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Is columbus day a school holiday in san diego

is columbus day a school holiday in san diego

We offer a comprehensive array of associate degree, vocational-technical, adult continuing education and high school programs in delivery formats that. Burbank (Main Campus). N Glenoaks Blvd. Burbank, CA GET DIRECTIONS · () San Diego (School of Architecture). The school is consists of approximately , students and 6, teachers. San Diego Unified School District has been looked after by five.
is columbus day a school holiday in san diego
is columbus day a school holiday in san diego

: Is columbus day a school holiday in san diego

Is columbus day a school holiday in san diego
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Is columbus day a school holiday in san diego

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BWW Review: EBENEZER SCROOGE'S BIG SAN DIEGO CHRISTMAS SHOW at The Old Globe EBENEZER SCROOGE'S BIG SAN DIEGO CHRISTMAS SHOW is the show for people that love the holidays but are looking for a more fizzy and fun take on a holiday classic. This one-act gets a San Diego twist on Dicken's classic story, playing through December one medical passport physician login at The Old Globe.

"A Christmas Carol" is a holiday classic, but this version gets a transplant from Victorian England to San Diego inand instead of snow there are Santa Ana winds. This show moves quickly through the story of Scrooge, who after one night's visit from the ghosts of Christmas Past, Present, and Future undergoes a conversion from miserly curmudgeon to Christmas enthusiast.

This San Diego Scrooge came over from England, and once in San Diego helped fund the Panama-California Exposition. As the play starts the audience finds him a few years after that Expo, in his office in Balboa Park where The Globe will one day stand, and it is Christmas Eve. There are many San Diego references sprinkled throughout the show, from Coronado to Temecula, the beach to Trader Joe's, they all are well placed and appreciated by the audience.

Bill Buell plays Scrooge, while the rest of the cast, George Abud, Orville Mendoza, Cathryn Wake, and Jacque Wilke play the rest of the characters while also singing, dancing, and playing instruments. Directed by Gordon Greenberg the cast uses their energy and talents to use a few props, empty door frames, and ladders to build the world and create the story. The imaginative use of the props to play with height and scale and make for smooth and fun transitions as they tell the story.

Buell is a cranky and loveable Scrooge- just enough of a grouch to tell the tale but sweet and silly enough to fit in with the frenetic pace of the show. The rest of the cast is excellent, as they jump from character to character with ease. Hey all sing and play instruments as well, with a special shout out to Abud's beautiful violin playing in the joyful and merry finale.

How To Get Tickets

EBENEZER SCROOGE'S BIG SAN DIEGO CHRISTMAS SHOW is playing through December 26th in the Sheryl and Harvey White Theatre at The Old Globe. For ticket and showtime information go to or call

All audience members are required to show proof of vaccine or a negative COVID test within 72 hours of showtime and be masked the entire time inside the building.

Photo Credit: Jim Cox


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Is University of Phoenix an accredited university?

University of Phoenix is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission ( SinceUniversity of Phoenix has been continually accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and its predecessor. University of Phoenix obtained its most recent year Reaffirmation of Accreditation in – The Higher Learning Commission conducted an interim Comprehensive Evaluation inand the next Comprehensive Evaluation for Reaffirmation of Accreditation is scheduled for –


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You can explore career options with the Program Finder. Find more than online programs aligned to + occupations. The University also offers certificate programs, as well as individual, first baptist church commerce ga and non-credit professional development courses.

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What are your Professional Development courses like?

Courses are % online learning experiences – all courses, including any provided materials; tools, worksheets, and videos are in English. Each course is designed to take approximately 30 hours to complete. Courses are not faculty-led – they are self-paced and self-directed – specifically made for busy adult lives, allowing you to learn when and where you want.

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Do I get university or college credits by taking a course?

No. Our professional development courses are non-degree, noncredit bearing, and do not carry institutional or programmatic accreditation. Professional development courses are stand-alone courses that are not part of any UOPX certificate, continuing education, degree or other program.

Do I get professional development or continuing education units or credits?

No. While these courses are designed for personal and professional community savings bank association, they do not provide any professional development units or credits (PDUs or CEUs) from the University of Phoenix and cannot be applied towards University of Phoenix Prior Learning Assessment, (PLA) submissions. If you plan to use this course to meet professional development requirements, you will need to check with any applicable agency or employer.

Is University of Phoenix an accredited institution?

