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College save bank of north dakota


college save bank of north dakota

describe North Dakota's public colleges and universities in very general terms. College SAVE – North Dakota's college savings plan, administered by Bank. The president of the Bank of North Dakota is hoping more people will take advantage of a program designed to help families save for college. Statistically, only one Old North state, North Dakota, A number of larger cities, state capitals and flagship college towns are doing.

College save bank of north dakota -

College Savings Plans

1. Up to $10, over the lifetime of the beneficiary or sibling of the beneficiary.

2. You will earn 2 Points per dollar in eligible net purchases (net purchases are purchases minus credits and returns) that you charge. Account must be open and in good standing to earn and redeem rewards and benefits. Upon approval, refer to your Program Rules for additional information. You may not redeem Reward Points, and you will immediately lose all of your Reward Points, if your Account is closed to future transactions (including, but not limited to, due to Program misuse, failure to pay, bankruptcy, or death). Reward Points will not expire as long as your Account remains open. Certain transactions are not eligible for Reward Points, including Advances (as defined in the Agreement, including wire transfers, travelers checks, money orders, foreign cash transactions, betting transactions, lottery tickets and ATM disbursements), Annual Fee, convenience checks, balance transfers, unauthorized or fraudulent charges, overdraft advances, interest charges, fees, credit insurance charges, transactions to fund certain prepaid card products, U.S. Mint purchases, or transactions to purchase cash convertible items. The 2% cash back rewards value applies only to Points redeemed for a deposit into an eligible Fidelity® account. The redemption value is different if you choose to redeem your Points for other rewards such as travel options, merchandise, gift cards, and/or statement credit. Other restrictions apply. Full details appear in the Program Rules new card customers receive with their card. Establishment or ownership of a Fidelity® account or other relationship with Fidelity Investments® is not required to obtain a card or to be eligible to use Points to obtain any rewards offered under the program other than Fidelity Rewards.

3. Because the interest and other fees charged on any outstanding balance are greater than the cash value of the rewards points, you may pay more in fees and interest than the value of the points you earn if you do not pay your bill in full each month.

The creditor and issuer of this card is Elan Financial Services, pursuant to license from Visa U.S.A. Inc.

Visa and Visa Signature are registered trademarks of Visa International Service Association and are used by the issuer pursuant to license from Visa U.S.A

Guidance provided by Fidelity through the Planning and Guidance Center is educational in nature, is not individualized, and is not intended to serve as the primary basis for your investment or tax-planning decisions.

The UNIQUE College Investing Plan, mynewextsetup.us College Investing Plan, DE Education Savings Plan, AZ, Arizona's Education Savings Plan, and the Connecticut Higher Education Trust (CHET) College Savings Plan - Direct Plan are offered by the state of New Hampshire, MEFA, the state of Delaware, and the state of Arizona with the Arizona State Treasurer's Office as the Plan Administrator and the Arizona State Board of Investment as Plan Trustee, and the Treasurer of the state of Connecticut respectively, and managed by Fidelity Investments.

If you or the designated beneficiary is not a New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Delaware, Arizona or Connecticut resident, you may want to consider, before investing, whether your state or the beneficiary's home state offers its residents a plan with alternate state tax advantages or other state benefitssuch as financial aid, scholarship funds and protection from creditors.

Units of the portfolios are municipal securities and may be subject to market volatility and fluctuation.

Please carefully consider the plan's investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses before investing. For this and other information on any college savings plan managed by Fidelity, contact Fidelity for a free Fact Kit, or view one online. Read it carefully before you invest or send money.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

We Improve Lives

The Black Hills FCU Charitable Fund supports causes throughout South Dakota. From our annual school supply drive to fundraisers for more than 60 charitable organizations, we are dedicated to improving the lives of our members and our communities.

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BHFCU Mortgage Lender Inducted into Statewide Hall of Fame

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Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Top Conservation Wins for Birds

This year our conservation leaders, bird advocates, college students, ambassadors, volunteers, and scientists accomplished amazing things. Through early-December, more than , of us contacted decision-makers more than 1,, times on behalf of birds. All of the accomplishments listed below come from the hard work and dedication of our members, chapters, volunteers, and staff. We're very proud of what we have been able to accomplish together over the past 12 months.

