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The very first president of the united states of america


the very first president of the united states of america

The first president of the Continental Congress was Virginia Delegate Peyton A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and. The issue: What powers does the Constitution give to the President? The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. In , President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Waite as American counsel in the Geneva Arbitration, the purpose of which was to press U. S. claims against.

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Was John Hanson the Real First President of the United States?

John Hanson (April 14, to November 15, )was an American Revolutionary leader who served as a delegate to Second Continental Congress and, in , was elected the first "President of the United States in Congress assembled.” For this reason, some biographers argue that John Hanson rather than George Washington was actually the first President of the United States.

Fast Facts: John Hanson

  • Known For:Elected President of the United States in Congress assembled in
  • Born: April 14, in Charles County, Maryland
  • Parents:Samuel and Elizabeth (Storey) Hanson
  • Died:November 15, in Prince George's County, Maryland
  • Spouse:Jane Contee
  • Children: 8, including (known) Jane, Peter, and Alexander
  • Fun Fact: Established the observation of Thanksgiving Day in

Early Life

John Hanson was born on his wealthy family’s “Mulberry Grove” plantation in Port Tobacco Parish in Charles County, Maryland, on April 14, His parents, Samuel and Elizabeth (Storey) Hanson, were well-known members of Maryland's social and political elite. Samuel Hanson was a successful planter, landowner, and politician who served two terms in the Maryland General Assembly.

While few details of Hanson’s early life are known, historians presume he was educated at home by private tutors as were most children of wealthy Colonial American families. Hanson then joined his father as a planter, enslaver, and public official.

Early Political Career

After serving as sheriff of Charles County for five years, Hanson was elected to the lower house of the Maryland General Assembly in An active and persuasive member, he was a major opponent of the Stamp Act of and chaired a special committee that coordinated Maryland’s participation in the Stamp Act Congress. In protest of the British-enacted Intolerable Acts, Hanson co-signed a resolution calling for a boycott of all British imports to the Colonies until the acts were repealed.

In , Hanson resigned from the Maryland General Assembly to pursue business interests. After selling his Charles County land and plantation, he moved to Frederick County in western Maryland, where he held a variety of appointed and elected offices, including surveyor, sheriff, and treasurer.  

Hanson Goes to Congress

As relations with Great Britain went from bad to worse and the colonies traveled down the road to the American Revolution in , Hanson became recognized as one of Maryland’s foremost Patriots. He personally orchestrated the passage of a resolution denouncing the Boston Port Act (which punished the people of Boston for the Boston Tea Party). As a delegate to the First Annapolis Convention in , Hanson signed the Declaration of the Association of the Freemen of Maryland, which, while expressing a desire to reconcile with Great Britain, called for military resistance to British troops in place to enforce the Intolerable Acts.

Once the Revolution broke out, Hanson helped recruit and arm local soldiers. Under his leadership, Frederick County, Maryland sent the first troops from the Southern Colonies north to join General George Washington’s newly-formed Continental Army. Sometimes paying the local soldiers out of his own pocket, Hanson urged the Continental Congress to declare independence.

In , Hanson was elected to his first of five one-year terms in the new Maryland House of Delegates, which named him as the state’s delegate to the Second Continental Congress in late On March 1, , he signed the Articles of Confederation on the behalf of Maryland, the last state needed to ratify the Articles and bring it into full effect.

First President of the USA

On November 5, , the Continental Congress elected Hanson as “President of the United States in Congress assembled.” This title is also sometimes called "President of the Continental Congress." This election has led to the contention that Hanson, rather than George Washington, was the first President of the United States.

Under the Articles of Confederation, the U.S. central government had no executive branch, and the position of president was largely ceremonial. Indeed, most of Hanson’s “presidential” duties consisted of dealing with official correspondence and signing documents. Finding the work so tedious, Hanson threatened to resign after just one week in office. After his colleagues in Congress appealed to his well-known sense of duty, Hanson agreed to continue to serve as president until the end of his one-year term on November 4,

Under the Articles of Confederation, presidents were elected to one-year terms. Hanson was neither the first person to serve as president or to be elected to the position under the Articles of Confederation. When the Articles went into full effect in March , rather than elect a new president, Congress simply allowed Samuel Huntington of Connecticut to continue serving as president. On July 9, , Congress elected Samuel Johnston of North Carolina as the first president after the ratification of the Articles. When Johnston declined to serve, Congress elected Thomas McKean of Delaware. However, McKean served for less than four months, resigning in October It was not until the next session of Congress convened in November , that Hanson was elected as the first president to serve a full term as president.

Hanson was responsible for establishing Thanksgiving Day. On October 11, , he issued a proclamation setting aside the last Thursday in November as “a day of Solemn Thanksgiving to God for all His mercies…” and urging all Americans to celebrate progress in negotiations with Britain ending the Revolutionary War.

Later Life and Death

Already in poor health, Hanson retired from public service immediately after completing his one-year term as president of Congress in November He died just one year later at age 62, on November 15, , while visiting his nephew Thomas Hawkins Hanson’s plantation in Prince George's County, Maryland. Hanson is buried in Fort Washington, Maryland, in the cemetery of Saint John’s Episcopal Church.

Sources

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Who was the first President of the United States?

SINCE gaining their independence in , Americans have elected 46 men to shape US society and uphold its democratic values.

Joe R Biden was sworn in as the 46th president of the United States on January 20,

 George Washington was the first President of the United States

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Who was the first President of the United States?

George Washington, the son of a planter, was the first president to hold office.

Washington was elected the first official president in

Before becoming president, he served as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from to in the American Revolutionary War.

Washington led the colonial forces to a victory over British troops and became a national hero.

In , he was chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention, where he showed impressive leadership and convinced delegates to choose him as America's first leader, according to HISTORY.

Washington and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison are recognized as the Founding Fathers of the US.

Washington's term as president lasted until , after which Adams became the second president.

Who were the six presidents before George Washington?

Although Washington is widely considered America's first official leader, six other men technically served as "president" before him.

When the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in , the delegates elected a leader or "president" to oversee the group's legislative decisions and meet with foreign dignitaries, much like today's presidential duties.

Virginia Delegate Peyton Randolph served as the president of the First Continental Congress from September to October , according to the US House of Representative's archives.

 At 78, Joe Biden became the oldest person to assume the presidency

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South Carolina Delegate Henry Middleton took over for four days from October , , before Randolph returned to lead the Second Continental Congress from May ,

Between May 24, , and March 1, , Massachusetts Delegate John Hancock, South Carolina Delegate Henry Laurens, New York Delegate John Jay, and Connecticut Delegate Samuel Huntington all served as president for a period of time.

Who are the 46 presidents?

Biden became the oldest person to assume the presidency, taking the presidential oath of office two months after turning

Here's a chronological list of the other 45 presidents that came before Biden since

 45 US Presidents

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Who are some notable US presidents?

Barack Obama was elected the first black president in US history in and served for two terms.

Before leaving office in , he spent his two terms fighting for health care reform and decreasing income inequality.

Franklin D. Roosevelt is the longest-serving US president - he entered office on March 4, , and sat in the Oval Office for four terms until his death in

FDR is best known for leading the US through the Great Depression and World War II while expanding the federal government's power through a series of programs and reforms known as the New Deal.

Ronald Reagan is the only movie star to become president and was known as "the Great Communicator" because of his impressive oratory skills.

Abraham Lincoln is revered for his famous Emancipation Proclamation, which paved the way for abolishing slavery in the US.

Topics

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Who truly was the most dishonest president?

By Jude Sheerin
BBC, Washington

Former President Donald Trump was often accused of having a complete disregard for the truth. Yet some of his predecessors' falsehoods ranged from the bizarre to the horrifying. So how does Trump truly compare?

When Saddam Hussein invaded the oil-rich emirate of Kuwait in August , President George HW Bush snarled: "This will not stand."

But as US troops were scrambled to the Gulf, the American public was dubious about the justification for military action.

The Kuwaiti government-in-exile promptly hired a US public relations firm, Hill & Knowlton, whose Washington DC office was run by Bush's former chief of staff.