University of Phoenix is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission ( Since pinnacle credit union near me, University of Phoenix has been continually accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and its predecessor. University of Phoenix obtained its most recent year Reaffirmation of Accreditation in – A comprehensive evaluation is scheduled for –17, and the next Reaffirmation of Accreditation is scheduled for –

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What are the requirements for transferring to University of Phoenix?

Students must meet the admission requirements for their chosen program. Credits from a regionally or nationally accredited institution may be eligible to transfer, provided that a grade of a C- or better was earned. Transfer credits typically apply toward general education and elective categories. With transfer credits, you can earn your degree faster and for less. Contact an Enrollment Representative for more information specific to your background.

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As a student, you have many options available to fund your education. Some of the most common financial options include Federal Financial Aid, scholarships, grants, the cash plan, the third-party billing plan, the military or government billing plan, tribal funding and third-party private student loans. Learn about each option to determine your eligibility. 

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What will my online classroom and schedule look like?

Our innovative learning platform allows you to ask questions, discuss topics and collaborate with your classmates from around the world. This gives you the ability to work in teams, talk to your instructor and access course materials any time of the day or night. Your schedule will be provided to you by your Academic Counselor and can be assessed within your student portal.

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Can I apply relevant learning, work and life experiences toward credit at University of Phoenix?

Time is money. See if you can save on both. We’ll help you explore up to 10 different opportunities to earn your degree faster, and for may be able to fulfill some elective, interdisciplinary and/or general education courses by going through the Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) process. To be eligible for PLA credits, you must be an undergraduate student who has already been allied savings bank contact number into University of Phoenix. In addition, you must have submitted any transcripts to the University, and you must have remaining general education or elective credits required to earn your degree.

Before submitting an application, we suggest that you contact your Academic Advisor to discuss whether PLA would be beneficial to you and how credits can be applied to your degree program.

PLA credits cannot be applied to associate and bachelor's degree programs in Education.

What are the admission requirements for international students?

Admissions requirements for international students vary depending on the program. Students must meet the English Language Proficiency requirement and, if in the U.S., provide an acceptable visa that does not prohibit educational studies at the University of Phoenix. Please speak to an Enrollment Representative to learn about program-specific requirements.

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Do I have to be fluent in English to attend University of Phoenix?

Students must meet the English Language Proficiency requirement (ELP). To average orange and rockland bill this, a student must have completed high school in the U.S. or another English-speaking country, have 30+ transferrable semester credits from an approved English-speaking institution or pass an ELP exam from an approved testing agency (Berlitz, TOEFL, TOEIC, Pearson). For more information, contact an International Enrollment Representative.

International Admissions

What are the visa requirements to attend University of Phoenix?

A visa is a document that allows the holder to apply for entry into the United States. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Department of Is columbus day a school holiday in san diego (DoS) determine who is eligible to be admitted into the U.S. along with how long they can stay and other conditions of their visit.

Generally visa requirements for students include:

  • You must have a visa that allows you to legally work and attend school is columbus day a school holiday in san diego the United States.
  • The visa type, date of issue and country of citizenship must be listed on the admission application. Please verify that the visa is current — expired visas cannot be accepted.
  • Legible copies of visas are acceptable documentation.

Contact an International Enrollment Representative for more information concerning visa requirements.

International Admissions

How is University of Phoenix accredited?

University of Phoenix is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission ( SinceUniversity of Phoenix has been continually accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and its predecessor. University of Phoenix obtained its most recent year Reaffirmation of Accreditation in – A comprehensive evaluation is scheduled is columbus day a school holiday in san diego –17, and the app store card Reaffirmation of Accreditation is scheduled for –

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How can I transfer my skills to a civilian job?

Military service can provide a solid foundation for career growth. University of Phoenix has resources to help you successfully transition to a new career. With our Phoenix Career Guidance System you can discover career irs customer service number for tax refund, transition your military skills to a civilian career and explore the job market.

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How can I use my veteran's education benefits?

If you plan to use your veteran’s benefits for your education, you are entitled to a Shopping Sheet in accordance with Executive Order It provides a breakdown of your education costs so is columbus day a school holiday in san diego can compare costs between the institutions you select. It also shows how your benefits and any financial aid are applied to your education. The information provided in the Shopping Sheet is an estimate of your individual education cost and any financial aid for which you might be eligible. This estimate is based on the information you provided in the Financial Plan with Net Price Calculator. Please refer to your financial aid award letter for the actual amount of financial aid awarded.

Our tuition and expenses estimating tool, Financial Plan with Net Price Calculator, will help you create your Financial Plan and Shopping Sheet.

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How do I get started if I’m currently overseas?