Keep reading to see the most important ways that our flock worked together this year.

Reinstated Three National Monuments

In October, the Biden-Harris administration restored protections for three national monuments—Northeast Canyons and Seamounts off the coast of New England, and Bears Ears and Grand Staircase-Escalante in Utah—that the previous administration had shrunk or opened up to commercial exploitation.

In , the Trump administration downsized Bears Ears by 85 percent and Grand Staircase-Escalante by nearly 50 percent. And in , President Trump signed a proclamation to open the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument to commercial fishing. This rollback increased the risk of seabirds getting hooked on fishing line or caught in a net and reduced the amount of fish available for them to eat. Audubon’s Seabird Institute was instrumental in uncovering that Maine’s recently restored populations of Atlantic Puffins rely on this monument to stock up on fish in winter months. The reinstated protections mean that these areas will be safe for birds to forage for fish in the coming years. 

Restoring Federal Safeguards to Globally Significant Wetlands

In January  Audubon and conservation partners filed a lawsuit challenging the Trump administration’s unlawful attempt to revive a massive project known as the Yazoo Pumps that would drain Mississippi Flyway wetlands that support more than 28 million migratory birds annually. In response to the lawsuit, in November the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restored its Clean Water Act veto of the Yazoo Pumps, effectively halting the project and ensuring some of the nation’s richest habitats are protected once again.

Audubon engaged more than 93, scientists, conservation and social justice organizations, citizens, and Audubon members to deliver comments opposing the project. Audubon and partners also developed and shared with EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers a suite of nature-based solutions that would provide effective flood relief for vulnerable communities while benefitting birds and other wildlife.

Delivered Water to the Parched Colorado River Delta

From May through October this year, 35, acre-feet of Colorado River water—about 11 billion gallons—made its way from the U.S.-Mexico border to the river’s fan-shaped terminus miles away. It is the first time since a brief period in that the Colorado reached the sea. Because of the tireless advocacy by Raise the River, a binational alliance of six conservation groups including Audubon, and a series of delicate negotiations between the U.S. and Mexico, the delta will see more of this in the future: by it will receive , acre-feet of water in total.

These water deliveries have real impact. After the pulse of water and some targeted water deliveries to restore riparian habitats, the delta bloomed in response: Bird abundance rose 20 percent and avian diversity increased 42 percent, showing even a modest amount of water can make a big difference.

Securing Water for Great Salt Lake Wetlands

In October, the Utah Division of Water Rights approved applications to deliver water to Farmington Bay of Great Salt Lake via the Jordan River. An innovative partnership is laying the groundwork to voluntarily share water for the lake to meet crucial needs for people, birds, and other wildlife.

The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Rio Tinto Kennecott, Central Utah Water Conservancy District, National Audubon Society, The Nature Conservancy, and Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission collaborated to achieve this important step in addressing Great Salt Lake’s declining water levels. Through two donations of water rights, up to approximately 21, acre-feet of water annually could be delivered to Farmington Bay over the next ten years.

Keeping water flowing to Great Salt Lake’s wetlands and open water habitats is vital to maintaining important natural areas of international and hemispheric importance for birds, while also benefiting people.

Delivering More Than 80 million Gallons of Water to the Drying Rio Grande

In order to address the Rio Grande’s crippling drought and one of the driest water supplies in over 50 years, Audubon is doing its part to create solutions that work for people and the birds that rely on a healthy flowing river. Through long-term funding support from the Bonneville Environmental Foundation, Audubon released more than 80 million gallons of water into the Rio Grande in an effort that is tightly coordinated with water managers and biologists to ensure effective and efficient use. Audubon secures this water through voluntary leases of water rights from water users. For our farming communities, this means an ability to manage through crop shortfalls—to come out the other side of a growing season with the farm intact and hope for future revenue. For our river this means an ability to survive drying and associated stresses to riverside plant and animal communities.

Helping Black Skimmers Nest Again on the Gulf

For the first time in 10 years, Black Skimmers successfully fledged chicks on the Louisiana mainland, thanks in part to a recent project to restore beaches in the southwestern corner of the state.