The PR firm coached a purported witness, introduced as a year-old girl called "Nayirah", to tearfully tell US congressmen in October that Iraqi soldiers had entered a hospital in Kuwait, removed babies from incubators and left them to die on the cold floor.

Nayirah, reporters were assured, was using an assumed name for fear of reprisals against her family back home.

Only after the war would it emerge she was the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the US. And her story was completely baseless, as John MacArthur details in his book, Second Front, Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War.

Bush is recorded as having publicly touted this tall tale at least six times as he blew the bugle of war.

Image source, Getty Images

"Babies pulled from incubators and scattered like firewood across the floor," the president said on one occasion during a speech to US troops in Saudi Arabia.

MacArthur writes that the hoax helped rally the American people behind calls for military action.

In January , Bush's war resolution narrowly passed the Senate. Six senators cited the incubators story as justification for authorising the conflict, notes MacArthur.

Operation Desert Storm launched days later.

The irony is that it seems babies actually did perish after being removed from incubators during Gulf War One. Only it reportedly happened in a massive US-led allied air raid.

On the first night of bombing, as electricity failed amid the explosions, panicking mothers took their newborns from the machines at a paediatric hospital in Baghdad and sheltered in a cold basement where more than 40 of the infants died, according to a contemporary New York Times report.

They were among thousands of civilians estimated killed in the day conflict.

While it has never been established that Bush knew the incubators story he repeatedly told was unfounded, the White House is generally expected to verify claims made by the president - especially one so horrifying.

American journalists failed to debunk the Nayirah testimony until after the war. The controversy was omitted from a recent admiring biography of Bush, and from glowing coverage of his presidency when he died in

Allegations of presidential dishonesty, however, greatly exercised media fact-checkers during the tenure of Mr Trump.

Image source, AFP via Getty Images

The Washington Post maintains a database of Trump statements - over 30, of them - that it claims are false or misleading.

Many of these utterances, such as about golf or his wealth or whether it snowed at one of his rallies, sound relatively trifling.

Others, such as claims he deliberately misled the American people about the severity of coronavirus, or his unfounded assertions that the White House election was rigged, would be much more damaging.

Benjamin Ginsberg, author of The American Lie: Government by the People and Other Political Fables, says that when it comes to presidential falsehoods, some are much more consequential than others.

He cites deceptive statements by Bush's son, President George W Bush, as he sold a sequel war on Iraq to the US public.

These included downplaying intelligence doubts that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction, and implying he might even have a nuclear weapon, and asserting he was an ally of al-Qaeda.

Prof Ginsberg says "whoppers" that lead to military action are the most harmful of all, and that Trump is not as blame-worthy as some of his predecessors in this respect.

The political science lecturer at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore adds: "The problem is the American presidential selection process is fundamentally flawed and produces monsters.

"It requires years of campaigning, and only the most arrogant, ambitious and narcissistic individuals would possibly be willing to do such a thing."

Once upon a time Americans placed an almost childlike trust in their commanders-in-chief.

They were venerated as demigods.

Many historians date this rupture to Lyndon Baines Johnson, though he was far from the first president to deceive.

JFK's brother, Robert Kennedy, once said of LBJ: "He just lies continually about everything. He lies even when he doesn't have to lie."

Image source, Getty Images

Johnson's falsehoods on the Vietnam War included using an August naval attack that never happened in the Gulf of Tonkin to dramatically escalate the conflict.

"We are not about to send American boys nine or 10 thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves," he told voters two months later in Akron, Ohio.

After being elected, LBJ quietly sent the first US combat forces to the jungles and rice paddies of the war zone, eventually deploying more than half a million troops.

Johnson's constant dissembling about this foreign policy disaster envenomed American political life and led journalists to coin a euphemistic term about his administration: the credibility gap.

His successor, Richard Nixon, ran for office pledging to bring an "honourable" end to the carnage in Vietnam, before expanding the conflict by secretly carpet-bombing neutral Cambodia.

Yet it was another cover-up - the Watergate scandal, a botched burglary by his henchmen to wiretap their political opponents - that destroyed Nixon's presidency.

Image source, Getty Images

American children were once taught to tell the truth with the aid of a morality tale on presidential honesty that was itself untrue.

"I can't tell a lie, Pa," is the well-known line from the story about the young George Washington confessing to his father that he had split his cherry tree with a hatchet.

It was entirely invented by the president's first biographer.

The father of the nation was in fact not above the odd fib himself.

In , he attempted to rewrite history by claiming he had been the strategic visionary behind the victory over the British at Yorktown seven years earlier during the Revolutionary War.

But it was actually his French allies who masterminded the decisive battle in Virginia.

Washington had been stubbornly arguing instead for an attack on New York City, as Ron Chernow notes in his biography of the first US commander-in-chief.

Here was the original sin, if you will, of presidential duplicity.

Some lies told by occupants of the White House have been utterly bizarre.

Thomas Jefferson told a European naturalist who had disparaged the New World's fauna that woolly mammoths roamed the unexplored American West.

In , President Ronald Reagan claimed he had filmed the atrocities of the Nazi death camps while serving as a US Army Signal Corps photographer in Europe.

He told this story to Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir at the White House.

Reagan never left America during World War Two. Few remember this mind-boggling lie.

Image source, Corbis via Getty Images

Many of Trump's comments in the Washington Post catalogue will no doubt prove equally forgettable.

However, one historian argues that the recent tenant of Pennsylvania Avenue, by the sheer volume of his mendacity, has destroyed the very idea of shared truth in American politics.

"We've tolerated presidential lies ever since the beginning of the republic," says Professor Eric Alterman, author of Lying In State: Why Presidents Lie - And Why Trump Is Worse.

"But Donald Trump is the Frankenstein's monster of a political system that has not merely tolerated lies from our leaders, but has come to demand them."

Prof Alterman says the Capitol rioters, radicalised by conspiracy theories about stolen elections and satanic cabals, underscore the extent to which Trump inspired the "creation of an entire world of unreality".

A useful civics lesson on how a president who has been caught dissimulating reacts away from the cameras may be found in William Jefferson Clinton.

In January he indignantly denied to reporters having had any sexual relations with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky.

But an investigation into whether he had lied under oath heard graphic evidence of their frolics, including that the president used a cigar with her as a sex toy after inviting the year-old into the Oval Office.

Instead of feeling shame for deceiving the nation, Clinton privately expressed relief, according to John F Harris' biography, The Survivor.

Even as he prepared to go on television in August and express contrition, the president told a close friend: "The lie saved me."

Image source, Sygma via Getty Images

Clinton reasoned that the drip-drip of prurient allegations had allowed the American people to gradually come to terms with his antics, ultimately sparing his political neck.

It's all a rueful reminder of the blessing carved into the mantel of the White House State Dining Room:

"May none but Honest and Wise Men ever rule under This Roof."

Follow @judesheerin on Twitter

  • "If you like your healthcare plan, you'll keep your healthcare plan, period" - Barack Obama in , rated Lie of the Year by PolitiFact
  • "We've removed an ally of al-Qaeda and… no terrorist network will gain weapons of destruction from the Iraqi regime because the regime is no more" - George W Bush in
  • "A few months ago I told the American people I did not trade arms for hostages. My heart and my best intentions still tell me that's true, but the facts and the evidence tell me it is not" - Ronald Reagan in on the Iran-Contra scandal
  • "No-one in the White House staff, no-one in this Administration, presently employed, was involved in this very bizarre incident" - Richard Nixon in on Watergate
  • Dwight Eisenhower approved statements claiming an American U-2 spy plane shot down by the Soviets in was just a weather research aircraft, later acknowledging this was a lie and his "greatest regret"
  • "The world will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base" - Harry Truman in , but the target was actually a city and most of the , or so people who died were civilians
  • "Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars" - Franklin Delano Roosevelt to voters in , even as he flexed his political muscles to confront Nazi Germany
  • Mexico "has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil" - James Polk in his war message to Congress, about an attack he had provoked in what was actually disputed territory

More on this story

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Revealed: how Sidney Powell could be disbarred for lying in court for Trump

Sidney Powell, the former lawyer for Donald Trump who filed lawsuits across the US for the former president, hoping to overturn the results of the presidential election, has on several occasions represented to federal courts that people were co-counsel or plaintiffs in her cases without seeking their permission to do so, the Guardian has learned.

