Journey to the west sandy -
Last updated: 05/15/
Sha Wujing (沙悟淨), or “Sandy” for short, is commonly portrayed in modern media wielding a Crescent Moon Spade (Yueya chan, 月牙鏟, a.k.a. Monks Spade), a wooden polearm capped with a sharpened spade on one end and a crescent-shaped blade on the other (fig. 1). But did you know that the character never wields such a weapon in the novel? Chapter 22 contains a poem that describes his actual weapon and its pedigree. A section of it reads:
For years my staff has enjoyed great fame,
At first an evergreen tree in the moon.
Wu Gang  cut down from it one huge limb:
Lu Ban  then made it, using all his skills.
Within the hub [is] one solid piece of gold:
Outside it’s wrapped by countless pearly threads.
It’s called the treasure staff for crushing fiends
[…] (Wu & Yu, , Vol. 1, p. )
As you can see it is described as a wooden staff devoid of any metal blades. So how did Sandy become associated with the Monk’s spade? It can be traced to a common motif appearing in late Ming Dynasty woodblock prints. Sha Wujing is just one of a number of famous literary staff-wielding monks to be portrayed brandishing a polearm topped with a small crescent shape (fig. 2). Others include Huiming (惠明) from the Story of the Western Wing (Xixiangji, 西廂記, c. ) (fig. 3) and Lu Zhishen (魯智深) from the Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan, 水滸傳, c. ) (fig. 4) (Shahar, , p. 97).
Fig. 1 – A modern depiction of Sandy wielding a Monk’s Spade (larger version). Fig. 2 A late Ming Dynasty print of Sha Wujing with the crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 3 – A woodblock print of Monk Huiming with a crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 4 – A late Ming woodblock of Lu Zhishen with a crescent staff (larger version). Fig. 5 – Sha Wujing from Ehon Saiyuki (circa ) (larger version). Fig. 6 – Sha from Xiyou yuanzhi () (larger version). Fig. 7 – A detail from a Long Corridor painting (circa ) (larger version).
The exact origin or purpose of the blade is unknown, however. Martial historian Meir Shahar () comments:
Future research may determine the origins of the crescent shape, which is visible in some Ming period illustrations of the staff. Here I will mention only that an identical design is common in a wide variety of twentieth-century martial arts weapons, whether or not they are wielded by Buddhist clerics. The crescent’s significance in contemporary weaponry can be gauged by its appearance in the names of such instruments as the “Crescent-Shaped (Yueya) [Monk’s] Spade,” “Crescent-Shaped Spear,” “Crescent-Shaped Battle-ax,” and “Crescent-Shaped Rake” (pp. ).
A woodblock print appearing in the first section of Journey to the West Illustrated (Ehon Saiyuki, 画本西遊記), published in , depicts Sandy holding a staff with a large crescent blade (fig. 5), showing how the once small accent had been enlarged by this time to become a more prominent feature of the polearm. This same weapon is echoed in a print from The Original Intent of The Journey to the West (Xiyou yuanzhi, 西遊原旨, ) (fig. 6), as well as in multiple circa JTTW-related paintings from the Long Corridor of the Summer Palace in Beijing (fig. 7, for example). So Ming depictions of Sha Wujing wielding a crescent-tipped staff were most likely associated with the Monk’s Spade due to their physical similarities, and this probably took place no earlier than the early 20th-century.
Unlike Sha Wujing, there is a monster in the novel who wields a Crescent Moon spade. Chapter 63 describes the Nine-Headed Beast (Jiutou chong, 九頭蟲),  the son-in-law of a dragon king, using such a bladed polearm in a battle against Monkey:
Enraged, Pilgrim shouted, You brazen thievish fiend! What power do you have that you dare mouth such big words? Come up here and have a taste of your fathers rod! Not in the least intimidated, the son-in-law parried the blow with his crescent-tooth spade; a marvelous battle thus broke out on top of that Scattered-Rock Mountain (Wu & Yu, , Vol. 3, p. ).
There existed during the Ming Dynasty a military spade with a crescent blade on the top and a dagger-like blade on the bottom (武備志 (四十三) , n.d.) (fig. 8). This is most likely the weapon used by the monster. Notice the similarities with figures five to seven. Its easy to see how the crescent-tipped staff from the Ming woodblock prints could have later been associated with this military weapon. The difference is one of degree and not kind. This polearm was later modified into the modern Monks Spade, leading to depictions of Sha Wujing wielding the weapon.
Fig. 8 A Crescent Moon Spade from the Collection of Military Works (Wubei zhi, 武備志, c. ), a Ming treatise on military armaments and fighting techniques (larger version).