In late July, Audubon biologists located a Black Skimmer nest “scrape,” or a depression in the sand, containing four eggs along a Cameron Parish shoreline restoration site near Holly Beach. By mid-August, three skimmer pairs had initiated nesting in the area. A dedicated set of stewards and volunteers protected the birds from beachgoers throughout the summer and early fall, and the final chick fledged in September.

Launching a Bird-friendly Forester Program

This year, Audubon’s Connecticut and New York regional office, along with Audubon Vermont, launched the Audubon Forester Training and Endorsement Program to help create high-quality habitat at scale. More than foresters in 19 states attended the first two training webinar series launched in May The program will grow a national network of professional foresters who, once endorsed, can connect with landowners and work together to prioritize habitat for birds and other wildlife. Foresters in the program learn about birds in decline, and landscape and stand-level planning and management to improve forest habitat diversity.

Protecting One of North America’s Most Imperiled Bird Species 

In response to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) proposal to list the Lesser Prairie Chicken as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), 22, Audubon members voiced their support for extending further protections to these birds who whose home range includes parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and New Mexico. The listing will prohibit anyone from harming the birds either directly or indirectly, and it requires the development of a recovery plan for the species and the identification of critical habitat. New federal investments and incentives for landowners resulting from the listing decision will make our grassland healthier, improve the infiltration of groundwater, sequester carbon, and make the rangeland more resilient overall. This is good for the bird and for ranchers, farmers, and communities who depend on these resources.

Taking Regenerative Agriculture to Market

In April, Audubon and Panorama Meats, the largest producer of organic grass-fed, grass-finished beef in the U.S. announced a one-million-acre regenerative grassland partnership—the largest such program in the country. The commitment will create individual habitat management plans with every family rancher in the Panorama Organic network through Audubon’s Conservation Ranching Initiative.

The Audubon Conservation Ranching Initiative seeks to enhance the stewardship of grasslands for the benefit of birds, as they have suffered significant decline over the past 50 years due to the loss of U.S. grasslands to widespread development. The initiative empowers consumers to support programs that restore bird populations via conservation practices by selectively purchasing beef nationwide from Audubon-certified farms and ranches, including Panorama Organic and other participating brands.

Starting Restoration on Crab Bank, a Critically Important Barrier Island

After Audubon South Carolina secured the necessary funding, including a grant from National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, the Army Corps of Engineers has begun reconstruction of Crab Bank. The restoration should be completed by the end of the year, in time for the start of the nesting season.

Historically, the protected barrier island served as one of the last remaining safe critical nesting area for thousands of shorebirds and seabirds in South Carolina. After heightened erosion caused by a series of severe storms, the island experienced its first year on record of no nests in Dredge material from Charleston Harbor is being used by the Army Corps of Engineers to restore the island to approximately 30 acres of valuable high ground. After the birds arrive, Audubon will partner with a coalition of local groups to monitor the island, host a live video feed of nesting, and steward the island for years to come.

Keeping Sprawl Out of Environmentally Sensitive Areas

In , legislation in Florida mandated the construction of miles of new turnpikes through some of Florida’s most sensitive environmental areas and important rural farmland areas, effectively prying them open for future development and sprawl. But after months of meetings and important policy work, Florida state senator Gayle Harrell (R-Stuart), chair of the Transportation Committee, introduced Senate Bill , which repeals the earlier mandate.

Audubon worked diligently to make sure this legislation enshrined in the statute new language requires that Department of Transportation takes into consideration the protective recommendations from prior task forces that did environmental assessments of the highway projects, and include some of the most environmentally protective guidelines for highway planning and design ever prescribed in Florida, in the event the turnpikes are proposed again in the future.

Celebrating the Completion of a Year Restoration of the Kissimmee River

On July 29, Audubon Florida, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the South Florida Water Management District celebrated the 40 miles of restored river and floodplains, and more than 25, acres of restored wetlands along the Kissimmee River, the largest functioning restoration project in the world. The Kissimmee River once stretched miles in length, curving through Central Florida as a haven for wildlife, and its two-mile-wide floodplain was regularly inundated by seasonal rainfall, which provided important habitat to fish, wading birds, and other species.

Following restoration, Lake Kissimmee is expected to rise one and a half feet, storing water to feed the river during the dry season and rehydrating another 20 square miles of dried marshes. The river’s floodplain will flood seasonally and the river will meander again in order to replicate its natural path.