Some of these individuals say that they found out that Powell had named them only once the cases were already filed.

During this same period of time, Powell also named several other lawyers – with their permission in those instances – as co-counsel in her election-related cases, despite the fact that they played virtually no role in bringing or litigating those cases.

Both Powell’s naming of other people as plaintiffs or co-counsel without their consent and representing that other attorneys were central to her cases when, in fact, their roles were nominal or nonexistent, constitute serious potential violations of the American Bar Association model rules for professional conduct, top legal ethicists told the Guardian.

Powell’s misrepresentations to the courts in those particular instances often aided fundraising for her non-profit, Defending the Republic. Powell had told prospective donors that the attorneys were integral members of an “elite strike force” who had played outsized roles in her cases – when in fact they were barely involved if at all.

Powell did not respond to multiple requests for comment via phone, email, and over social media.

The State Bar of Texas is already investigating Powell for making other allegedly false and misleading statements to federal courts by propagating increasingly implausible conspiracy theories to federal courts that Joe Biden’s election as president of the United States was illegitimate.

The Texas bar held its first closed-door hearing regarding the allegations about Powell on 4 November. Investigations by state bar associations are ordinarily conducted behind closed doors and thus largely opaque to the public.

A federal grand jury has also been separately investigating Powell, Defending the Republic, as well as a political action committee that goes by the same name, for fundraising fraud, according to records reviewed by the Guardian.

Among those who have alleged that Powell falsely named them as co-counsel is attorney Linn Wood, who brought and litigated with Powell many of her lawsuits attempting to overturn the results of the election with her, including in the hotly contested state of Michigan.

The Michigan case was a futile attempt by Powell to erase Joe Biden’s victory in that state and name Trump as the winner. On 25 August, federal district court Judge Linda Parker, of Michigan, sanctioned Powell and nine other attorneys who worked with her for having engaged in “a historic and profound abuse of the judicial process” in bringing the case in the first place. Powell’s claims of election fraud, Parker asserted, had no basis in law and were solely based on “speculation, conjecture, and unwarranted suspicion”.

Parker further concluded that the conduct of Powell, Wood, and the eight other attorneys whom they worked with, warranted a “referral for investigation and possible suspension or disbarment to the appropriate disciplinary authority for each state … in which each attorney is admitted”.

Wood told the court in the Michigan case that Powell had wrongly named him as one of her co-counsel in the Michigan case. During a hearing in the case to determine whether to sanction Wood, his defense largely rested on his claim that he had not been involved in the case at all. Powell, Wood told the court, had put his name on the lawsuit without even telling him.

Wood said: “I do not specifically recall being asked about the Michigan complaint … In this case obviously my name was included. My experience or my skills apparently were never needed, so I didn’t have any involvement with it.”

Wood’s attorney, Paul Stablein, was also categorical in asserting that his client had nothing to do with the case, telling the Guardian in an interview: “He didn’t draft the complaint. He didn’t sign it. He did not authorize anyone to put his name on it.”

Powell has denied she would have named Wood as a co-counsel without Wood’s permission.

But other people have since come forward to say that Powell has said that they were named as plaintiffs or lawyers in her election-related cases without their permission.

In a Wisconsin voting case, a former Republican candidate for Congress, Derrick Van Orden, said he only learned after the fact that he had been named as a plaintiff in one of Powell’s cases.

“I learned through social media today that my name was included in a lawsuit without my permission,” Van Orden said in a statement he posted on Twitter, “To be clear, I am not involved in the lawsuit seeking to overturn the election in Wisconsin.”

Jason Shepherd, the Republican chairman of Georgia’s Cobb county, was similarly listed as a plaintiff in a Georgia election case without his approval.

In a 26 November statement, Shepherd said he had been talking to an associate of Powell’s before the case’s filing about the “Cobb GOP being a plaintiff” but said he first “needed more information to at least make sure the executive officers were in agreeing to us being a party in the suit”. The Cobb county Republican party later agreed to remain plaintiffs in the case instead of withdrawing.

Leslie Levin, a professor at the University of Connecticut Law School, said in an interview: “Misrepresentations to the court are very serious because lawyers are officers of the court. Bringing a lawsuit in someone’s name when they haven’t consented to being a party is a very serious misrepresentation and one for which a lawyer should expect to face serious discipline.”

Nora Freeman Engstrom, a law professor at Stanford University, says that Powell’s actions appear to violate Rule of the ABA’s model rules of professional misconduct, which hold that “a lawyer shall not knowingly … make a false statement of fact or law to a tribunal”.

Since election day last year, federal and state courts have dismissed more than 60 lawsuits alleging electoral fraud and irregularities by Powell and other Trump allies.

Shortly after the election, Trump named Powell as a senior member of an “elite strike force” who would prove that Joe Biden won the presidential race only because the election was stolen from him. But Trump refused to pay her for her services. To remedy this, Powell set up a new non-profit called Defending the Republic; its stated purpose is to “protect the integrity of elections in the United States”.

As a not-for-profit organization, the group is allowed to raise unlimited amounts of “dark money”, and donors are legally protected from the ordinary requirements to disclose their identities to the public. Powell warned supporters that for her to succeed, “millions of dollars must be raised”.

Echoing Trump’s rhetoric, Powell told prospective donors that Defending the Republic had a vast team of experienced litigators.

Among the attorneys who Powell said made up this “taskforce” were Emily Newman, who had served Trump as the White House liaison to the Department of Health and Human Services and as a senior official with the Department of Homeland Security. Newman had been a founding board member of Defending the Republic.

But facing sanctions in the Michigan case, some of the attorneys attempted to distance themselves from having played much of a meaningful role in her litigation.

Newman’s attorney told Parker, the judge, that Newman had “not played a role in the drafting of the complaint … My client was a contract lawyer working from home who spent maybe five hours on this matter. She really wasn’t involved … Her role was de minimis.”

To have standing to file her Michigan case, Powell was initially unable to find a local attorney to be co-counsel on her case but eventually attorney Gregory Rohl agreed to help out.

But when Rohl was sanctioned by Parker and referred to the Michigan attorney disciplinary board for further investigation, his defense was that he, too, was barely involved in the case. He claimed that he only received a copy of “the already prepared” page initial complaint at the last minute, reviewed it for “well over an hour”, while then “making no additions, decisions or corrections” to the original.

As with Newman, Parker found that Rohl violated ethics rules by making little, if any, effort to verify the facts of the claims in Powell’s filings.

In sanctioning Rohl, the judge wrote that “the court finds it exceedingly difficult to believe that Rohl read an page complaint in just ‘well over an hour’ on the day he filed it. So, Rohl’s argument in and of itself reveals sanctionable conduct.”

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Gutzon Borglum selected these four presidents because from his perspective, they represented the most important events in the history of the United States. Would another artist at that time, or perhaps a modern artist choose differently? As you read more about Borglum's choices, think about what you might have done if the decision was up to you.

Photo of George Washington on Mount Rushmore.

George Washington, First President of the United States

Born , died Washington led the colonists in the American Revolutionary War to win independence from Great Britain. He was the father of the new country and laid the foundation of American democracy. Because of his importance, Borglum chose Washington to be the most prominent figure on the mountain and represent the birth of the United States.

"The preservation of the sacred fire of Liberty, and the destiny of the Republican model of Government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people." George Washington

Other places to learn more about George Washington:

George Washington Birthplace National Monument
The White House - Presidents - George Washington

Photo of Thomas Jefferson on Mount Rushmore.

Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States

Born , died Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence, a document which inspires democracies around the world. He also purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in which doubled the size of our country, adding all or part of fifteen present-day states. Gutzon Borglum chose Jefferson to represent the growth of the United States.

"We act not for ourselves but for the whole human race. The event of our experiment is to show whether man can be trusted with self - government." Thomas Jefferson

Other places to learn more about Thomas Jefferson:

Thomas Jefferson Memorial National Memorial
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial National Memorial
The White House - Presidents - Thomas Jefferson

To learn more about these four presidents and all the others follow this link to the White House.

