbable Weapon User (rakes, pestles, triangular canes), they tend to wield the appropriate weapons, including sabers, polearms, spears and axes. Curiously enough, there are only two istances in the novel where Sun Wukong and his opponent actually engange in proper weaponless kung fu.
  • Stupid Good: Every time a demon disguises itself as a human in peril, you can wager your donkey that Xuanzang will insist on helping said disguised demon. Despite knowing that demons can take human form, and that Wukong can see through their disguises, Xuanzang gladly ignores Wukong's advice because he's just that compassionate of a guy. Only once in the entire book, in one of the later chapters, does he consider that Wukong might be right only to revert back to Stupid Good when the demon (disguised as a child) puts on the puppy dog eyes. This is justified by the very fact that he is suppose to be a really good Buddhist monk. It wouldn't be particularly Buddhist to be selectively compassionate and only help the people he wants to help.
  • Summon Bigger Fish: As powerful as Sun Wukong and his companions are, occasionally they encounter threats beyond their ability to deal with. Often, they have to get help from Guan Yin, Buddha, or other gods to help subdue the demons they are fighting. Or, very occasionally, the horse, when the author actually remembers that said horse is a transformed dragon. This also lets the author do immortal cameos with Nezha and other important deities.
  • Supernaturally Delicious and Nutritious: Xuanzang is considered a "super food" by demons because of his high degree of holiness.
  • Superpower Lottery:
    • Sun Wukong almost won it, if not for the fact that he's almost useless in water.
    • Amongst his opponents there's the Rhinoceros King, whose ring can suck in every single weapon you use against him, including Sun Wukong's rod, the weaponry of a whole army of gods and an army of flame beasts.
  • Take That!: Some scholars believe that the work is one against the decadent government at the time.
  • That's No Moon!: Those weren't pillars that Wukong vandalized, those were Budda's fingers!
  • This Was His True Form: Inverted — Many of the antagonists are wild animals that have learned to mimic human form (the Chinese version of the henge described on the obake page); they revert to their true form when killed.
  • Too Dumb to Live: Xuanzang is incapable of seeing through the disguises of the demons that kidnap him. It's understandable since he's a human, but you would think after the first few times of his blindness getting him kidnapped and almost raped or eaten he would wise up and https www suntrust online banking when Sun Wukong and the others tell him not to trust the pitiful looking stranger seeking their assistance.
  • Touched by Vorlons: Any animal within earshot of a practicing Taoist or Buddhist whether the religious figure intends it or not will gain some degree of the same powers as the travelers.
    • This is what led to the incident with the Scorpion-Woman, as even Buddha and Guanyin didn't want a damn thing to do with her.
    • The Dragon-Horse even points this out when the group needs his piss to make a medicine; even if he pisses in a stream, the fish will turn into dragons.
  • The Trickster: Sun Wukong, the devious and rebellious monkey, is China's most well-known trickster.
  • True Sight: Wukong, as an unforeseen side effect of trying to melt him down in Lao Tzu's furnace, gained the ability to see through illusions.
  • Unusual Euphemism: Whenever accosted by beautiful women on his quest, Xuanzang's admirers offer to unite the male to the female.
  • Very Loosely Based on a True Story: The historical journey of Xuanzang to India - except he mostly did the entire thing himself, occasionally with a handful of human assistants. Real Xuanzang is also a badass: When he left he defied the emperor's order that no one leave the kingdom and snuck out, therefore putting himself at risk for decapitation. The Buddhist Sutras he brought back and translated became the basis for East Asian Buddhism, and his detailed records about his journey and what he saw became the foundation for historians' understanding of the Silk Road.
  • Vow of Celibacy: Xuanzang has a considerable number of opportunities to reject the celibacy that is expected of him, including several offers from supernatural sources, but he doesn't do so.
  • Weapons That Suck: Several examples, including the Crimson Gourd and Jade Pot (which both melt the victim), the Vajura Ring (which can suck and snatch every weapon, flame or danger around), the Human Bag (which sucks people inside it) and finally, the most dangerous one, the Yin Yang Pot, which destroys whoever's inside it with flames, serpents and dragons.
  • We Want Our Jerk Back!/We Cannot Go On Without You!: Happens each time Wukong gets expelled from the group (or quits himself).
  • What Measure Is a Non-Human?: Zigzagged depending on the story arc. Killing humans is always very bad but the demons that kidnap Xuanzang are more likely to be imprisoned/reformed than killed. Guanyin outright says this trope to Wukong after one of his numerous freakouts as even innocent Half-Human Hybridchildren are fair game but when subduing Red Boy/Boy Sage King she made sure to clear out every insect, bird and reptile within a hundred miles so they wouldn't be caught in the flood she released. When Red Boy makes another appearence, he lives on her island and has done a Heel&#;Face Turn thanks to her.
  • The Worf Effect:
    • Wukong and the Lion King have backstories of defeating big celestial armies alone.
    • Bajie and Wujing only exist to get the crap beaten out of them to show that Wukong needs to swoop in and save the day again.
    • Equally commonly is that Wukong is beaten as well and needs to fall back on greater Divine Intervention. Even then, some enemies like the Bull Demon King and the One-Horned King still give trouble to divine reinforcements.
  • Younger Mentor, Older Disciple: Tang Sanzang is a mortal monk in his twenties or thirties at oldest, while his three disciples are all immortal demigods who are centuries old, with Sun Wukong being over years old due to his imprisonment under a mountain as punishment.
  • Zerg Rush: Wukong can create numerous clones of himself. A Zerg Rush of Wukong clones is nothing to sneeze at. This doesn't work with the Yellow Wind demon (who blows the clones away like straw) and the Gold Horned King and Red Boy (who both torch the clones into oblivion). Otherwise they can be frighteningly effective, as every Wukong flies around wielding the same staff he does.