Our military certified enrollment representatives are available by phone to help guide you. All you nyseg customer service bill pay is a reliable internet connection and our staff can provide you with information about degree programs, point you to resources designed to help you make decisions and show you how to apply for admission.

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Where can I find my University of Phoenix transcript?

Official and unofficial transcripts can be requested through our student website or by mail, fax or phone. To order by phone, call the Office of Admissions and Records Support Center at Be sure to check your unofficial transcript to make sure your coursework and grades have posted before ordering your official transcript.

You can request an electronic transcript or pay an additional fee for overnight delivery of a paper transcript if you need expedited service. Please note, some limitations apply to overnight deliveries.

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As a graduate of University of Phoenix, you are automatically a part of the University of Phoenix Alumni Association. To access the benefits on the alumni website just log in using your eCampus login credentials. Whether you’re a recent graduate or a long-time University of Phoenix alum, the Alumni Association is your gateway to your alumni network — 1, strong, and growing.

You can also connect withof your fellow alumni on the UOPX Alumni Association Facebook page or network with fellow alumni in real time on PhoenixConnect®.

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You have a team of advisors dedicated to helping you build a personalized career plan you can stick with. While outside career advising can cost over $ an hour, at University of Phoenix it’s built right into your degree at no added cost, for life.

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How do I complete my doctoral program?

University of Phoenix doctoral programs are primarily online, with three required face-to-face residency experiences available in select cities in the United States. The Post-Master’s Educational Specialist degree does not have a residency.

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To enter a doctoral degree program, you must:

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  • Not have been expelled from a previous institution.

Complete all required forms for admission and submit an official master’s degree posted transcript.

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Is columbus day a school holiday in san diego charged after body of missing girl, 2, found in river


The father of a 2-year-old girl whose body was found in a debris field in the East Fork of the White River was charged Wednesday with felony neglect of a dependent resulting in death.

Jeremy Sweet, 39, of Columbus was also charged with unlawful possession of a syringe and being a habitual offender, Bartholomew County Sheriff Matthew Myers said.

Sweet has been held without bond in the Bartholomew County Jail since Monday after being hospitalized for hypothermia and frostbite following his discovery Friday morning in his submerged truck by duck hunters.

Sweet and his daughter, Emma, were last seen together in his pickup Nov. 24 and were reported missing by family members the following day. Emma was found Sunday morning in the river about miles (4 kilometers) downstream from where the truck was found. Results of an autopsy on her are not expected for four to six weeks.


Columbus Day

Holiday commemorating the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World

For other uses, see Columbus Day (disambiguation).

Columbus Day
Desembarco de Colón de Dióscoro

First Landing of Columbus on the Shores of the New World; painting by Dióscoro Puebla ()

Observed&#;byVarious countries in the Americas, Italy, Spain, various Little Italys around the world.
DateOctober 12 (actual/traditional); second Monday in October (observed in the United States); first Monday in November (observed in Italy)
&#;dateOctober 12 &#;()
&#;dateOctober 11 &#;()
&#;dateOctober 10 &#;()
&#;dateOctober 9 &#;()

Columbus Day is a national holiday in many countries of the Americas and elsewhere, and a federal holiday in the United States, which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas on October 12, [a]

Christopher Columbus was a Genovese-born explorer who became a subject of the Hispanic Monarchy in order to lead a Spanish enterprise to cross the Atlantic Ocean in search of an alternative route to the Far East, only to land in the New World. Columbus's first voyage to the New World on the Spanish ships Santa María, Niña, and La Pinta took approximately three months. Columbus and his crew's arrival in the New World initiated the colonisation of the Americas by Spain, followed in the ensuing centuries by other European powers, as well as the transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, and technology between the New World and the Old World, an event referred to by some late 20th‐century historians as the Columbian Exchange.[1]

The landing is celebrated as Columbus Day in huntington bank 100 bonus free checking account United States, but the name varies on the international spectrum. The Dominican Republic celebrates this day as "The Discovery of the Americas". In some Latin American countries, October 12 is known as Día de la Raza or "Day of the Race". This is the case for Mexico, which inspired Jose Vasconcelos' book celebrating the Day of the Iberoamerican Race. Some countries such as Spain refer to the holiday as Día de la Hispanidad and Fiesta Nacional de España, where it coincides with the religious festivity of La Virgen del Pilar. SincePeru has celebrated Día de los pueblos originarios y el diálogo intercultural ("Indigenous Peoples and Intercultural Dialogue Day").[2]Belize and Uruguay celebrate it as Pan American Day and Día de las Américas ("Day of the Americas"). Giornata Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo or Festa Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo is is columbus day a school holiday in san diego formal name of the celebration in Italy as well as in Little Italys around the world.[3][4]