List of United States Presidents with their years in office and party affiliation:

1. George Washington -
2. John Adams - Federalist
3. Thomas Jefferson - Democratic - Republican
4. James Madison - Democratic - Republican
5. James Monroe - Democratic - Republican
6. John Quincy Adams - Democratic - Republican
7. Andrew Jackson - Democrat
8. Martin Van Buren - Democrat
9. William Henry HarrisonWhig
John Tyler - Whig
James K. Polk - Democrat
Zachary Taylor - Whig
Millard Fillmore - Whig
Franklin Pierce - Democrat
James Buchanan - Democrat
Abraham Lincoln - Republican
Andrew Johnson - Democrat
Ulysses S. Grant - Republican
Rutherford B. Hayes - Republican
James A. GarfieldRepublican
Chester A. Arthur - Republican
Grover Cleveland - Democrat
Benjamin Harrison - Republican
Grover Cleveland - Democrat
William McKinley - Republican
Theodore Roosevelt - Republican
William H. Taft - Republican
Woodrow Wilson - Democrat
Warren G. Harding - Republican
Calvin Coolidge - Republican
Herbert C. Hoover - Republican
Franklin D. Roosevelt - Democrat
Harry S. Truman - Democrat
Dwight D. Eisenhower - Republican
John F. Kennedy - Democrat
Lyndon B. Johnson - Democrat
Richard M. Nixon - Republican
Gerald R. Ford - Republican
Jimmy Carter - Democrat
Ronald Reagan - Republican
George H. W. Bush - Republican
William J. Clinton - Democrat
George W. Bush - Republican
Barack Obama - Democrat
Donald J. Trump - Republican
Joseph R. Biden, Jr. -Democrat
Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Articles of Confederation, –

The Articles of Confederation served as the written document that established the functions of the national government of the United States after it declared independence from Great Britain. It established a weak central government that mostly, but not entirely, prevented the individual states from conducting their own foreign diplomacy.

The Articles of Confederation

The Albany Plan an earlier, pre-independence attempt at joining the colonies into a larger union, had failed in part because the individual colonies were concerned about losing power to another central insitution. As the American Revolution gained momentum, however, many political leaders saw the advantages of a centralized government that could coordinate the Revolutionary War. In June of , the New York provincial Congress sent a plan of union to the Continental Congress, which, like the Albany Plan, continued to recognize the authority of the British Crown.

Some Continental Congress delegates had also informally discussed plans for a more permanent union than the Continental Congress, whose status was temporary. Benjamin Franklin had drawn up a plan for “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.” While some delegates, such as Thomas Jefferson, supported Franklin’s proposal, many others were strongly opposed. Franklin introduced his plan before Congress on July 21, but stated that it should be viewed as a draft for when Congress was interested in reaching a more formal proposal. Congress tabled the plan.

Following the Declaration of Independence, the members of the Continental Congress realized it would be necessary to set up a national government. Congress began to discuss the form this government would take on July 22, disagreeing on a number of issues, including whether representation and voting would be proportional or state-by-state. The disagreements delayed final discussions of confederation until October of By then, the British capture of Philadelphia had made the issue more urgent. Delegates finally formulated the Articles of Confederation, in which they agreed to state-by-state voting and proportional state tax burdens based on land values, though they left the issue of state claims to western lands unresolved. Congress sent the Articles to the states for ratification at the end of November. Most delegates realized that the Articles were a flawed compromise, but believed that it was better than an absence of formal national government.

On December 16, , Virginia was the first state to ratify. Other states ratified during the early months of When Congress reconvened in June of , the delegates learned that Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey refused to ratify the Articles. The Articles required unanimous approval from the states. These smaller states wanted other states to relinquish their western land claims before they would ratify the Articles. New Jersey and Delaware eventually agreed to the conditions of the Articles, with New Jersey ratifying on Nov 20, , and Delaware on Feb 1, This left Maryland as the last remaining holdout.

Irked by Maryland’s recalcitrance, several other state governments passed resolutions endorsing the formation of a national government without the state of Maryland, but other politicians such as Congressman Thomas Burke of North Carolina persuaded their governments to refrain from doing so, arguing that without unanimous approval of the new Confederation, the new country would remain weak, divided, and open to future foreign intervention and manipulation.

Meanwhile, in , British forces began to conduct raids on Maryland communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Alarmed, the state government wrote to the French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne asking for French naval assistance. Luzerne wrote back, urging the government of Maryland to ratify the Articles of Confederation. Marylanders were given further incentive to ratify when Virginia agreed to relinquish its western land claims, and so the Maryland legislature ratified the Articles of Confederation on March 1,

French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne

The Continental Congress voted on Jan 10, , to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs; on Aug 10 of that year, it elected Robert R. Livingston as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The Secretary’s duties involved corresponding with U.S. representatives abroad and with ministers of foreign powers. The Secretary was also charged with transmitting Congress’ instructions to U.S. agents abroad and was authorized to attend sessions of Congress. A further Act of Feb 22, , allowed the Secretary to ask and respond to questions during sessions of the Continental Congress.

The Articles created a sovereign, national government, and, as such, limited the rights of the states to conduct their own diplomacy and foreign policy. However, this proved difficult to enforce, as the national government could not prevent the state of Georgia from pursuing its own independent policy regarding Spanish Florida, attempting to occupy disputed territories and threatening war if Spanish officials did not work to curb Indian attacks or refrain from harboring escaped slaves. Nor could the Confederation government prevent the landing of convicts that the British Government continued to export to its former colonies. In addition, the Articles did not allow Congress sufficient authority to enforce provisions of the Treaty of Paris that allowed British creditors to sue debtors for pre-Revolutionary debts, an unpopular clause that many state governments chose to ignore. Consequently, British forces continued to occupy forts in the Great Lakes region. These problems, combined with the Confederation government’s ineffectual response to Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts, convinced national leaders that a more powerful central government was necessary. This led to the Constitutional Convention that formulated the current Constitution of the United States.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

All 45 Presidents of the United States Described in 1 Sentence

A lot can happen over a four-year term and even more throughout a multi-term presidency. There have been major accomplishments, war, devastating scandals, unforgiving nicknames, and some very obscure presidential pets. And no matter what happened during the term, the public generally remembers a president for one or two actions he took or events that occurred during his term. Spanning nearly years and 45 presidents (to date, January ) welcome to the Cliff Notes of American Presidency.

Related Reading

1. George Washington ()

A founding father, military general, and the first president of the United States, President Washington calls the dollar bill home and knew how to cross the Delaware River in style.

2. John Adams ()

The first vice president and soon thereafter, the second president, President John Adams was the author of the Massachusetts constitution and by chance died on July 4th, … 50 years after the Declaration of Independence was adopted.

3. Thomas Jefferson ()

Growing up in Virginia (the state birthing the most presidents), President Thomas Jefferson was co-author of the Declaration of Independence and in his spare time was enthused by (proto) archaeology.

4. James Madison ()

5’4” President James Madison was the chief author of the Constitution, one of two presidents to sign it (the other being George Washington), and he had a pet parrot named Polly.

5. James Monroe ()

Another president from Virginia, President James Monroe studied law under Thomas Jefferson and established the country’s first foreign policy, known as the Monroe Doctrine.

6. John Quincy Adams ()

Gifted an alligator from Marquis De Lafayette, President John Quincy Adams was the first president to live in the White House.

7. Andrew Jackson ()

The only president to be a prisoner of war, President Andrew Jackson has been on the $20 bill since and is known for founding the Democratic Party.

8. Martin Van Buren ()

President Van Buren was the first president to be born in the U.S., had his daughter-in-law serve as First Lady after his wife passed, and had a gang formed in his honor on Seinfeld &#; The Van Buren Boys.

9. William Henry Harrison ()

With the shortest presidential term, President William Henry Harrison passed one month into his presidency from pneumonia that fell on him after standing in the rain for an hour giving his inauguration speech.

John Tyler ()

The first president to serve without being elected, President Tyler worked for the annexation of Texas to the United States and, with a strong belief in states&#; rights caused major riffs through all political parties.