Securing $35 Million for Gulf Coast Birds

In March, the Deepwater Horizon Trustees announced nearly $ million in new Gulf restoration projects, including almost $35 million specifically to support bird populations that are still recovering from the oil spill nearly 11 years ago. Several of the projects selected for funding are included in Audubon’s vision for restoring the Gulf of Mexico.

Among the projects proposed is the Bird Nesting and Foraging Area Stewardship project, which will support coastal bird stewardship across four Gulf states. Other projects to support birds include restoring, protecting, and managing critical nesting islands like Chester Island in Texas, the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana, Round Island in Mississippi, and Dauphin Island in Alabama. Finally, another new project will identify and remove marine debris at key “hotspots” on the Gulf Coast, where birds and sea turtles are at risk of ingesting or getting entangled in marine debris such as discarded fishing line, nets, or traps.

Advocating for Marine Protections

In January, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA for short, announced it will expand the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary to nearly triple its current size. Situated on salt domes rising up from the seafloor, Flower Garden Banks is one of only two marine sanctuaries in the entire Gulf of Mexico. Its brightly colored coral reefs are an important feeding ground for seabirds like Northern Gannets and Magnificent Frigatebirds.

Restoring Grasslands from Marginal Grazing Land

Audubon Dakota successfully launched the Conservation Forage Program that aims to restore 18, acres of marginal cropland back to grassland in North Dakota to improve forage availability and quality. These grassland acres will benefit the landowner and livestock, as well as grassland birds and native wildlife, while protecting North Dakota's air and water quality for future generations.

Saving Percent of Tricolored Blackbird Colonies

Each spring and summer, Audubon California works with landowners and community partners to protect Tricolored Blackbirds across the state. This year that collaboration helped save percent—, birds in total—of the Tricolored Blackbird colonies nesting on agricultural fields. In years of drought, the Tricolored Blackbird's native habitat becomes even more limited, making the success of our program essential to the species' survival. This year, the largest colony detected was estimated to host around 30, birds.

Protecting One of the Last Undeveloped Barrier Islands in North Carolina

Hutaff Island, one of North Carolina’s last privately owned undeveloped barrier islands, will be conserved forever thanks to a partnership between Audubon North Carolina, NC Coastal Land Trust, and the Hutaff/McEachern family, funded by conservation philanthropist Tim Sweeney.

Hutaff is a 2-mile long ribbon of pristine beach and saltmarsh located between Lea Island and Topsail Beach to the north and Figure 8 Island to the south. Conserving this wild and uninhabited place in perpetuity will keep the island’s natural inlets and dynamic ecosystems intact, providing critical habitat for sea turtles, vulnerable beach-nesting birds like Black Skimmers, and a host of other rare and threatened wildlife.

Launching the Audubon Americas Program

After a year of analyzing our past work and other successful programs throughout Latin America, Audubon launched its Audubon Americas program to tackle full life-cycle conservation across the hemisphere. Audubon Americas will work mainly in Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and The Bahamas, focusing on regenerative agriculture and protecting key sites in the Americas that support both migratory and resident bird species. Learn more here.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Bank of North Dakota president pushing 'College SAVE' plan

The president of the Bank of North Dakota is hoping more people will take advantage of a program designed to help families save for college.

It’s called “College SAVE.”  Bank president Eric Hardmeyer said anyone can contribute to a College SAVE account, and that contributed money is non-taxable.

Hardmeyer told the Board of Higher Education it could help reduce student loan debt.

"I think we all recognize that our students are graduating with an average of $30, to $40, in debt," Hardmeyer told the Board. "We (at the Bank) see that first hand every day, as students refinance and take out loans. So we understand the issues around student loan debt."

Hardmeyer said the College SAVE program is one program that can really make an impact in reducing the amount of debt.

Hardmeyer said right now, there's $ million in the program. But he said there's room to grow.

"There are about newborns every year," Hardmeyer said. "We're only getting about 10 percent of them to start saving. If we could do a little bit better job there,  that number could grow significantly."