Feng Dajian of Nankai University was kind enough to direct me to this Ming-era woodblock print (fig. 9) by Shide tang (世德堂本), the original publisher of Journey to the West. Sandys staff is more evident in the piece. It even lacks the aforementioned crescent shape.
Fig. 9 Ming-era Shide tang print of Sandy vs Pigsy (larger version).
1) An Immortal of the Han Dynasty.
2) The god of builders.
3) Anthony Yu (Wu & Yu, ) translates the name as Nine-Headed Insect, but the creatures true form is that of a monstrous reptilian bird (vol. 3, p. ). While chong (蟲) usually means insect, worm, or pest, it can also mean tiger. Da chong (大蟲, great beast) is the name of the tiger killed by Wu Song in the Water Margin (c. ) (Børdahl, ). So a better name for our villain would be Nine-Headed Beast.
Børdahl, V. (). The Man-Hunting Tiger: From Wu Song Fights the Tiger in Chinese Traditions. Asian Folklore Studies,66(1/2), Retrieved January 7, , from mynewextsetup.us
Shahar, M. (). The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. University of Hawaii Press.
Wu, C., & Yu, A. C. (). The journey to the West (Vol. ). Chicago, Illinois : University of Chicago Press.
武備志 (四十三) . (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, , from mynewextsetup.us
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Some scholars propose that the book satirizes the effete Chinese government at the time. Journey to the West has a strong background in Chinese folk religion, Chinese mythology and value systems; the pantheon of Taoist deities and Buddhist bodhisattvas is still reflective of Chinese folk religious beliefs today.
Part of the novel's enduring popularity comes from the fact that it works on multiple levels: it is a first-rate adventure story, a dispenser of spiritual insight, and an extended allegory in which the group of pilgrims journeying toward India stands for the individual journeying toward enlightenment.
The novel comprises chapters that can be divided into four very unequal parts. The first, which includes chapters 1–7, is really a self-contained prequel to the main body of the story. It deals entirely with the earlier exploits of Sūn Wùkōng, a monkey born from a stone nourished by the Five Elements, who learns the art of the Tao, 72 polymorphic transformations, combat and secrets of immortality, and through guile and force makes a name for himself as the Qítiān Dàshèng, or "Great Sage Equal to Heaven". His powers grow to match the forces of all of the Eastern (Taoist) deities, and the prologue culminates in Sūn's rebellion against Heaven, during a time when he garnered a post in the celestial bureaucracy. Hubris proves his downfall when the Buddha manages to trap him under a mountain for five hundred years.
Only following this introductory story is the nominal main character, Xuánzàng, introduced. Chapters 8–12 provide his early biography and the background to his great journey. Dismayed that "the land of the South knows only greed, hedonism, promiscuity, and sins", the Buddha instructs the Bodhisattva Guānyīn to search Táng China for someone to take the Buddhist sutras of "transcendence and persuasion for good will" back to the East. Part of the story here also relates to how Xuánzàng becomes a monk (as well as revealing his past life as the "Golden Cicada" and comes about being sent on this pilgrimage by the Emperor Táng Tàizōng, who previously escaped death with the help of an underworld official).
The third and longest section of the work is chapters 13–99, an episodic adventure story which combines elements of the quest as well as the picaresque. The skeleton of the story is Xuánzàng's quest to bring back Buddhist scriptures from Vulture Peak in India, but the flesh is provided by the conflict between Xuánzàng's disciples and the various evils that beset him on the way.
The scenery of this section is, nominally, the sparsely populated lands along the Silk Road between China and India, including Xinjiang, Turkestan, and Afghanistan. The geography described in the book is, however, almost entirely fantastic; once Xuánzàng departs Cháng'ān, the Táng capital and crosses the frontier (somewhere in Gansu province), he finds himself in a wilderness of deep gorges and tall mountains, all inhabited by flesh-eating demons who regard him as a potential meal (since his flesh was believed to give Immortality to whoever eats it), with here and there a hidden monastery or royal city-state amid the wilds.
The episodic structure of this section is to some extent formulaic. Episodes consist of 1–4 chapters, and usually involve Xuánzàng being captured and his life threatened, while his disciples try to find an ingenious (and often violent) way of liberating him. Although some of Xuánzàng's predicaments are political and involve ordinary human beings, they more frequently consist of run-ins with various goblins and ogres, many of whom turn out to be the earthly manifestations of heavenly beings (whose sins will be negated by eating the flesh of Xuanzang) or animal-spirits with enough Taoist spiritual merit to assume semi-human forms.
Chapters 13–22 do not follow this structure precisely, as they introduce Xuánzàng's disciples, who, inspired or goaded by Guānyīn, meet and agree to serve him along the way, in order to atone for their sins in their past lives.