United States observance[edit]


The first Columbus Day celebration took place on October 12, when the Columbian Order of New York, better known as Tammany Hall, held an event to commemorate the th anniversary of the historic landing.[5]

For the th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's voyage infollowing a lynching in New Orleans where a mob had murdered 11 Italian immigrants, President Benjamin Harrison declared Columbus Day as a one-time national celebration.[6][7] The proclamation was part of a wider effort after the lynching incident to placate Italian Americans is columbus day a school holiday in san diego ease diplomatic tensions with Italy.[6] During the anniversary inteachers, preachers, poets southwest credit card or chase sapphire politicians used rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These rituals took themes such as citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and the celebration of social first citizens bank main street columbia sc, included among them was the Pledge of Allegiance by Francis Bellamy.[8][9][10][11]

Many Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day as a celebration of their heritage and not of Columbus himself, and the day was celebrated in New York City on October 12, [12] The day was first enshrined as a legal holiday in the United States through the lobbying of Angelo Noce, a first generation American, in Denver.[13] The first statewide holiday was proclaimed by Colorado governor Jesse F. McDonald inand it was made a statutory holiday in [14][15]

Inas a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus and New York City Italian leader Generoso Pope, Congress passed a statute stating: "The President is requested to issue each year a proclamation (1) designating October 12 as Columbus Day; (2) calling on United States Government officials to display the flag of the United States on all Government buildings on Columbus Day; and (3) inviting the people of the United States to observe Columbus Day, in schools and churches, or other suitable places, with appropriate ceremonies that express the public sentiment befitting the anniversary of the discovery of America."[14][16][17] President Franklin Delano Roosevelt responded by making such a proclamation. This proclamation did not lead to the modern federal holiday; it was similar to language regarding Thomas Jefferson's Birthday and Gold Star Mothers Day. Later inRoosevelt had the removal of the designation of Italian Americans as “enemy aliens” announced on Columbus Day along with a plan to offer citizenship toelderly Italians living in the United States who had been unable to acquire citizenship due to a literacy requirement.[18]

InMariano A. Lucca, from Buffalo, NY, founded the National Columbus Day Committee, which lobbied to make Columbus Day a federal holiday.[19] These efforts were successful and legislation to create Columbus Day as a federal holiday was signed by President Johnson on June 28,to be effective beginning in [20][21]

Since (Oct. 11), the holiday has been observed on the second Monday in October,[22] coincidentally exactly the same day as Thanksgiving in neighboring Canada since It is generally observed nowadays by t online mobil email login, the bond market, the U.S. Postal Service, other federal agencies, most state government offices, many businesses, and most school districts. Some businesses and some stock exchanges remain open, and some states and municipalities abstain from observing the holiday.[23] The traditional date of the holiday also adjoins the anniversary of the United States Navy (founded October 13, ), and thus both occasions are customarily observed by the Navy and the Marine Corps with either a or hour liberty period.[24]

On October 10,Pope John Paul II visited f gallery by a train Dominican Republic to celebrate the th anniversary of the Discovery Of the Americas and the arrival of Christianity in the "New World" His visit ended with a mass in the nation's cathedral, the first cathedral in the Western Hemisphere.[25][full citation needed]

On October 8,President Joe Biden proclaimed that October 11 would be recognized as Indigenous Peoples' Day by the Federal Government. While Columbus Day was still issued a proclamation acknowledging it as the Federal Holiday and the contributions of Italian Americans,[26] the first proclamation is meant to mark October 11 as "a day to honor Native Americans, their resilience and their contributions to American society throughout history, even as they faced assimilation, discrimination and genocide spanning generations."[27]

Local observance of Columbus Day[edit]

Actual observance varies in different parts of the United States, ranging from large-scale parades and events to complete non-observance. Most states do not celebrate Columbus Day as an official state holiday.[28] Some mark it as a "Day of Observance" or "Recognition.” Most states that celebrate Columbus Day will close state services, while others operate as normal.[29]

San Francisco claims the nation's oldest continuously existing celebration with the Italian-American community's annual Columbus Day Parade, which was established by Nicola Larco in ,[30] while New York City boasts the largest, with over 35, marchers and one million viewers around [31][32][33]

As in the mainland United States, Columbus Day is a legal holiday in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. In the United States Virgin Islands, the day is celebrated as both Columbus Day and "Puerto Rico Friendship Day."[34]