Hardmeyer said the Bank continues a media campaign to increase interest in the program.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

College Savings Month

In a study conducted by Edward Jones in , only 29% of Americans are familiar with a College Savings Plan. With college costs on the rise, parents have no idea what the cost of college will be when their child reaches college age; thus, they are not prepared for this considerable expense. The national average annual cost of college for the year is $30,, which means the average total cost for a 4-year education is $,, and we all know the price of college continues to increase every year. What is it going to be ten years from now?!

It&#;s not too late. Here are some things you can begin now to help your children better prepare for their college education.

First, open a College Savings plan. A few advantages to this type of account are:

1. Provides federal and state tax advantages, meaning funds will not be taxed when the money is withdrawn for college expenses.

2. Eligible for all &#; there is no income, age, or annual contribution limits

3. You can use it for any K education PLUS college

4. Extremely flexible

The Bank of North Dakota offers a great College SAVE program. They have doubled the grant amount of the Children FIRST program to $ to every child that is born in North Dakota. You need to open the account by the child&#;s first year and contribute $ You can learn more at mynewextsetup.us

Next, start as early as possible. It may seem silly to open a bank account for your newborn baby, but you will be glad you did 18 years later. Even if you can only contribute $25 a month, it will grow over time.

Third, use bonuses and tax refunds to build savings accounts rather than spending that money on something that you don&#;t necessarily need, begin putting that money away for your kids.

Finally, as the holiday season is fast approaching, notify your family of this gift option. Ask them to consider a contribution to a college savings account. As a grandparent, I can share a small gift under the tree, and a donation to our grandson&#;s future education is a win-win. It&#;s never too soon to save, and it&#;s never too late to save.

To learn more, visit our website at mynewextsetup.us to find financial literacy resources and detailed fiscal information regarding our state. We are on social media! Be sure and like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for current information relating to your dollars and our office.

Today's breaking news and more in your inbox

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

North Dakota Announces Accounts-at-Birth Program for College

Following in the footsteps of Maine, Rhode Island, San Francisco, and others, North Dakota launched a new initiative Wednesday -- what's being called the Children FIRST program -- that provides college savings accounts at birth. Every newborn in the state will now be eligible for a $ grant, and as is the case with Maine's Harold Alfond Challenge, the child must be signed up before his or her first birthday.

Unlike Maine's program (which offers $ at birth) however, North Dakota requires that the initial $ be matched within four years by the family or another private source. The Bank of North Dakota, which is the only state-owned bank in the U.S., will oversee the program and finance the grants.

To note: North Dakota is also one of ten states whose college savings plan currently provides matching grants to low- and moderate-income families. 

The state issues a one-time grant of up to $ for families with incomes of $40, or lower ($80, for married couples), and up-to-three-year matching grants for families with incomes of $20, or below ($40, if married). Low-income families in particular stand to reap these incentives, and conceivably could accumulate nearly $2, in three years by only putting in $ of their own money.

The state would do well to heed the lessons from Maine's Harold Alfond Challenge, which has seen enrollment in their plan teeter around 40% of all eligible savers, possibly due to the requirement that children be signed up in year one. Automatic enrollment, of course, can be a powerful tool in ensuring universal participation, particularly for low-income households. San Francisco's Kindergarten-to-College program, for example, has begun to do just that.

Regardless, this is a broadly positive development that could act as an incubator for a future federal child savings account policy.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

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: College save bank of north dakota

College save bank of north dakota
College save bank of north dakota
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Chris McCandless

American hiker and explorer

Christopher Johnson McCandless (; February 12, [2] – c. August ), also known by his self-made nickname "Alexander Supertramp",[3] was an American adventurer who sought an increasingly nomadic lifestyle as he grew up. McCandless is the subject of Into the Wild, a nonfiction book by Jon Krakauer that was later made into a full-length feature film.

After graduating from Emory University in Georgia inMcCandless traveled across North America and eventually hitchhiked to Alaska in April There, he entered the Alaskan bush with minimal supplies, hoping to live simply off the land. On the eastern bank of the Sushana River, McCandless found an abandoned bus, Fairbanks Buswhich he used as a makeshift shelter until his death. In September, his decomposing body, weighing only 67 pounds (30&#;kg), was found inside the bus by a hunter. McCandless's cause of death was officially ruled to be starvation,[4][5] although the exact circumstances relating to his death remain the subject of some debate.[6][7][8][9]

In JanuaryKrakauer published an article about McCandless in that month's issue of Outside magazine. He had been assigned the story and had written it under a tight deadline.[10] Inspired by the details of McCandless's story, Krakauer wrote the biographical book Into the Wild, which was subsequently adapted into a film directed by Sean Penn, with Emile Hirsch portraying McCandless. That same year, McCandless became the subject of Ron Lamothe's documentary The Call of the Wild.