- The first is Sun Wukong, or Monkey, previously "Great Sage Equal to Heaven" and literally "Monkey Awakened to Emptiness", trapped by Buddha for rebelling against Heaven. He appears right away in Chapter The most intelligent and violent of the disciples, he is constantly reproved for his violence by Xuánzàng. Ultimately, he can only be controlled by a magic gold band that the Bodhisattva has placed around his head, which causes him excruciating pain when Xuánzàng says certain magic words.
- The second, appearing in 19, is Zhu Bajie, literally "Pig of Eight-Commandments", sometimes translated as Pigsy or just Pig. He was previously Marshal Tīan Péng, commander of the Heavenly Naval forces, banished to the mortal realm for flirting with the Princess of the Moon Chang'e. He is characterized by his insatiable appetites for food and sex, and is constantly looking for a way out of his duties, but is always kept in line by Sūn Wùkōng.
- The third, appearing in chapter 22, is the river-ogre Sha Wujing, also translated as Friar Sand or Sandy and literally "Sand Awakened to Purity". He was previously Great General who Folds the Curtain, banished to the mortal realm for dropping (and shattering) a crystal goblet of the Heavenly Queen Mother. He is a quiet but generally dependable character, who serves as the straight foil to the comic relief of Sūn and Zhū who despite this trait, is the nicest out of his two other fellow disciples.
- Possibly to be counted as a fourth disciple is the third prince of the Dragon-King, Yùlóng Sāntàizǐ, who was sentenced to death for setting fire to his father's great pearl. He was saved by Guānyīn from execution to stay and wait for his call of duty. He appears first in chapter 15, but has almost no speaking role, as throughout most of the story he appears in the transformed shape of a horse that Xuánzàng rides on.
Chapter 22, where Shā is introduced, also provides a geographical boundary, as the river of quicksand that the travelers cross brings them into a new "continent". Chapters 23–86 take place in the wilderness, and consist of 24 episodes of varying length, each characterized by a different magical monster or evil magician. There are impassably wide rivers, flaming mountains, a kingdom ruled by women, a lair of seductive spider-spirits, and many other fantastic scenarios. Throughout the journey, the four brave disciples have to fend off attacks on their master and teacher Xuánzàng from various monsters and calamities.
It is strongly suggested that most of these calamities are engineered by fate and/or the Buddha, as, while the monsters who attack are vast in power and many in number, no real harm ever comes to the four travelers. Some of the monsters turn out to be escaped heavenly animals belonging to bodhisattvas or Taoist sages and spirits. Towards the end of the book there is a scene where the Buddha literally commands the fulfillment of the last disaster, because Xuánzàng is one short of the eighty-one disasters he needs to attain Buddhahood.
In chapter 87, Xuánzàng finally reaches the borderlands of India, and chapters 87–99 present magical adventures in a somewhat more mundane (though still exotic) setting. At length, after a pilgrimage said to have taken fourteen years (the text actually only provides evidence for nine of those years, but presumably there was room to add additional episodes) they arrive at the half-real, half-legendary destination of Vulture Peak, where, in a scene simultaneously mystical and comic, Xuánzàng receives the scriptures from the living Buddha.
Chapter , the last of all, quickly describes the return journey to the Táng Empire, and the aftermath in which each traveler receives a reward in the form of posts in the bureaucracy of the heavens. Sūn Wùkōng and Xuánzàng achieve Buddhahood, Wùjìng becomes the Golden Arhat, the dragon is made a Naga, and Bājiè, whose good deeds have always been tempered by his greed, is promoted to an altar cleanser (i.e. eater of excess offerings at altars).
The classic story of the Journey to the West was based on real events. In real life, Xuanzang (born c. - ) was a monk at Jingtu Temple in late-Sui Dynasty and early-Tang Dynasty Chang'an. Motivated by the poor quality of Chinese translations of Buddhist scripture at the time, Xuanzang left Chang'an in , despite the border being closed at the time due to war with the Gokturks. Helped by sympathetic Buddhists, he traveled via Gansu and Qinghai to Kumul (Hami), thence following the Tian Shan mountains to Turfan. He then crossed what are today Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan, into Gandhara, reaching India in Xuanzang traveled throughout the Indian subcontinent for the next thirteen years, visiting important Buddhist pilgrimage sites and studying at the ancient university at Nalanda.
Xuanzang left India in and arrived back in Chang'an in to a warm reception by Emperor Taizong of Tang. He joined Da Ci'en Monastery (Monastery of Great Maternal Grace), where he led the building of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda in order to store the scriptures and icons he had brought back from India. He recorded his journey in the book Journey to the West in the Great Tang Dynasty. With the support of the Emperor, he established an institute at Yuhua Gong (Palace of the Luster of Jade) monastery dedicated to translating into Chinese the scriptures he had brought back. His translation and commentary work established him as the founder of the Dharma character school of Buddhism. Xuanzang died on March 7, The Xingjiao Monastery was established in to house his ashes.