Virginia also celebrates two legal holidays on the day, Columbus Day and Yorktown Victory Day, which honors the final victory at the Siege of Yorktown in the Revolutionary War.[35]


The celebration of Columbus Day in the United States began to decline at the end of the 20th century, although many Italian-Americans and others continue to champion it.[36][37] The states of Hawaii,[38][39]Alaska,[40][41]Vermont,[42]South Dakota,[43]New Mexico,[44]Maine,[45] and parts of California including, for example, Los Angeles County[46] do not recognize it and have each replaced it with celebrations of Indigenous Peoples' Day (in Hawaii, "Discoverers' Day", in South Dakota, "Native American Day"[37]). A lack of recognition or a reduced level of observance for Columbus Day is not always due to concerns about honoring Native Americans. For example, a community of predominantly Scandinavian descent may observe Leif Erikson Day instead.[47] In the states of Oregon and Washington, Columbus Day is not an official holiday.[48][49]

Iowa and Nevada do not celebrate Columbus Day as an official holiday, but the states' respective governors are "authorized and requested" by statute to proclaim the day each year.[50] Several states have removed the day as a paid holiday for state government workers, while maintaining it either as a day of recognition, or as a legal holiday for other purposes, including California and Texas.[51][52][53][54][55][excessive citations]

The practice of U.S. cities eschewing Columbus Day to celebrate Indigenous Peoples' Day began in with Berkeley, California. The list of cities which have followed suit as of includes Austin; Boise; Cincinnati; Denver; Los Angeles; Mankato, Minnesota; Philadelphia; Portland, Oregon; San Francisco; Santa Fe, New Mexico; Seattle; St. Paul, Minnesota; Phoenix; Tacoma, and "dozens of others."[36][56][57][58][52][59][60][61][62][63][64][excessive citations]

Columbus, Ohio, has chosen to honor is columbus day a school holiday in san diego instead of Christopher Columbus, and removed Columbus Day the bank of greene county login a city holiday. Various tribal governments in Oklahoma designate the day as Native American Day, or name it after their own tribe.[65]

Inthe city council of Akron, Ohio, became split along racial lines with the decision to replace Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples' Day, creating pushback from the city's Italian American community. Ina compromise was reached, with the city council voting to name the first Monday of October as North American First People's Day whilst keeping Columbus Day, and inColumbus Day was renamed Italian-American Heritage and Culture Day.[66][67]

Latin American observance[edit]

Día de la Raza[edit]

The date Columbus arrived in the Americas is celebrated in some countries of Latin America. The most common name for the celebration in Spanish (including some Latin American communities[68] in the United States) is the Día de la Raza ("day of the race" or the "day of the [Hispanic] people"), commemorating the first encounters of Europeans and the Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina inin Venezuela and Colombia inin Chile in and in Mexico it was first celebrated in The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain untilwhen it was changed to the Día de la Hispanidad ("Hispanicity Day"), and in Venezuela it was celebrated under walking the west highland way in 4 days title untilwhen it was changed to the Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance). Originally conceived of as a celebration of Hispanic influence in the Americas, as evidenced by the complementary celebrations in Spain and Latin America, Día de la Raza has come to be seen by nationalist activists throughout Latin America as a counter to Columbus Day; a celebration of the native races and cultures and their resistance to the arrival of Europeans in the Americas.[citation needed]

In the United States, Día de la Raza has served as a time of mobilization for pan-ethnic Latino activists, particularly since the s. Since then, La Raza has served as a periodic rallying cry for Hispanic activists. The first Hispanic March on Washington occurred on Columbus Day in The name is used by the largest Hispanic social justice organization in the nation, the National Council of La Raza.[8]


Plaza de Mayo in Argentina "Día de la Raza", with an imagen of Cristobal Colon,
Argentine government poster from including the concept of la Raza.

The Day of the Race was established in Argentina in by a decree of President Hipólito Yrigoyen. The name was changed to "Day of Respect of Cultural Diversity" by a presidential decree in issued by President Cristina Kirchner. The statue of Columbus was removed from its original position near the Casa Rosada and replaced by one of Juana Azurduy, a patriot and leader in the struggle for independence who had indigenous ancestors.


Colombia, whose name originated from Columbus himself, celebrates El día de la Raza y de la Hispanidad (meaning "Day of the Race and Hispanicity") and is taken as an opportunity to celebrate the encounter of "the two worlds" and to reflect on the richness that the racial diversity has brought to the culture.