Early life[edit]

Christopher Johnson McCandless was born in El Segundo, California. He was the eldest child of Wilhelmina "Billie" McCandless (née Johnson) and Walter "Walt" McCandless, and had a younger sister named Carine. McCandless also had six half-siblings from Walt's first marriage, who lived with their mother in California and later Denver, Colorado. Inthe family relocated to Annandale, Virginia, where McCandless's father was hired as an antenna specialist for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). McCandless's mother worked as a secretary for Hughes Aircraft. The couple went on to establish a successful consultancy business out of their home, specializing in Walt's area of expertise.[citation needed]

Carine McCandless alleged in her memoir The Wild Truth that her parents inflicted verbal and physical abuse upon each other and their children, often fueled by her father's alcoholism. She cited their abusive childhood, as well as his reading of Jack London's The Call of the Wild as the motivating factors in her brother's desire to "disappear" into the wilderness.[11] In a statement released to the media shortly before the memoir was released, Walt and Billie McCandless denied their daughter's accusations, stating that her book is "fictionalized writing [that] has absolutely nothing to do with our beloved son, Chris, his journey or his character. This whole unfortunate event in Chris's life 22 years ago is about Chris and his dreams."[citation needed]

InMcCandless graduated from W.T. Woodson High School in Fairfax, Virginia.[12] He excelled academically, although a number of teachers and fellow students observed that he "marched to the beat of a different drummer." McCandless also served as captain of the cross-country team, where he would urge teammates to treat running as a spiritual exercise in which they were "running against the forces of darkness&#; all the evil in the world, all the hatred."[13]

McCandless traveled to southern California and reconnected with distant relatives and friends in the summer of While there McCandless learned that his father had lived for a time in a bigamous union with his second wife; he had also fathered a child with his first wife after the birth of his children by his second wife. Jon Krakauer speculated that this discovery may have had a profound impact on McCandless.[14]

McCandless graduated from Emory University in Maywith a bachelor's degree in the double majors of history and anthropology.[13] After graduating, he donated his college savings of $24, (approximately $50, in ) to Oxfam, and adopted a vagabond lifestyle, working when necessary as a restaurant food preparer and farm-hand.[15] An avid outdoorsman, McCandless completed several lengthy wilderness hiking trips, and paddled a canoe down a portion of the Colorado River before hitchhiking to Alaska in April [16]

Travels[edit]

McCandless left Virginia in the summer ofdriving a Datsun west in an apparent cross country trip, attempting to reach California. McCandless's car was not in good condition and suffered numerous breakdowns as he made his way out of the eastern United States. He also carried no car insurance on the vehicle and was driving with expired license plates. By the end of the summer, McCandless had reached the Lake Mead National Recreation Area where a flash flood disabled his car beyond repair. Fearful of fines or possibly even arrest due to lack of a valid license, registration, and insurance, he removed the car's license plates, took what he could carry, and kept moving on foot. His car was later found, repaired, and put into service as an undercover vehicle for the local police department.[17]

Traveling northwest, McCandless then hitchhiked into the Sierra Nevada mountains where, out of supplies and food, he broke into an abandoned cabin to steal food, supplies, and money. Throughout the winter ofand inMcCandless appears to have lived in hermit camps with other vagrants in the Sierra Nevada region. He was suspected of burglarizing other cabins when food and money ran low, but only one case was ever positively confirmed by authorities after his death.[18]

Mexico and arrest[edit]

In earlyMcCandless left the Sierra Nevada and hitchhiked in a circular course south through California, into Arizona, and then north to South Dakota. Completely out of cash with no means to support himself, he obtained a job as a grain elevator operator in Carthage, South Dakota. He worked at this job for the remainder ofuntil one day suddenly quitting and leaving his supervisor a postcard which read:

"Tramping is too easy with all this money. My days were more exciting when I was penniless and had to forage around for my next meal I've decided that I'm going to live this life for some time to come."