James K. Polk ()

With a desire for expansion, President Polk set his eyes on the Pacific Ocean and extended the land of the U.S. by million square miles.

Zachary Taylor ()

A hero of the Mexican-American War, he won the presidency because Northerners voted for him because of war heroism and Southerners did so because he was a fellow slave owner.

Millard Fillmore ()

The last of the Whigs, President Fillmore was all peace and smiles trying to make everyone happy with the Compromise of

Franklin Pierce ()

Some point their fingers at President Pierce for fueling the fire that started the Civil War.

James Buchanan ()

The last president before the Civil War, President Buchanan served without a wife and had an eagle as a pet.

Abraham Lincoln ()

The tallest president, enshrined in the Wrestling Hall of Fame, and the man who issued The Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln led America during the Civil War, and, ironically, signed legislation creating the Secret Service hours before his assassination.

Andrew Johnson ()

Known as The Veto President for continually vetoing bills passed by Congress, President Johnson is one of three presidents to be impeached.

Ulysses S. Grant ()

A Union war hero, President Grant helped establish the National Park System as well as pushing forward the 15th Amendment while fighting for the rights of Native Americans and African Americans.

Rutherford B. Hayes ()

President Hayes did not serve alcohol at the White House and was the first to host the Easter Egg Roll (which continues today) and in his single term, dedicated his efforts to fighting to improve the government after the Civil War and protect the rights of people of all races.

James A. Garfield ()

The second of three presidents to serve in , President Garfield was shot days into his term and died a few months later from complications, but not before he left his mark with efforts to end political corruption.

Chester Arthur ()

An unexpected leader by proxy, President Arthur helped to fund the Navy, which had been in decline, worked for funding for Native American education, reportedly had 80 pairs of pants, and held the nickname Elegant Arthur because of his desire to change outfits for every occasion.

Grover Cleveland ()

The only president to serve nonconsecutive terms, President Grover Cleveland also shared the name of Veto President and struggled to unite the country after the Panic of

Benjamin Harrison ()

Grandson to the former President Harrison, this President Harrison welcomed Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming to the U.S. while being the first president to live in the White House with electricity.

Grover Cleveland ()

He’s back for round two after a four-year breather.

William McKinley ()

President through the Spanish-American War, President McKinley led the U.S. as it assumed recognition as a world power while making significant efforts to rebuild the economy.

Theodore Roosevelt ()

Known as the trust buster, President Roosevelt worked to make American life better for all, won a Nobel Peace Prize, and was the first president to leave the country while in office, to visit the Panama Canal.

William Howard Taft ()

President Taft established a federal tax through the 16th Amendment, was the first president to reign over the continuous 48 states, get stuck in a White House bathtub, and began the tradition of throwing out the first pitch at an MLB game.

Woodrow Wilson ()

In office during WW1 and winner of a Nobel Peace Prize for his work to form the League of Nations, President Wilson also was printed on the $, bill.

Warren G. Harding ()

The first president to be elected after the 19th Amendment and owner of size 19 feet, President Harding’s tenure was tainted by scandals caused by friends that he appointed to office.

Calvin Coolidge ()

President Coolidge signed the Indian Citizenship Act, which gave full U.S. citizenship rights to all Native Americans in the midst of the Roaring &#;20s, and is the only president to be born on Independence Day.

Herbert Hoover ()

Perhaps outshined by the Great Depression, President Hoover did sign the congressional resolution that made &#;The Star-Spangled Banner&#; the national anthem of the United States, was the first president to have a phone at his desk, and did not take a salary &#; instead he donated it to charity.

Franklin D. Roosevelt ()

President Roosevelt brought America out of the Great Depression, led the U.S and Allied forces in WW2, and by the end of his fourth term, he laid the groundwork for the United Nations.

Harry S Truman ()

Over two terms President Truman dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, initiated the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine, and embarked on the Korean War.

Dwight D. Eisenhower ()

The commander and 5-Star General of the Allied forces during WW2, President Eisenhower established the current Interstate Highway System, helped to negotiate an end to the Korean War, and created a permanent civil rights office in the Department of Justice.

John F. Kennedy ()

President Kennedy is credited for starting the Peace Corps, staying cool through the Cuban Missile Crisis, and with leaving the ongoing question of who was on the grassy knoll.

Lyndon B. Johnson ()

The Civil Rights Act of and the Vietnam War were the main events during President Johnson’s tenure.

Richard Nixon ()

Despite improving relations with the Soviet Union and China and the conclusion of the Vietnam War, President Nixon will be remembered primarily for the Watergate Scandal and his resignation &#; the only president to do so.

Gerald Ford ()

The only man to serve without being elected as either President or Vice President, President Ford spent a great deal of his term mending the country’s feelings towards its leaders while brokering a temporary truce in the Middle East.

Jimmy Carter ()

Gas prices skyrocketed with cars waiting in line to fill up while President Carter was in office, and during his time in office the Department of Energy and the Department of Education were created.

Ronald Reagan ()

From the Hollywood Hills to the White House, President Reagan battled through the Cold War, reasserted confidence in Americans, escaped an assassination attempt, and oversaw the events that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall.

George Bush ()

As the Soviet Union fell, the U.S. led by President Bush began fighting in the Persian Gulf War, and he was also the third American president to be knighted by the Queen.

Bill Clinton ()

Holding term during the longest period of peace and economic growth, President (and saxophone player) Clinton is also the second of three presidents to be impeached.

George W. Bush ()

In office during 9/11 and deciding to lead the U.S. into Afghanistan and Iraq, President George W. Bush did overthrow Saddam Hussein.

Barack Obama ()

The first African American president, President Obama established Health Care Reform, captured and killed Osama bin Laden, and kept the economy thriving through two terms.

Donald Trump (present)

As of publication, President Trump’s story continues to be written.

Editors&#; Recommendations

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Who Was Really Our First President? A Lost Hero

  • Review the lesson plan. Locate and bookmark suggested materials and other useful websites. Download and print out documents you will use and duplicate copies as necessary for student viewing.
  • Students with an understanding of the fears of the Founders regarding a powerful executive will benefit the most from this lesson. When discussing the structure of the Executive sketched in the Articles of Confederation, it is useful to refer back to the complaints of the colonists as summarized by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence. Help students understand why and how the Founders were cautious. Consult the following EDSITEment lessons for grades for more information on:
  • On March 1,the Articles of Confederation, which had been the very first president of the united states of america by the Continental Congress infinally came into force with the very first president of the united states of america by Maryland. On October 19 of the same year, British General Cornwallis surrendered a large army to General George Washington, effectively ending the Revolutionary War. Days later, the Continental Congress elected John Hanson of Maryland the "President of the United States in Congress Assembled" with no dissenting votes. On paper, the role was largely ceremonial, with its only specified duty being presiding over the Congress; however, some people believe Hanson was integral to a number of important actions. Many of the initiatives begun during Hanson's term in office were realized later when Washington was Chief Executive (for example, the census and Postal Service).
  • The National Archives offers The Declaration of Independence: A History and The Constitution: A History for background on those fundamental documents as well as the Articles of Confederation.
  • Unless otherwise specified, historic documents referred to in the lesson plan are available on the EDSITEment resource Avalon Project at the Yale Law School.
  • The handout provided below uses very brief excerpts from the records of the Continental Congress. The documents are intended to represent a sample of the problems and accomplishments of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation during John Hanson's tenure as President. The interesting but relatively inconsequential question about Hanson's place in history serves in this lesson as a hinge into the more important question of the problems with the Articles of Confederation that eventually led to the drafting of the U.S. Constitution.

    The records of the Continental Congress are presented to students in their original language. Some difficult terms, indicated by underlining, are defined in parentheses. Some grammar and spelling has been standardized. In many classes, students will be able to understand the text sufficiently for the requirements of this lesson; some classes will benefit by simply going through a few (or all) of the documents as a whole class. The passages are all short but vary in length; if students will be looking at them in groups, assign groups and passages accordingly. There are 12 documents; use all of them or choose those most appropriate for your class. Some representing defects in the Articles and accomplishments of the Congress are marked.
Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Was John Hanson the Real First President of the United States?