In Peru, it was known as Día del descubrimiento de América ("Day of the discovery of America"). Sinceit has been celebrated as Día de los pueblos originarios y el diálogo intercultural (Indigenous Peoples and Intercultural Dialogue Day).[69]


Between andVenezuela celebrated Día de la Raza along with many other Latin American nations. The original holiday was officially established in under President Juan Vicente Gómez. Inunder President Hugo Chávez, the holiday was changed to Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) to commemorate the Indigenous peoples' resistance to European settlement.[70]

On October 12,a crowd of pro-government activists toppled a statue of Christopher Columbus by Rafael de la Cova in Caracas. The activists also sprayed allusive graffiti over its pedestal. The Td banknorth savings account rates where the statue had stood was renamed in "Indigenous Resistance Walk". Later a statue of an indigenous leader, Guaicaipuro, was erected on the plinth.[70]

Costa Rica[edit]

On September 21,Costa Rica changed the official holiday from Día de la Raza to Día del Encuentro de las Culturas (Day of the Encounter of Cultures) to recognize the mix of European, Native American (autochthonous populations), African and Asian cultures that constitute modern Costa Rican (and Latin American) culture and ethnicity. In accordance to the Costa Rican labor law, the holiday is observed on October However, should this date coincide with a Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday or Friday, the employer shall agree that said holiday be postponed to the following Monday.[71] OnCosta Rica eliminated this holiday and in exchange they now celebrate the Military Abolition Day on December 1.

Caribbean observance[edit]

Only a handful of Caribbean countries observe holidays related to Columbus Day. In Belize, October 12 is celebrated as Day of the Americas or Pan American Day.[72][73][74] In the Bahamas, it was formerly known as Discovery Day, edmonds and evans funeral home portage indiana when it was replaced by National Heroes Day. InCuban President Federico Laredo Brú (–) spoke to the nation and countries of America in Cuba on October 12 commemorating Christopher Columbus's voyage to the New World. Federico Laredo Brú spoke about Columbus's impact on the land and the future of its settlement. He ended his speech with venerating Christopher Columbus's efforts to colonize and establish settlements along the new front and the pride of ones nation. He added "Por mi raza hablo mi espiritu," which translates to "For my race my spirit called," in order to support the political infrastructure at the time.[75]

Columbus's Legacy in the Caribbean[edit]

DecemberCuban president Federico Laredo Brú and Dominican Republic president Rafael Trujillo ordered a crew of aviators to travel through Latin America collecting funds from large capital cities for a monumental light house in the Dominican Republic. The exploration Escuadrilla Binacional Pro Faro de Colón was inspired by Columbus's journey across the North Atlantic Ocean to America. The expedition consisted of three Stinson Reliant SR-9 borrowed from the Cuban Air Force - named Santa María, Niña and La Pinta after the vessels commanded by Columbus - and a Curtiss Wright CWR from the Dominican military aviation named Colon after Columbus. On December 15, after visiting a majority of South America, their flight to the Peruvian capital Lima was hampered by an unexpected sandstorm. Two planes (Colon and La Pinta) were forced to land in Pisco and Niña disappeared in the storm. The Santa Maria was the only plane to reach Lima as planned, landing at Las Palmas on the day of the storm. After extensive searches, Nina radioed their whereabouts after their radio was damaged in the storm. The aircraft restrategized in Las Palmas and on December 29 their expedition took off from El Techo airport in Bogotá en route to El Guabito airport in California. Later that day, the crew flew into an unexpected storm over the Valley of Cauca. With minimal visibility and poor navigation, Niña, La Pinta and Santa Maria crashed into high mountains, while Colon, unaware of the other aircraft, flew over the storm and safely made it to Panama City. The plane is preserved today as remembrance of the bravery of the crew and Christopher Columbus's journey.[76]

Inin remembrance of the th anniversary of the discovery of America, the Columbus Lighthouse, in Santo Domingo Este was inaugurated. The monument is both a mausoleum and a museum showcasing objects including a boat from Cuba and Colombian jewelry. Constructed of concrete, the monument is feet (&#;m) long.[77] Its architecture is cross-shaped and represents the Christianization of the Americas. According to the Dominican authorities, remains of Christopher Columbus are sheltered at the lighthouse. However, Spanish authorities have proved through DNA tests that the remains in the Cathedral of Seville are the real remains of Carmax jobs login. The Dominican authorities haven't allowed the same DNA tests to be done to the remains in the lighthouse, so it is impossible to know if the remains of Columbus are divided or if the remains in the lighthouse belonged to another person.[78][79]

European observance[edit]


Monument to Christopher Columbus in Genoa, Italy

Since the 18th century, many Italian communities in the Americas have observed the Discovery of the New World as a celebration of their heritage; Christopher Columbus (whose original, Italian name is "Cristoforo Colombo") was an Italian explorer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa.[80]

In Italy, Columbus Day has been officially celebrated since [4] It is officially named Giornata nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo.