 

Sun Wukong, The Monkey King

As Red states, Sun Wukong, The Monkey King, is the most beloved character from the whole of the Journey to The West, having been homaged and referenced throughout countless media. Which makes it a surprise to many, that he isn't actually the main protagonist of the text.

Example of:
Breakout Character

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Last updated: 05/15/

Sha Wujing (沙悟淨), or “Sandy” for short, is commonly portrayed in modern media wielding a Crescent Moon Spade (Yueya chan, 月牙鏟, a.k.a. &#;Monk&#;s Spade&#;), a wooden polearm capped with a sharpened spade on one end and a crescent-shaped blade on the other (fig. 1). But did you know that the character never wields such a weapon in the novel? Chapter 22 contains a poem that describes his actual weapon and its pedigree. A section of it reads:

For years my staff has enjoyed great fame,
At first an evergreen tree in the moon.
Wu Gang [1] cut down from it one huge limb:
Lu Ban [2] then made it, using all his skills.
Within the hub [is] one solid piece of gold:
Outside it’s wrapped by countless pearly threads.
It’s called the treasure staff for crushing fiends
[…] (Wu & Yu,Vol. 1, p. )

As you can see it is described as a wooden staff devoid of any metal blades. So how did Sandy become associated with the Monk’s spade? It can be traced to a common motif appearing in late Ming Dynasty woodblock prints. Sha Wujing is just one of a number of famous literary staff-wielding monks to be portrayed brandishing a polearm topped with a small crescent shape (fig. 2). Others include Huiming (惠明) from the Story of the Western Wing (Xixiangji, 西廂記, c. ) (fig. 3) and Lu Zhishen (魯智深) from the Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan, 水滸傳, c. ) (fig. 4) (Shahar,p. 97).

#12 - Sha Wujing pics for blog entry

Fig. 1 – A modern depiction of Sandy wielding a Monk’s Spade (larger version). Fig. 2 journey to the west sandy A late Ming Dynasty print of Sha Wujing with the crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 3 – A woodblock print of Monk Huiming with a crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 4 – A late Ming woodblock of Lu Zhishen with a crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 5 – Sha Wujing from Ehon Saiyuki (circa ) (larger version). Fig. 6 – Sha from Xiyou yuanzhi () (larger version). Fig. 7 – A detail from a Long Corridor painting (circa ) (larger version).

The exact origin or purpose of the blade is unknown, however. Martial historian Meir Shahar () comments:

Future research may determine the origins of the crescent shape, which is visible in some Ming period illustrations of the staff. Here I will mention only that an identical design is common in a wide variety of twentieth-century martial arts weapons, whether or not they are wielded by Buddhist clerics. The crescent’s significance in contemporary weaponry can be gauged by its appearance in the names of such instruments as the “Crescent-Shaped (Yueya) [Monk’s] Spade,” “Crescent-Shaped Spear,” “Crescent-Shaped Battle-ax,” and “Crescent-Shaped Rake” (pp. ).