John Hanson (April 14, to November 15, )was an American Revolutionary leader who served as union savings bank mt washington delegate to Second Continental Congress and, inwas elected the first "President of the United States in Congress assembled.” For this reason, some biographers argue that John Hanson rather than George Washington was actually the first President of the United States.

Fast Facts: John Hanson

  • Known For:Elected President of the United States in Congress assembled in
  • Born: April 14, in Charles County, Maryland
  • Parents:Samuel and Elizabeth (Storey) Hanson
  • Died:November 15, in Prince George's County, Maryland
  • Spouse:Jane Contee
  • Children: 8, including (known) Jane, Peter, and Alexander
  • Fun Fact: Established the observation of Thanksgiving Day in

Early Life

John Hanson was born on his wealthy family’s “Mulberry Grove” plantation in Port Tobacco Parish in Charles County, Maryland, on April 14, His parents, Samuel and Elizabeth (Storey) Hanson, were well-known members of Maryland's social and political elite. Samuel Hanson was a successful planter, landowner, and politician who served two terms in the Maryland General Assembly.

While few details of Hanson’s early life are known, historians presume he was educated at home by private tutors as were most children of wealthy Colonial American families. Hanson then joined his father as a planter, enslaver, and public official.

Early Political Career

After serving as sheriff of Charles County for five years, Hanson was elected to the lower house of the Maryland General Assembly in An active and persuasive member, he was a major opponent of the Stamp Act of and chaired a special committee that coordinated Maryland’s participation in the Stamp Act Congress. In protest of the British-enacted Intolerable Acts, Hanson co-signed a resolution calling for a boycott of all British imports to the Colonies until the acts were repealed.

InHanson resigned from the Maryland General Assembly to pursue business interests. After selling his Charles County land and plantation, he moved to Frederick County in western Maryland, where he held a variety of appointed and elected offices, including surveyor, sheriff, and treasurer.  

Hanson Goes to Congress

As relations with Great Britain went from bad to worse and the wayfair cc login traveled down the road to the American Revolution inHanson became recognized as one of Maryland’s foremost Patriots. He personally orchestrated the passage of a resolution denouncing the Boston Port Act (which punished the people of Boston for the Boston Tea Party). As a delegate to the First Annapolis Convention inHanson signed the Declaration of the Association of the Freemen of Maryland, which, while expressing a desire to reconcile with Great Britain, called for military resistance to British troops in place to enforce the Intolerable Acts.

Once the Revolution broke out, Hanson helped recruit and arm local soldiers. Under his leadership, Frederick County, Maryland sent the first troops from the Southern Colonies north to join General George Washington’s newly-formed Continental Army. Sometimes paying the local soldiers out of his own pocket, Hanson urged the Continental Congress to declare independence.

InHanson was elected to his first of five one-year terms in the new Maryland House of Delegates, which named him as the state’s delegate to the Second Continental Congress in late On March 1,he signed the Articles of Confederation on the behalf of Maryland, the last state needed to ratify the Articles and bring it into full effect.

First President of the The very first president of the united states of america

On November 5,the Continental Congress elected Hanson as “President of the United States in Congress assembled.” This title is also sometimes called "President of the Continental Congress." This election has led to the contention that Hanson, rather than George Washington, was the first President of the United States.

Under the Articles of Confederation, the U.S. central government had no executive branch, and the position of president was largely ceremonial. Indeed, most of Hanson’s “presidential” duties consisted of dealing with official correspondence and signing documents. Finding the work so tedious, Hanson threatened to resign after just one week in office. After his colleagues in Congress appealed to his well-known sense of duty, Hanson agreed to continue to serve as president until the end of his one-year term on November 4,

Under the Articles of Confederation, presidents were elected to one-year terms. Hanson was neither the first person to serve as president or to be elected to the position under the Articles of Confederation. When the Articles went into full effect in Marchrather than elect a new president, Congress simply allowed Samuel Huntington of Connecticut to continue serving as president. On July 9,Congress elected Samuel Johnston of North Carolina as the first president after the ratification of the Articles. When Johnston declined to serve, Congress elected Thomas McKean of Delaware. However, McKean served for less than four months, resigning in October It was not until the next session of Congress convened in Novemberthat Hanson was elected as the first president to serve a full term as president.

Hanson was responsible for establishing Thanksgiving Day. On October 11,he issued a proclamation setting aside the last Thursday in November as “a day of Solemn Thanksgiving to God for all His mercies…” and urging all Americans to celebrate progress in negotiations with Britain ending the Revolutionary War.

Later Life and Death

Already in poor health, Hanson retired from public service immediately after completing his one-year term as president of Congress in November He died just one year later at age 62, on November 15,while visiting his nephew Thomas Hawkins Hanson’s plantation in Prince George's County, Maryland. Hanson is buried in Fort Washington, Maryland, in the cemetery of Saint John’s Episcopal Church.

Sources

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Revealed: how Sidney Powell could be disbarred for lying in court for Trump

Sidney Powell, the former first arkansas bank and trust jobs for Donald Trump who filed lawsuits across the US for the former president, hoping to overturn the results of the presidential election, has on several occasions represented to federal courts that people were co-counsel or plaintiffs in her cases without seeking their permission to do so, the Guardian has learned.

Some of these individuals say that they found out that Powell had named them only once the cases were already filed.

During this same period of time, Powell also named several other lawyers – with their permission in those instances – as co-counsel in her election-related cases, despite the fact that they played virtually no role in bringing or litigating those cases.

Both Powell’s naming of other people as plaintiffs or co-counsel without their consent and representing that other attorneys were central to her cases when, in fact, their roles were nominal or nonexistent, constitute serious potential violations of the American Bar Association model rules for professional conduct, top legal ethicists told the Guardian.

Powell’s misrepresentations to the courts in those particular instances often aided fundraising for her non-profit, Defending the Republic. Powell had told prospective donors that the attorneys were integral members of an “elite strike force” who had played outsized roles in her cases – when in fact they were barely involved if at all.

Powell did not respond to multiple requests for comment via phone, email, and over social media.

The State Bar of Texas is already investigating Powell for making other allegedly false and misleading statements to federal courts by propagating increasingly implausible conspiracy theories to federal courts that Joe Biden’s election as president of the United States was illegitimate.

The Texas bar held its first closed-door hearing regarding the allegations about Powell on 4 November. Investigations by state bar associations are ordinarily conducted behind closed doors and thus largely opaque to the public.

A federal grand jury has also been separately investigating Powell, Defending the Republic, as well as a political action committee that goes by the same name, for fundraising fraud, according to records reviewed by the Guardian.

Among those who have alleged that Powell falsely named them as co-counsel aqua america bill pay login attorney Linn Wood, who brought and litigated with Powell many of her lawsuits attempting to overturn the results of the election with her, including in the hotly contested state of Michigan.

The Michigan case was a futile attempt by Powell to erase Joe Biden’s victory in that state and name Trump as the winner. On 25 August, federal district court Judge Linda Parker, of Michigan, sanctioned Powell and nine other attorneys who worked with her for having engaged in “a historic and profound abuse of the judicial process” in bringing the case in the first place. Powell’s claims of election fraud, Parker asserted, had no basis in law and were solely based on “speculation, conjecture, and unwarranted suspicion”.

Parker further concluded that the conduct of Powell, Wood, and the eight other attorneys whom they worked with, warranted a “referral for investigation and possible suspension or disbarment to the appropriate disciplinary authority for each state … in which each attorney is admitted”.

Wood told the court in the Michigan case that Powell had wrongly named him as one of her co-counsel in the Michigan case. During a hearing in the case to determine whether to sanction Wood, his defense largely rested on his claim that he had not been involved in the case at all. Powell, Wood told the court, had put his name on the lawsuit without even telling him.

Wood said: “I do not specifically recall being asked about the Michigan complaint … In this case obviously my name was included. My experience or my skills apparently were never needed, so I didn’t have any involvement with it.”