McCandless then headed to Colorado, where he used money from his job to buy kayak supplies as well as a handgun. He then navigated the Colorado River, without a permit, and was occasionally pursued by wildlife and park rangers who had heard of his exploits from other river travelers, several of whom had been concerned that McCandless had been seen white water rafting in dangerous areas of the river with no safety equipment. In all, reports of McCandless were received at Lake Havasu, Bill Williams River, the Colorado River Reservoir, Cibola Wildlife Refuge, Imperial Wildlife Refuge and Yuma Ground. The authorities attempted, but never succeeded, in locating McCandless who was wanted due to his lack of proper river training as well as operating on the river without a valid boating license.[19]

McCandless eventually followed the Colorado River all the way to Mexico, where he crossed the international border through a spillway at the Morelos Dam. After encountering waterfalls, through which he could no longer navigate in a canoe, McCandless abandoned his river journey and spent a few days alone at the village of El Golfo de Santa Clara (31°41′13″N°29′49″W / °N °W / ; ), in the province of Sonora. Finding Mexico intimidating, with no way to support himself, he attempted to re-enter the U.S. and was arrested for carrying a firearm at a border checkpoint. McCandless was briefly held in custody but released without charges after his gun was confiscated. Following this experience in Mexico, McCandless began hitchhiking north, eventually winding up back in South Dakota.[20]

Alaska[edit]

In AprilMcCandless hitchhiked from South Dakota to Fairbanks, Alaska. After his death, witnesses stated they had seen McCandless in Alaska first at Dot Lake with several other sightings in Fairbanks. McCandless was stated to be traveling with a "big backpack" and would give a false name if asked his identity. He was described as very suspicious of people around him, unkempt, and smelling due to lack of hygiene. One witness described McCandless as "generally strange, weird, with a weird energy".[21]

In the summer ofMcCandless was seen at Delta Junction, Alaska, and was then last seen alive at the head of the Stampede Trail on April 28 by a local electrician named Jim Gallien. Gallien, who had given McCandless a ride from Fairbanks to the start of the rugged track just outside the small town of Healy, later said he had been seriously concerned about the safety of McCandless (who introduced himself as "Alex") after noticing his light pack, minimal equipment, meager rations, and obvious lack of experience. Gallien said he had deep doubts about "Alex's" ability to survive the harsh and unforgiving Alaskan bush.

Gallien tried repeatedly to persuade McCandless to delay the trip, at one point offering to detour to Anchorage and buy him suitable equipment and supplies. However, McCandless ignored Gallien's persistent warnings and refused his offers of assistance (though McCandless did accept a pair of Xtratufs, two sandwiches, and a packet of corn chips from Gallien). Gallien dropped McCandless off believing he would head back towards the highway within a few days as hunger set in.[22]

After hiking along the snow-covered Stampede Trail, McCandless came upon an abandoned bus (about 28 miles (45&#;km) west of Healy at 63°52′″N°46′″W / °N °W / ; ) alongside an overgrown section of the trail near Denali National Park. McCandless, according to Krakauer, attempted to continue "heading west until [he] hit the Bering Sea." However, he was deterred by the thick Alaskan bush and returned to the bus, where he set up camp and lived off the land. He had kilograms (&#;lb) of rice; a Remingtonsemi-automatic rifle with rounds of LRhollowpoint ammunition; a number of books, including one on local plant life; some personal effects and a few items of camping equipment. Self-portrait photographs and journal entries indicate he foraged for edible plants and hunted game including porcupines, squirrels, and birds such as ptarmigans and Canada geese. On June 9,McCandless illegally stalked and shot a moose. However, the meat spoiled within days after he failed in his efforts to preserve it.