Popular stories of Xuánzàng's journey were in existence long before Journey to the West was written. In these versions, dating as far back as Southern Song, a monkey character was already a primary protagonist. Before the Yuan Dynasty and early Ming, elements of the Monkey story were already seen.
Relation to Dragon Ball
Main article: Dragon Ball (manga)#Relation to Journey to the West
Tripitaka or Xuánzàng
Xuánzàng (玄奘) (or Táng-Sānzàng (唐三藏), meaning "Táng-dynasty monk" — Sānzàng (三藏) or "Three Baskets", referring to the Tripitaka, was a traditional honorific for a Buddhist monk) is the Buddhist monk who set out to India to retrieve the Buddhist scriptures for China. He is called Tripitaka in many English versions of the story. Although he is helpless when it comes to defending himself, the bodhisattva Guānyīn helps by finding him powerful disciples (Sūn Wùkōng, Zhū Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng) who aid and protect him on his journey. In return, the disciples will receive enlightenment and forgiveness for their sins once the journey is done. Along the way, they help the Giancarlo by defeating various monsters. The fact that most of the monsters and demons are trying to obtain immortality by eating Xuánzàng's flesh, and are even attracted to him as he is depicted as quite handsome, provides much of the plot in the story.
In Japanese on'yomi, he is known as Genjō, Tō Sanzō or altogether as Genjō Sanzō. And his title of Sanzang Fashi is romanized as Sanzō Hōshi. In some adaptions that mention it, his original incarnation from heaven is Jin Chan Zi (金蝉子), which is romanized as Konzen Dōji (金蝉 童子) in the Japanese adaptation Gensōmaden Saiyūki. Both literally mean "Gold Cicada Child". Originally, Jin Chan Zi was expelled from heaven for mainly ignoring Buddha's teachings (though how he was disobedient and/or banished varies a lot depending on the adaptation), with Xuanzang/Genjō being his 10th reincarnation.
Monkey King or Sūn Wùkōng
Sūn Wùkōng (孫悟空) is the name given to this character by his teacher, Patriarch Subhuti, and means "Monkey Awakened to Emptiness". He is called Sūn Xíngzhě (孫行者, Son Gyouja) by Xuánzàng (with most adaptations still having him named as "Wukong" by Xuánzàng). While he is commonly known as Monkey King in pop culture, with one of his more egotistical titles being the Handsome Monkey King (美猴王, Měi Hóuwáng/Bikō'ō) in English. He is by far, the novel's most iconic character.
He was born out of a rock that had been dormant for ages in Flower Fruit Mountain that was inhabited/weathered by the sun and moon until a monkey sprang forth. He first distinguished himself by bravely entering the Cave of Water Curtains (Shuǐliándòng) at the Flower Fruit Mountain (Huāguǒshān/Kakazan); for this feat, his monkey tribe gave him the title of Měi Hóuwáng ("Handsome Monkey King"). Later, through some misfits during his duties in heaven, it escalated into a full-on rebellion on Wukong's part, and the monkey defeated an army of , celestial soldiers, led by the Four Heavenly Kings, Erlang Shen, and Nezha. Eventually, even when Wukong was sealed inside a special furnace with the intent of turning him into an elixir, he broke free and nearly trashed much of the heavenly palace; the Jade Emperor appealed to Buddha, who subdued and trapped Wukong under a mountain for five centuries to repent. He was only saved when Xuanzang came by him on his pilgrimage and accepted him as a disciple.
His primary weapon is the Rúyì Jīngū Bàng/Nyoi Kinko Bō (如意金箍棒; lit. "Compliant Gold-Rimmed Pole"), which he can shrink down to the size of a needle and keep behind his ear, as well as expand it to gigantic proportions (hence the "will-following" part of the name; some adaptations show the staff to act as if it was alive). The staff, originally a pillar supporting the undersea palace of the East Sea Dragon King, weighs 13, kilograms, which he pulled out of its support and swung with ease. The Dragon King, not wanting him to cause any trouble, also gave him a suit of golden armor. These gifts, combined with his devouring of the peaches of immortality and three jars of immortality pills while in Heaven, plus his ordeal in an eight-trigram furnace (which gave him a steel-hard body and fiery golden eyes), makes Wukong the strongest member by far of the pilgrimage. Besides these abilities, he can also pull hairs from his body and blow on them to transform them into whatever he wishes (usually clones of himself to gain a numerical advantage in battle).