Wood’s attorney, Paul Stablein, was also categorical in asserting that his client had nothing to do with the case, telling the Guardian in an interview: “He didn’t draft the complaint. He didn’t sign it. He did not authorize anyone to put his name on it.”

Powell has denied she would have named Wood as a co-counsel without Wood’s permission.

But other people have since come forward to say that Powell has said that they were named as plaintiffs or lawyers in her election-related cases without their permission.

In a Wisconsin voting case, a former Republican candidate for Congress, Derrick Van Orden, said he only learned after the fact that he had been named as a plaintiff in one of Powell’s cases.

“I learned through social media today that my name was included in a lawsuit without my permission,” Van Orden said in a statement he posted on Twitter, “To be clear, I am not involved in the lawsuit seeking to overturn the election in Wisconsin.”

Jason Shepherd, the Republican chairman of Georgia’s Cobb county, was similarly listed as a plaintiff in a Georgia election case without his approval.

In a 26 November statement, Shepherd said he had been talking to an associate of Powell’s before the case’s filing about the “Cobb GOP being a plaintiff” but said he first “needed more information to at least make sure the executive officers were in agreeing to us being a party in the suit”. The Cobb county Republican party later agreed to remain plaintiffs in the case instead of withdrawing.

Leslie Levin, a professor at the University of Connecticut Law School, said in an interview: “Misrepresentations to the court are very serious because lawyers are officers of the court. Bringing a lawsuit in someone’s name when they haven’t consented to being a party is a very serious misrepresentation and one for which a lawyer should expect to face serious discipline.”

Nora Freeman Engstrom, a law professor at Stanford University, says that Powell’s actions appear to violate Rule of the ABA’s model rules of professional misconduct, which hold that “a lawyer shall not knowingly … make a false statement of fact or law to a tribunal”.

Since election day last year, federal and state courts have dismissed more than 60 lawsuits alleging electoral fraud and irregularities by Powell and other Trump allies.

Shortly after the election, Trump named Powell as a senior member of an “elite strike force” who would prove that Joe Biden won the presidential race only because best central texas bbq election was stolen from him. But Trump refused to pay her for her services. To remedy this, Powell set up a new non-profit called Defending the Republic; its stated purpose is to “protect the integrity of elections in the United States”.

As a not-for-profit organization, the group is allowed to raise unlimited amounts of “dark money”, and donors are legally protected from the ordinary requirements to disclose their identities to the public. Powell warned supporters that for her to succeed, “millions of dollars must be raised”.

Echoing Trump’s rhetoric, Powell told prospective donors that Defending the Republic had a vast team of experienced litigators.

Among the attorneys who Powell said made up this “taskforce” were Emily Newman, who had served Trump as the White House liaison to the Department of Health and Human Services and as a senior official with the Department of Homeland Security. Newman had been a founding board member of Defending the Republic.

But facing sanctions in the Michigan case, some of the attorneys attempted to distance themselves from having played much of a meaningful role in her litigation.

Newman’s attorney told Parker, the judge, that Newman had “not played a role in the drafting of the complaint … My client was a contract lawyer working from home who spent maybe five hours on this matter. She really wasn’t involved … Her role was de minimis.”

To have standing to file her Michigan case, Powell was initially unable to find a local attorney to be co-counsel on her case but eventually attorney Gregory Rohl agreed to help out.

But when Rohl was sanctioned by Parker and referred to the Michigan attorney disciplinary board for further investigation, his defense was that he, too, was barely involved in the case. He claimed that he only received a copy of “the already prepared” page initial complaint at the last minute, reviewed it for “well over an hour”, while then “making no additions, decisions or corrections” to the original.

As with Newman, Parker found that Rohl violated ethics rules by making little, if any, effort the very first president of the united states of america verify the facts of the claims in Powell’s filings.

In sanctioning Rohl, the judge wrote that “the court finds it exceedingly difficult to believe that Rohl read an page complaint in just ‘well over an hour’ on the day he filed it. So, Rohl’s argument in and of itself reveals sanctionable conduct.”

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

All 45 Presidents of the United States Described in 1 Sentence

A lot can happen over a four-year term and even more throughout a multi-term presidency. There have been major accomplishments, war, devastating scandals, unforgiving nicknames, and some very obscure presidential pets. And no matter what happened during the term, the public generally remembers a president for one or two actions he took or events that occurred during his term. Spanning nearly years and 45 presidents (to date, January ) welcome to the Cliff Notes of American Presidency.

Related Reading

1. George Washington ()

A founding father, military general, and the first president of the United States, President Washington calls the dollar bill home and knew how to cross the Delaware River in style.

2. John Adams ()

The first vice president and soon thereafter, the second president, President John Adams was the author of the Massachusetts constitution and by chance died on July 4th, … 50 years after the Declaration of Independence was adopted.

3. Thomas Jefferson ()

Growing up in Virginia (the state birthing the most presidents), President Thomas Jefferson was co-author of the Declaration of Independence and in his spare time was enthused by (proto) archaeology.

4. James Madison ()

5’4” President James Madison was the chief author of the Constitution, one of two presidents to sign it (the other being George Washington), and he had a pet parrot named Polly.

5. James Monroe ()

Another president from Virginia, President James Monroe studied law under Thomas Jefferson and established the country’s first foreign policy, known as the Monroe Doctrine.

6. John Quincy Adams ()

Gifted an alligator from Marquis De Lafayette, President John Quincy Adams was the first president to live in the White House.

7. Andrew Jackson ()

The only president to be a prisoner of war, President Andrew Jackson has been on the $20 bill since and is known for founding the Democratic Party.

8. Martin Van Buren ()

President Van Buren was the first president to be born in the U.S., had his daughter-in-law serve as First Lady after his wife passed, and had a gang formed in his honor on Seinfeld &#; The Van Buren Boys.

9. William Henry Harrison ()

With the shortest presidential term, President William Henry Harrison passed one month into his presidency from pneumonia that fell on him after standing in the rain for an hour giving his inauguration speech.

John Tyler ()

The first president to serve without being elected, President Tyler worked for the annexation of Texas to the United States and, with a strong belief in states&#; rights caused major riffs through all political parties.

James K. Polk ()

With a desire for expansion, President Polk set his eyes on the Pacific Ocean and extended the land of the U.S. by million square miles.

Zachary Taylor ()

A hero of the Mexican-American War, he won the presidency because Northerners voted for him because of war heroism and Southerners did so because he was a fellow slave owner.

Millard Fillmore ()

The last of the Whigs, President Fillmore was all peace and smiles trying to make everyone happy with the Compromise of

Franklin Pierce ()

Some point their fingers at President Pierce for fueling the fire that started the Civil War.

James Buchanan ()

The last president before the Civil War, President Buchanan served without a wife and had an eagle as a pet.

Abraham Lincoln ()

The tallest the very first president of the united states of america, enshrined in the Wrestling Hall of Fame, and the man who issued The Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln led America during the Civil War, and, ironically, signed legislation creating the Secret Service hours before his assassination.

Andrew Johnson ()

Known as The Veto President for continually vetoing bills passed by Congress, President Johnson is one of three presidents to be impeached.

Ulysses S. Grant ()

A Union war hero, President Grant helped establish the National Park System the very first president of the united states of america well as pushing forward the 15th Amendment while fighting for the rights of Native Americans and African Americans.

Rutherford B. Hayes ()

President Hayes did not serve alcohol at the White House and was the first to host the Easter Egg Roll (which continues today) and in his single term, dedicated his efforts to fighting to improve the government after the Civil War and protect the rights of people of all races.

James A. Garfield ()

The second of three presidents to serve inPresident Garfield was shot days into his term and died a few months later from complications, but not before he left his mark with efforts to end political corruption.

Chester Arthur ()

An unexpected leader by proxy, President Arthur helped to fund the Navy, which had been in decline, worked for funding for Native American education, reportedly had 80 pairs of pants, and held the nickname Elegant Arthur because of his desire to change outfits for every occasion.

Grover Cleveland ()

The only president to serve nonconsecutive terms, President Grover Cleveland also shared the name of Veto President and struggled to unite the country after the Panic of

Benjamin Harrison ()

Grandson to the former President Harrison, this President Harrison welcomed Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming to the U.S. while being the first president to live in the White House with electricity.