A woodblock print appearing in the first section of Journey to the West Illustrated (Ehon Saiyuki, 画本西遊記), published indepicts Sandy holding a staff with a large crescent blade (fig. 5), showing how the once small accent had been enlarged by this time to become a more prominent feature of the polearm. This same weapon is echoed in a print from The Original Intent of The Journey to the West (Xiyou yuanzhi, 西遊原旨, ) (fig. 6), as well as in multiple circa JTTW-related paintings from the Long Corridor of the Summer Palace in Beijing (fig. 7, for example). So Ming depictions of Sha Wujing wielding a crescent-tipped staff were most likely associated with the Monk’s Spade due to their physical similarities, and this probably took place no earlier than the early 20th-century.
_________________________________________

Update:

Unlike Sha Wujing, there is a monster in the novel who wields a Crescent Moon spade. Chapter 63 describes the Nine-Headed Beast (Jiutou chong, 九頭蟲), [3] the son-in-law of a dragon king, using such a bladed polearm in a battle against Monkey:

Enraged, Pilgrim shouted, &#;You brazen thievish fiend! What power do you have that you dare mouth such big words? Come up here and have a taste of your father&#;s rod!&#; Not in the least intimidated, the son-in-law parried the blow with his crescent-tooth spade; a marvelous battle thus broke out on top of that Scattered-Rock Mountain (Wu & Yu,Vol. 3, p. ).

There existed during the Ming Dynasty a military spade with a crescent blade on the top and a dagger-like blade on the bottom (武備志 (四十三)n.d.) (fig. 8). This is most likely the weapon used by the monster. Notice the similarities with figures five to seven. It&#;s easy to see how the crescent-tipped staff from the Ming woodblock prints could have later been associated with this military weapon. The difference is one of degree and not kind. This polearm was later modified into the modern Monk&#;s Spade, leading to depictions of Sha Wujing wielding the weapon.

Ming Era Crescent Moon Spade

Fig. 8 &#; A Crescent Moon Spade from the Collection of Military Works (Wubei zhi, 武備志, c. ), a Ming treatise on military armaments and fighting techniques (larger version).

_________________________________________

Update:

Feng Dajian of Nankai University was kind enough to direct me to this Ming-era woodblock print (fig. 9) by Shide tang (世德堂本), the original publisher of Journey to the West. Sandy&#;s staff is more evident in the piece. It even lacks the aforementioned crescent shape.

Shide tang print (Sandy vs Pigsy) - Small

Fig. 9 &#; Ming-era Shide tang print of Sandy vs Pigsy (larger version).

Notes:

1) An Immortal of the Han Dynasty.

2) The god of builders.

3) Anthony Yu (Wu & Yu, ) translates the name as &#;Nine-Headed Insect&#;, but the creature&#;s true form is that of a monstrous reptilian bird (vol. 3, p. ). While chong (蟲) usually means &#;insect, worm, or pest&#;, it can also mean &#;tiger&#. Da chong (大蟲, &#;great beast&#;) is the name of the tiger killed by Wu Song in the Water Margin (c. ) (Børdahl, ). So a better name for our villain would be &#;Nine-Headed Beast&#.

Sources:

Børdahl, V. (). The Man-Hunting Tiger: From &#;Wu Song Fights the Tiger&#; in Chinese Traditions. Asian Folklore Studies,66(1/2), Retrieved January 7,from mynewextsetup.us

Shahar, M. (). The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. University of Hawaii Press.

Wu, C., & Yu, A. C. (). The journey to the West (Vol. ). Chicago, Illinois : University of Chicago Press.

武備志 (四十三). (n.d.). Retrieved February 25,from mynewextsetup.us

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  1. Shellness, Leysdown, Isle of Sheppey

Not for the prudish, Shellness beach - a sign reads 'Clothing need not be worn for bathing, sun bathing, and general recreation'. There are beautiful shells, great swimming at high tide, and several cafés up at the Leysdown (non-naturist) end. The huge beach is on the Isle of Harty cycle route, a mile cycle trail which snakes past many key sites in the history of aviation - this was where the Short brothers flew the first circular mile in

Driving time from London: 65 minutes
Find it: Park at Shellness Car Park, just east of Leysdown-on-Sea (ME12 4RJ). There's a beach here or walk 1km further along the shore, past beach houses towards Shellness hamlet (, ).

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journey to the west sandy

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