Although he has mastered seventy-two methods of transformations, it does not mean that he is restricted to seventy-two different forms. He can also do a jīndǒuyún/kinto'un (筋斗雲; lit. "Somersault Cloud"), enabling him to travel vast distances in a single leap, or ride on a cloud to cover the same amount of distance with flight-based speed. Wukong uses his talents to fight demons and play pranks. However, his behavior is checked by a band placed around his head by Guanyin, which cannot be removed by Wukong himself until the journey's end. Xuanzang can tighten this band by chanting the Tightening-Crown spell (taught to him by Guanyin) whenever he needs to chastise him.
Wukong's childlike playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind. This, coupled with his acrobatic skills, makes him a likeable hero, though not necessarily a good role model. His antics present a lighter side in what proposes to be a long and dangerous trip into the unknown, and overall develops a sense of endearment to his master and kindness in his heart throughout the journey.
In Japanese on'yomi, Sun Wukong is romanized more famously as Son Gokū, a la popularity of Dragon Ball. His title of Qitian Dasheng (齊天大聖; lit. "Equaling Heaven Great Sage") is known as the Seiten Taisei in Japanese, and is mainly to appease his ego (though it does provide a form of respect as the lesser gods would prove, and his actual prior havoc in heaven also can back such a title up).
Zhū Bājiè (豬八戒; lit. "Pig of the Eight Commandments") is also known as Zhū Wùnéng (豬悟能; lit. "Pig Awakened to Ability"), and given the name Pigsy, Piggy or Pig in English.
Once an immortal who was the Tiānpéng Yuánshuǎi (天蓬元帥; lit. "Field Marshal Tianpeng") of , soldiers of the Milky Way, during a celebration of gods, he drank too much and attempted to flirt with Cháng'é, the beautiful moon goddess, resulting in his banishment into the mortal world. He was supposed to be reborn as a human, but ended up in the womb of a sow due to an error at the Reincarnation Wheel, which turned him into a half-man half-pig monster. Staying within Yúnzhan-dòng ("cloud-pathway cave"), he was commissioned by Guanyin to accompany Xuanzang to India and given the new name Zhu Wuneng.
However, Wuneng's desire for women led him to Gao Village, where he posed as a normal being and took a wife. Later, when the villagers discovered that he was a monster, Wuneng hid the girl away. At this point, Xuanzang and Wukong arrived at Gao Village and helped subdue him. Renamed Zhu Bajie by Xuanzang, he consequently joined the pilgrimage to the West.
His weapon of choice is the jiǔchǐdīngpá ("Nine-toothed Rake/nine-tooth iron rake"). He is also capable of thirty-six transformations (as compared to Wukong's seventy-two), and can travel on clouds, but not as fast as Wukong. However, Bajie is noted for his fighting skills in the water, which he used to combat Sha Wujing, who later joined them on the journey. He is the second strongest member of the team.
He is often noted to be quite gluttonous, perverted and a bit cowardly, putting himself at odds with Wukong quite often. But nonetheless he is loyal to his friends deep down and is trusting of his master and vice versa, as well as often getting along with Wujing. Many adaptations of the novel tend to paint him in a light for the sake of comic relief, while also making him act as a positive force that differs from Wukong's antics.
In Japanese on'yomi, Zhu Bajie's current name is known as Cho Hakkai, and his original name before being renamed by Xuanzang is Cho Gonō. His original incarnation's name, Tianpeng, is known as Tenpō Gensui in Japanese as well (via Gensōmaden Saiyūki).
Shā Wùjìng (沙悟凈; lit. "Sand Awakened to Purity"), also named Shā Sēng (沙僧) in Mandarin Chinese and given the name Friar Sand or Sandy in English, was once the Juǎnlián Dàjiàng (捲簾大将; lit. "Rolling Curtain General"), who stood in attendance by the imperial chariot in the Hall of Miraculous Mist. He was exiled to the mortal world and made to look like a monster because he accidentally smashed a crystal/jade goblet belonging to the Heavenly Queen Mother during the Peach Banquet. The now-hideous immortal took up residence in the Flowing Sands River, terrorizing the surrounding villages and travelers trying to cross the river. However, he was subdued by Sūn Wùkōng and Zhū Bājiè when the Xuānzàng party came across him. They consequently took him in to be a part of the pilgrimage to the West.
Shā Wùjìng's weapon is the yuèyáchǎn ("Moon-Fang-Spade" or "Monk's Spade"). Aside from that, he knows eighteen transformations and is highly effective in water combat. He is about as strong as Bājiè, and is much stronger than Wùkōng in water. However, Bājiè can beat Wujing in a test of endurance, and Wùkōng can beat him out of water.
Shā Wùjìng is known to be the most obedient, logical, and polite of the three disciples, and always takes care of his master, seldom engaging in the bickeries of his fellow-disciples. Ever reliable, he carries the luggage for the travelers. Perhaps this is why he is sometimes seen as a minor character; the lack of any particular perks confers the lack of distinguishing and/or redeeming characteristics.