The "Lega Navale Italiana" has created a Regata di Colombo as a celebration of the Columbus achievement.[81] Italians have celebrated their "Cristoforo Colombo" naming after him many civilian and military ships, like the ocean liner SS Cristoforo Colombo.


See also: National Day of Spain

Statue of Christopher Columbus in Barcelona

The first celebration of the Discovery of the Américas by Columbus in Spain was as early as when the city of Zaragoza designated the Virgen del Pilar (Our Lady of the Pillar) as symbol of the Hispanidad (Hispanicity) on the date of the Spanish expedition's arrival to the New World.[82] This holiday was declared a religious feast day throughout the Spanish Empire in [83] Inthe 12 of October was declared a one-time national day in commemoration of the 4th centenary of the Discovery of America and the perpetuation of the festivity was then first considered. The Spanish government suggested other nations (Hispanic American countries, Italy and the United States of America) to join the celebration, which was followed with enthusiasm by them, with a few exceptions.[83][84] The Discovery of America and the Hispanicity has been celebrated as a national day since under different names like "Día de la Hispanidad" or "Dia de la Raza", due to changes of political regimes in the 20th century. The national day emphasises Spain's ties with the Hispanidad, the international Hispanic community and Spanish legacy to the world.[85] In a royal decree established the Fiesta Nacional y Día de la Hispanidad as a national holiday.[85] However, in the name was changed again to Fiesta Nacional and October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with Constitution Day on December 6 as part of a compromise carmax jobs login conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain's history, and Republicans, who wanted to commemorate Spain's burgeoning democracy with an official holiday.[86] SinceOctober 12 has also been Spain's Day of the Armed Forces, celebrated each year with a military parade in Madrid.[86] The holiday is widely celebrated in Spain with official and cultural events throughout the country. Shops and businesses are closed as with other bank holidays. The observation is enhanced with the feast day of Our Lady of the Pillar (Fiestas del Pilar), the so-called Mother of Hispanicity[86] and of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Santa Cornerstone financial credit union franklin tn de Guadalupe) (appointed Queen of Hispanicity in by the Vatican) from Guadalupe, Caceres, whose Monastery was the venue in June for the decisive meeting between the Catholic Kings and Columbus to start organising the travel and where the latter came back inright after returning from his first voyage, to thank Her for his success.

Opposition to Columbus celebrations[edit]

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This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(July )

See also: Monument and memorial controversies in the United States §&#;Christopher Columbus (), and Monument and memorial controversies in the United States §&#;Murals of Columbus ()

For years after the first Columbus Day celebration inopposition to Columbus Day originated from anti-immigrant nativists who sought to eliminate its celebration because of its association with immigrants from the Catholic countries of Ireland and Italy, and the American Catholic fraternal organization, the Knights of Columbus.[87] Some anti-Catholics, notably including the Ku Klux Klan and the Women of the Ku Klux Klan, opposed celebrations of Columbus or monuments about him because they thought that it increased Catholic influence in the United States, which was largely a Protestant country.[87]

More recently, mainly since the s, more people oppose Columbus's and other Europeans' actions against the indigenous populations of the Americas. This opposition was initially led by Native Americans and was expanded upon by left-wing political parties.[88][89][90]

In the summer ofrepresentatives from American Indian groups from all over the hemisphere, met in Quito, Ecuador, at the first Intercontinental Gathering of Indigenous People in the Americas, to mobilize against the th anniversary (quin-centennial) celebration of Columbus Day planned for The following summer, in Davis, California, more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito conference. They declared October 12, to be "International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People."[91]

Two surveys, conducted in and by Rasmussen Reports, found 26% to 38% of American adults are not in favor of celebrating Columbus Day.[92][93]

Statueless plinth in Caracas in A statue of Christopher Columbus, which formerly occupied the plinth, was knocked down by activists in [94]

There are many interrelated strands of criticism. One refers primarily to the treatment of the indigenous populations during the European colonization of the Americas, which followed Columbus's discovery. Some groups, such as the American Indian Movement, have argued that the ongoing actions and injustices against Native Americans are masked by Columbus myths and celebrations.[95] American anthropologistJack Weatherford says that on Columbus Day, Americans celebrate the greatest waves of genocide of the American Indians known in history.[96]