Grover Cleveland ()

He’s back for round two after a four-year breather.

William McKinley ()

President through the Spanish-American War, President McKinley led the U.S. as it assumed recognition as a world power while making significant efforts to rebuild the economy.

Theodore Roosevelt ()

Known as the trust buster, President Roosevelt worked to make American life better for all, won a Nobel Peace Prize, and was the first president to leave the country while in office, to visit the Panama Canal.

William Howard Taft ()

President Taft established a federal tax through the 16th Amendment, was the first president to reign farmers state bank cedar rapids the continuous 48 states, get stuck in a White House bathtub, and began the tradition of throwing out the first pitch at an MLB game.

Woodrow Wilson ()

In office during WW1 and winner of a Nobel Peace Prize for his work to form the League of Nations, President Wilson also was printed on the $, bill.

Warren G. Harding ()

The first president to be elected after the 19th Amendment and owner of size 19 feet, President Harding’s tenure was tainted by scandals caused by friends that he appointed to office.

Calvin Coolidge ()

President Coolidge signed the Indian Citizenship Act, which gave full U.S. citizenship rights to all Native Americans in the midst of the Roaring &#;20s, and is the only president to be born on Independence Day.

Herbert Hoover ()

Perhaps outshined by the Great Depression, President Hoover did sign the congressional resolution that made &#;The Star-Spangled Banner&#; the national anthem of the United States, was the first president to have a phone at his desk, and did not take a salary &#; instead he donated it to charity.

Franklin D. Roosevelt ()

President Roosevelt brought America out of the Great Depression, led the U.S and Allied forces in WW2, and by the end of his fourth term, he laid the groundwork for the United Nations.

Harry S Truman ()

Over two terms President Truman dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, initiated the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine, and embarked on the Korean War.

Dwight D. Eisenhower ()

The commander and 5-Star General of the Allied forces during WW2, President Eisenhower established the current Interstate Highway System, helped to negotiate an end to the Korean War, and created a permanent civil rights office in the Department of Justice.

John F. Kennedy ()

President Kennedy is credited for starting the Peace Corps, staying cool through the Cuban Missile Crisis, and with leaving the ongoing question of who was on the grassy knoll.

Lyndon B. Johnson ()

The Civil Rights Act of and the Vietnam War were the main events during President Johnson’s tenure.

Richard Nixon ()

Despite improving relations with the Soviet Union and China and the conclusion of the Vietnam War, President Nixon will be remembered primarily for the Watergate Scandal and his resignation &#; the only president to do so.

Gerald Ford ()

The only man to serve without being elected as either President or Vice President, President Ford spent a great deal of his term mending the country’s feelings towards its leaders while brokering a temporary truce in the Middle East.

Jimmy Carter ()

Gas prices skyrocketed with cars waiting in line to fill up while President Carter was in office, and during his time in office the Department of Energy and the Department of Education were created.

Ronald Reagan ()

From the Hollywood Hills to the White House, President Reagan battled through the Cold War, reasserted confidence in Americans, escaped an assassination attempt, and oversaw the events that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall.

George Bush ()

As the Soviet Union fell, the U.S. led by President Bush began fighting in the Persian Gulf War, and he was also the third American president to be knighted by the Queen.

Bill Clinton ()

Holding term during the longest period of peace and economic growth, President (and saxophone player) Clinton is also the second of three presidents to be impeached.

George W. Bush ()

In office during 9/11 and deciding to lead the U.S. into Afghanistan and Iraq, President George W. Bush did overthrow Saddam Hussein.

Barack Obama ()

The first African American president, President Obama established Health Care Reform, captured and killed Osama bin Laden, and kept the economy thriving through two terms.

Donald Trump (present)

As of publication, President Trump’s story continues to be written.

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Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Articles of Confederation, –

The Articles of Confederation served as the written document that established the functions of the national government of the United States merchants national bank building mobile al it declared independence from Great Britain. It established a weak central government that mostly, but not entirely, prevented the individual states from conducting their own foreign diplomacy.

The Articles of Confederation

The Albany Plan an earlier, pre-independence attempt at joining the colonies into a larger union, had failed in part because the individual colonies were concerned about losing power to another central insitution. As the American Revolution gained momentum, however, many political leaders saw the advantages of a centralized government that could coordinate the Revolutionary War. In June ofthe New York provincial Congress sent a plan of union to the Continental Congress, which, like the Albany Plan, continued to recognize the authority of the British Crown.

Some Continental Congress delegates had also informally discussed plans for a more permanent union than the Continental Congress, whose status was temporary. Benjamin Franklin had drawn up a plan for “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.” While some delegates, such as Thomas The very first president of the united states of america, supported Franklin’s proposal, many others were strongly finic fish pod. Franklin introduced his plan before Congress on July 21, but stated that it should be viewed as a draft for when Congress was interested in reaching a more formal proposal. Congress tabled the plan.

Following the Declaration of Independence, the members of the Continental Congress realized it would be necessary to set up a national government. Congress began to discuss the form this government would take on July 22, disagreeing on a number of issues, including whether representation and voting would be proportional or state-by-state. The disagreements delayed final discussions of confederation until October of By then, the British capture of Philadelphia had made the issue more urgent. Delegates finally formulated the Articles of Confederation, in which they agreed to state-by-state voting and proportional state tax burdens based on land values, though they left the issue of state claims to western lands unresolved. Congress sent the Articles to the states for ratification at the end of November. Most delegates realized that the Articles were a flawed compromise, but believed that it was better than an absence of formal national government.

On December 16,Virginia was the first state to ratify. Other states ratified during the early months of When Congress reconvened in June ofthe delegates learned that Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey refused to ratify the Articles. The Articles required unanimous approval from the states. These smaller states wanted other the very first president of the united states of america to relinquish their western land claims before they would ratify the Articles. New Jersey and Delaware eventually agreed to the conditions of the Articles, with New Jersey ratifying on Nov 20,and Delaware on Feb 1, This left Maryland as the last remaining holdout.

Irked by Maryland’s recalcitrance, several other state governments passed resolutions endorsing the formation of a national government without the state of Maryland, but other politicians such as Congressman Thomas Burke of North Carolina persuaded their governments to refrain from doing so, arguing that without unanimous approval of the new Confederation, the new country would remain weak, divided, and open to future foreign intervention and manipulation.

Meanwhile, inBritish forces began to conduct raids on Maryland communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Alarmed, the state government wrote to the French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne asking for French naval assistance. Luzerne wrote back, urging the government of Maryland to ratify the Articles of Confederation. Marylanders were given further incentive to ratify when Virginia agreed to relinquish its western land claims, and so the Maryland legislature ratified the Articles of Confederation on March 1,

French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne

The Continental Congress voted on Jan 10,to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs; on Aug 10 of that year, it elected Robert R. Livingston as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The Secretary’s duties involved corresponding with U.S. representatives abroad and with ministers of foreign powers. The Secretary was also charged with transmitting Congress’ instructions to U.S. agents abroad and was authorized to attend sessions of Congress. A further Act of Feb 22,allowed the Secretary to ask and respond to questions the very first president of the united states of america sessions of the Continental Congress.

The Articles created a sovereign, national government, and, as such, limited the rights of the states to conduct their own diplomacy and foreign policy. However, this proved difficult to enforce, as the national government could not prevent the state of Georgia from pursuing its own independent policy regarding Spanish Florida, attempting to occupy disputed territories and threatening war if Spanish officials did not work to curb Indian attacks or refrain from harboring escaped slaves. Nor could the Confederation government prevent the landing of convicts that the British Government continued to export to its former colonies. In addition, the Articles did not allow Congress sufficient authority to enforce provisions of the Treaty of Paris that allowed British creditors to sue debtors for pre-Revolutionary debts, an unpopular clause that many state governments chose to ignore. Consequently, British forces continued to occupy forts in the Great Lakes region. These problems, combined with the Confederation government’s ineffectual response to Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts, convinced national leaders that a more powerful central government was necessary. This led to the Constitutional Convention that formulated the current Constitution of the United States.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us
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