Wùjìng eventually becomes an Arhat at the end of the journey, giving him a higher level of exaltation than Bājiè, who is relegated to cleaning every altar at every Buddhist temple for eternity, but is still lower spiritually than Wùkōng or Xuānzàng who are granted Buddhahood.
In Japanese on'yomi, Sha Wujing is romanized as Sha Gojō, with his original incarnation's name romanized as Kenren Taishō in Gensōmaden Saiyūki. In Japanese, the character for "jing/jō" is written differenly in Japanese due to conflicting writing systems, with 淨 being the older form closer to Chinese, and 浄 being the current character used.
List of Demons
There are many demons in the story. Examples are listed below:
- Black-Bear-Demon (pinyin: Hēixióngguài)
- Yellow Wind Demon (Huángfēngguài)
- Zhen Yuan Holy Man (He is not a demon, but an immortal, who got annoyed by those disciples who stole his precious immortal-fruits (Ginseng Fruits, 人参果).
- White-Bone-Demon (pinyin: Báigǔjīng)
- Yellow Robe Demon (pinyin: Huángpáoguài)
- Gold-Horn and Silver-Horn (pinyin: Jīnjiǎo and Yínjiǎo)
- Red-Boy a.k.a. Holy Baby King (pinyin: Hóng-hái'ér; Japanese: Kōgaiji)
- Tiger Power, Deer Power, and Goat (or Antelope) Power
- Black River Dragon Demon (Hēi Shǔi Hé Yuan Lóng Gài)
- Carp Demon (Li Yu Jīng)
- Green-Ox-Demon (pinyin: Qīngniújīng)
- Scorpion-Demon (pinyin: Xiēzijīng)
- Six Ear Monkey Demon (a.k.a Fake Sun Wukong, Lìuěrmíhóu)
- Ox-Demon-King (pinyin: Niúmówáng; Japanese: Gyūmaō): The inspiration for the Ox King, who also shares the same name in the Asian scripts/dubs as the original Ox-Demon-King.
- Demon Woman (Luo Cha Nǚ)
- Jade-Faced Princess (pinyin: Yùmiàn-gōngzhǔ; Japanese: Gyokumen-kōshū)
- Boa Demon (Hóng Shé Jīng)
- Nine-Headed Bird Demon (Jiǔ Tou Fu Ma)
- Seven-Spider-Demons (pinyin: Zhīzhū-jīng)
- Hundred-Eyed Taoist (Bǎi Yan Mo Jun)
- Green Lion Demon (pinyin: Qīngshījīng)
- White-Elephant-Demon (pinyin: Báixiàngjīng)
- Falcon Demon (Sun Jīng)
- Biqiu Country Minister a.k.a Deer Demon
- Gold-Nosed, White Mouse Demon (Lao Shu Jīng)
Notable English-language translations
- Monkey: A Folk-Tale of China (), an abridged translation by Arthur Waley. For many years, the best translation available in English; it only translates thirty out of the hundred chapters. (Penguin reprint ISBN )
- Journey to the West, a complete translation by W.J.F. Jenner published by the Foreign Languages Press in Beijing (three volumes; / edition: ISBN , ISBN , ISBN )
- The Journey to the West (–), a complete translation in four volumes by Anthony C. Yu.
University of Chicago Press: HC ISBN , ISBN , ISBN , ISBN ; PB ISBN , ISBN ; ISBN ; ISBN
- Journey to the West: The Musical: A stage musical which received its world premiere at the New York Musical Theatre Festival on September 25,
- Monkey: Journey to the West: A stage musical version created by Chen Shi-zheng, Damon Albarn (frontman of British rock band Blur) and Jamie Hewlett, the latter two better known as creators of the Gorillaz musical project. It premiered as part of the Manchester International Festival at the Palace Theatre on June
- The Monkey King: A production by the Children's Theater Company in Minneapolis, MN in
- A Chinese Odyssey by Stephen Chow.
- A Chinese Tall Story: live action movie starring Nicholas Tse as Xuánzàng.
- Heavenly Legend: A film by Tai Seng Entertainment starring Kung Fu kid Sik Siu Loong is partially based on this legend.
- Monkey Goes West: The Shaw Brothers' Hong Kong film (Cantonese: Sau yau gei). Also known as "Monkey with 72 Magic"
- The Forbidden Kingdom: live action movie starring Jackie Chan and Jet Li which is said to be based on the Legend of the Monkey King, the same legend as the TV show Monkey. Towards the end, Li's character is revealed to be the Monkey King of the legend.
- Monkey (–): A well-known s Japanese television series based on Journey to the West translated into English by the BBC.
- Journey to the West (): A TV series produced by CCTV.
- Journey to the West (): A popular series produced by Hong Kong studio TVB, starring Dicky Cheung.