A second strain of criticism of Columbus Day focuses on the character of Columbus himself. In time for the observation of the day, the final volume of a compendium of Columbus-era documents was published by the University of California, Los Angeles' Medieval and Renaissance Center. It stated that Columbus, while a brilliant mariner, exploited and enslaved the indigenous population.[97]

Spelman College historian Howard Zinn described some of the details in his book, A People's History of the United States, of how Columbus personally ordered the enslavement and mutilation of the native Arawak people in a bid to repay his investors.[98]

Journalist and media critic Norman Solomon reflects, in Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History, that many people choose to hold on to the myths instead of reality in the events surrounding Columbus. He disputes the idea that the Spaniards' arrival was beneficial towards the Indians by quoting History of the Indies by the Catholic priest Bartolomé de las Casas, who observed the region where Columbus was governor. Las Casas writes that the Spaniards were driven by "insatiable greed" as they killed and tortured native populations with "the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty" and laments that "my eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write."[99]

See also[edit]


  1. ^This date is according to the Julian Calendar; it would have been October 21,on the Gregorian Proleptic Calendar, which extends the Gregorian Calendar to dates prior to its adoption on October 4,


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External links[edit]

United StatesHolidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

Columbus Day, which is on the second Monday of October, remembers Christopher Columbus' arrival to the Americas on October 12, This holiday is controversial because the European settlement in the Americas led to the demise of the history and culture of the indigenous peoples.

Is Columbus Day a Public Holiday?

Columbus Day is a public holiday in some areas (see list below), where it is a day off and schools and most businesses are closed. In other areas, Columbus Day is a normal working day.

Observe Columbus Day

Some Americans celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of their country with church services and other activities. In some towns and cities, special church services, parades and large events are held. Many celebrations happen in the Italian-American community. The celebrations in New York and San Francisco are particularly noteworthy. In Hawaii Columbus Day is celebrated as Discoverers' Day, but it is not a state holiday.

Many states now celebrate Native Americans' Day/Indigenous People's Day instead of Columbus Day.

What’s Open or Closed?

Columbus day is a public holiday in many parts of the United states, but is not a day off in some states. Some government offices are closed because Columbus Day is still a federal government united airlines honolulu airport phone number Tennesse, Columbus Day is a legal holiday according to the Tenn. Code Ann. § (), but the Governor can substitute the day after Thanksgiving for Columbus Day for the purpose of closing state offices. When this occurs, state employees do not get a day off on the second Monday of October. Instead, they get the Friday after the fourth Thursday of November as a holiday.

Many businesses and shops are open in states that don't have Columbus Day as a public holiday. Schools are not required to close but check with your school district or school calendar on Columbus Day school holiday closures. The same goes for post offices - check with your local post office.

Long Weekend

Since Columbus Day falls on Monday, it is one of the public holidays in the United States that always create a long weekend.

About Columbus Day

Christopher Columbus is often portrayed as the first European to sail to the Americas. He is sometimes portrayed as the discoverer of the New World. However, this is controversial on many counts. There is evidence that the first Europeans to sail across the Atlantic were Viking explorers from Scandinavia. In addition, the land was already populated by indigenous peoples, who had 'discovered' the Americas thousands of years before.

Columbus Day originated as a celebration of Italian-American heritage and was first allied first bank sb in San Francisco in The first state-wide celebration was held in Colorado in InColumbus Day become a holiday across the United States. Sinceit has been celebrated on the second Monday in October. The date on which Columbus arrived in the Americas is also celebrated as the Día de la Raza (Day of the Race) in Latin America and some Latino communities in the USA. However, it is a controversial holiday in some countries and has been re-named in others.

Columbus Day celebrations are controversial because the settlement of Europeans in the Americas led to the deaths of a very large proportion of the native people. It has been argued that this was a direct result of Columbus' actions. It is clear that the arrival of the European settlers led to the demise of a large proportion of the history and culture of the indigenous is columbus day a school holiday in san diego of the Americas. It has also been argued that Columbus should not be honored for discovering North America, as he only went as far as some islands in the Caribbean and never got as far as mainland America.

Note: states the facts and issues associated with this observance but does not disclose its opinion on the matter.

Columbus Day Observances

While we diligently research and update our holiday dates, some of the information in the table above may be preliminary. If you find an error, please let us know.



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