- Journey to the West II (): The sequel to TVB's Journey to the West series, starring Benny Chan.
- The Monkey King (): Sci Fi Channel's TV adaptation of this legend, also called The Lost Empire.
- The Monkey King: Quest for the Sutra (): A loose adaptation starring Dicky Cheung, who also portrayed Sun Wukong in the TVB series.
- Saiyūki (): A Japanese television series starring the SMAP star Shingo Katori.
Comics, manga and anime
- Alakazam the Great: One of the first anime films produced by Toei Animation, a retelling of first part of the story based on the characters designed by Osamu Tezuka.
- Gensōmaden Saiyūki: manga and anime series inspired by the legend. Follow-up series include Saiyūki Reload and Saiyūki Reload Gunlock. This is one of the other better known adaptions that packs the most elements to the original, such as several of the names in the legend all romanized in Japanese.
- Coincidentally, both the version of Wukong/Goku and Wujing/Goku share traits of the original Bajie/Hakkai; the former shares Bajie's hunger (akin to Dragon Ball's version of Wukong/Goku), while the latter shares Bajie's lust/perversions for women. Both of them also often argue back to back, akin to Wukong and Bajie's dynamics in the original source material.
- Havoc in Heaven (also known as Uproar in Heaven): Original animation from China.
- Iyashite Agerun Saiyūki: A adult anime 
- Monkey Magic: An animated retelling of the legend.
- Monkey Typhoon: A manga and anime series based on the Journey to the West saga, following a futuristic steampunk-retelling of the legend.
- Starzinger: An animated science fiction version of the story.
- The Monkey King: A gruesome manga inspired by the tale.
Works referencing Journey to the West
- American Born Chinese: An American graphic novel by Gene Yang. Nominated for the National Book Award ().
- Doraemon: A special tells the story of Journey To The West, casting the Doraemon characters as the characters of the legend.
- Dragon Ball: Japanese manga and anime series loosely based on Journey to the West.
- Eyeshield 21: Three of the players for the Shinryuji Nagas are referred to as the Saiyuki Trio based upon their appearances and personalities.
- InuYasha: The characters meet descendants of three of the main characters of the Journey of the West, lead by Chokyukai (a boardemon), in one episode. Also, the main character Kagome Higurashi says a few lines about the whole book and story, and explains it to the others who live in Feudal Japan, ergo have not heard about the Journey to the West.
- Kaleido Star: The cast performs Saiyuki on stage a few times in the beginning of the second half of the series.
- Love Hina: The characters put on a play based on the story in anime episode
- Naruto: A character named Temari is based on Princess Iron Fan from the legend. Enma is a summoned monkey who bears resemblance to Sun Wukong. He has the ability to transform into a staff similar to the rúyì-jīngū-bàng, which can alter its size at will. Also, one of the Tailed Beasts (also known as Bijū) is named Son Gokū, sporting horns which resemble the diadem worn by Sun Wukong.
- Ninja Sentai Kakuranger: The Super Sentai series, where four of the five rangers are inspired by the main characters of Journey to the West
- GoGo Sentai Boukenger: The Super Sentai series, where its final episode involved the Rúyì-jīngū-bàng
- Juken Sentai Gekiranger: The Super Sentai series, where one of its villains fighting style is homeage to Sun Wukong.
- Patalliro Saiyuki: A shōnen-ai series in both anime and manga formats with the Patalliro cast playing out the Zaiyuji storyline with a yaoi twist.
- Ranma 1/2: Pastiches of the characters appear throughout the manga and movies.
- Read or Die (OVA): One of the villains is a clone of Xuanzang, who seems to have the powers of Sun Wukong and Xuanzang.
- Sakura Wars: The Imperial Flower Troupe Performs the play of Journey to the West. Ironically, Mayumi Tanaka, who voices Krillin and Yajirobe in the Dragon Ball franchise, voices the monkey king Son Goku in the play.
- Shinzo: An anime loosely based on Journey to the West.
- XIN: An American comic mini-series produced by Anarchy Studio.
- Pokémon: Infernape, a Fire/Fighting Pokémon, has a design based on motifs related to Sun Wukong and Emboar, another Fire/Fighting Pokémon, has a design based on motifs similar to Zhu Bajie.
- The God of Highschool: A Korean web-toon that barrows a lot of the elements from every mythology notable, with few of the main cast based on characters from the novel. The main character, Jin Mo-Ri, being based off the Monkey King as well as Dragon Ball's Son Goku.
- Yuu Yuu Ki: A video game for the Famicom Disk System, based directly on the story.
- Journey to the West: An unlicensed Famicom game by Taiwanese developer TXC Corp, 
- Pokémon Diamond and Pearl: A video game and multiseries in which the Pokémon creatures Chimchar, Monferno, and mainly Infernape are based on Sūn Wùkōng.
- Saiyuki: Journey West: A tactical role-playing game (RPG) videogame for the PlayStation developed by Koei.
- Coincidentally, the portrayal of Zhu Bajie/Cho Hakkai is voiced by Naoki Tatsuta, who also voices Oolong with Bajie being his inspiration. Toshihiko Seki also voices the male version of Sanzang/Sanzou while also voicing one of his other portrayals in the aforementioned Gensomaden Saiyuki.
- Fuun Gokuu Ninden: An action game for the PlayStation. The characters of the game are based on the characters of Journey to the West.
- Saiyu Gouma Roku: A arcade game by Technos, based in the original story and characters. The North American version is named "China Gate".
- SonSon: A video game and character of the same name created by Capcom whose title character is a caricature of Sūn Wùkōng. The granddaughter of SonSon (also named SonSon, or SonSon III) appears in Marvel vs. Capcom 2.
- Westward Journey: A massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG).
- Whomp 'Em: NES game whose Japanese version is based on the story (the American version features an Indian boy instead of Wukong). Although a marketing failure, it is also a cult classic.
- League of Legends: A MOBA (multiplayer online battle arena) game which features a playable character named "Wukong: The Monkey King", a very obvious reference to Sūn Wùkōng. Many of the abilities and alternate champion skins of the character also make reference to Sūn Wùkōng and other characters in the novel. One of the other characters, Master Yi, who trained Wukong, is a possible reference to Bodhi training Wukong for his powers and Sanzang.
- Likewise, the two other MOBA games, Smite and Heroes of the Werwerth, also feature the original Sun Wukong as a playable character, with the former having removed him from the game for a visual rework to resemble the original figure, and the latter being simply known as "Monkey King" and possessing a skin that's a close reference to Dragon Ball in general (almost resembling Goku's Super Saiyan 4 form). Smite also has other characters pertaining to the legend or similar ones that tie into Journey into the West in general, such as the East Sea Dragon King and Nezha/Nata (the former also received a similar rework). Defense of the Ancients 2 has also recently revealed their own version of the Monkey King as well.
- More so however, Masako Nozawa, the Japanese voice actress of Goku, also voices Wukong in the Japanese dub of League of Legends as a direct allusion. Meanwhile, Sean Schemmel has voiced the reworked Wukong in Smite as another allusion.
- Asura's Wrath (アスラズ ラース, Asurazu Rāsu): A video game' developed by CyberConnect2 and published by Capcom. The game is playable on PlayStation 3, Xbox , Xbox One via backwards compatibility, and the PlayStation 4 and PC via PlayStation Now. The game follows the title character, the demigod Asura as he seeks revenge on the pantheon of other demigods who betrayed him.
- In Dragon Ball Z: Dokkan Battle, there are two cards based upon the Journey to the West inspired outfits worn by Goku and Gohan. Goku's is called Courage to the Max! Goku card and Gohan's is Brazen Courage Gohan (Kid) card. Both cards are Legendary Rare cards that feature Super Attacks featuring Goku and Gohan wielding their respective Power Poles (Gohan's Power Pole design features a more Journey to the West-style design rather than the Dragon Ball style design of Goku's Power Pole). Both characters ride a Flying Nimbus to fit the Sun Wukong motif.
- In Dragon Ball Xenoverse, there is an unlockable Saiyuki outfit which is described as a Journey to the West-style outfit, which can be unlocked by making a wish of "I want to dress up!" to Shenron. It is based on the Journey to the West inspired outfit worn by Gohan on Manga cover page for DBZ: 13 "Son Gohan, the Inconsolable" and Gohan also wears the same outfit in Detekoi Tobikiri Zenkai Power!. There is also an NPC Shapeshifter Nema who also wears the costume as part of one of her transformations, though she has no idea as to who the transformation is supposed to be.
- In Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2, the Saiyuki outfit, Saiyuki Hood, Journey to the West Costume, and Journey to the West Hood can be unlocked. The Journey to the West Costume & Hood is based on the outfit worn by Goku dressed as a Journey to the West character.
- After the Update, the Future Warrior can purchase Gifts which are special costumes that they can give to Instructors which can then be worn via Partner Customization. Gift (Goku) unlocks Goku's Journey to the West Costume for Goku to wear (it comes complete with Hood though the Hood will be removed when Goku transforms into any of his available Super Saiyan forms). Gift (Gohan (Kid)) unlocks his Saiyuki Costume (Journey to the West Costume) from DBZ: 13 "Son Gohan, the Inconsolable" and Detekoi Tobikiri Zenkai Power! (it also comes complete with Hood as well). Both Gifts can be purchased at the TP Medal Shop for TP Medals ( TP for both Gifts).