It had been speculated that McCandless was responsible for vandalizing several cabins in the area that were stocked with food, survival equipment, and emergency supplies. In response, Denali National Park Chief Ranger Ken Kehrer has categorically stated that McCandless was not considered a viable suspect by the National Park Service.[23]

McCandless's journal documents days in the area. In July, after living in the bus for a little over two months, he decided to head back to civilization, but the trail was blocked by the impassable Teklanika River swollen with late-summer runoff from the Cantwell Glacier; the watercourse by that stage was considerably higher and swifter than when he had crossed in April. McCandless did not have a detailed topographical map of the region and was unaware of the existence of an abandoned, hand-operated cable car that crossed the river 1&#;2 mile (&#;m) downstream from where he had previously crossed.[13] At this point, McCandless headed back to the bus and re-established his camp. He posted an S.O.S. note on the bus stating:

Attention Possible Visitors. S.O.S. I need your help. I am injured, near death, and too weak to hike out. I am all alone, this is no joke. In the name of God, please remain to save me. I am out collecting berries close by and shall return this evening. Thank you, Chris McCandless. August&#;?[24]

Death[edit]

McCandless's final written journal entry, noted as "Day ", simply read, "BEAUTIFUL BLUE BERRIES."[25] Days through contained no words and were marked only with slashes, and on Day there was no entry.[26] The exact date and time of his death are unknown. Near the time of his death, McCandless took a picture of himself waving while holding a written note, which read:

I HAVE HAD A HAPPY LIFE AND THANK THE LORD. GOODBYE AND MAY GOD BLESS ALL![27]

On September 6,a group of hunters who were looking for shelter for the night came upon the converted bus where McCandless had been staying. Upon entering, they smelled what they thought was rotting food and discovered "a lump" in a sleeping bag in the back of the bus. The hunters radioed police, who arrived the following day. They found McCandless's decomposing remains in the sleeping bag. It is theorized that he died from starvation approximately two weeks before his body was found.[26]

Theories of malnutrition[edit]

Rabbit starvation[edit]

In his book Into the Wild (), Krakauer suggests two factors may have contributed to McCandless's death. First, he offered that McCandless was running the risk of "rabbit starvation", from over-relying on lean game for nutrition.[28]

Swainsonine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds[edit]

Krakauer also speculated[29] that McCandless might have been poisoned by a toxic alkaloid called swainsonine, by ingesting first tennessee customer service (from Hedysarum alpinum or Hedysarum mackenzii) containing the toxin, or possibly by a mold that grows on them (Rhizoctonia leguminicola) when he put them damp into a plastic bag. Swainsonine inhibits metabolism of glycoproteins, which causes starvation despite ample caloric intake.[7]

However, in an article in the September issue of Men's Journal, Matthew North central kansas technical college states that extensive laboratory testing showed there were no toxins or alkaloids present in the H. alpinum seeds McCandless had been eating. Dr. Thomas Clausen, the chair of the chemistry and biochemistry department at University of Alaska Fairbanks, said, "I tore that plant apart. There were no toxins. No alkaloids. I'd eat it myself."[30] Analysis of the wild sweet peas, given as the cause of McCandless's death in Into the Wild, found no toxic compounds, and there is not a single account in modern medical literature of anyone being poisoned by this species of plant.[4] As Power put it: "He didn't find a way out of the bush, couldn't catch enough food to survive, and simply starved to death".[30]

Lathyrism due to ODAP in Hedysarum alpinum seeds[edit]

Ina new hypothesis was proposed. Ronald Hamilton, a retired bookbinder at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania,[7] suggested a link between the symptoms described by McCandless and the poisoning of Jewish prisoners in the Nazi concentration camp in Vapniarca. He put forward the proposal that McCandless starved to death because he was suffering from paralysis in his legs induced by lathyrism, which prevented him from gathering food or hiking.[31] Lathyrism may be caused by ODAP poisoning from seeds of Hedysarum alpinum (commonly called wild potato). The ODAP, a toxic amino acid, had not been detected by the previous studies of the seeds because they had suspected and tested for a toxic alkaloid, rather than an amino acid, and nobody had previously suspected that Hedysarum alpinum seeds college save bank of north dakota this toxin. The protein would be relatively harmless to someone who was well-fed and on a normal diet, but toxic to someone who was malnourished, physically stressed, and on an irregular and insufficient diet, as McCandless was.[32] As Krakauer points out, McCandless's field guide did not warn of any dangers of eating the seeds, which were not yet known to be toxic. Krakauer suspects this is the meaning of McCandless's journal entry of July 30, which states, "EXTREMELY WEAK. FAULT OF POT[ATO] SEED. MUCH TROUBLE JUST TO STAND UP. STARVING. GREAT JEOPARDY."[33]

In SeptemberKrakauer published an article in The New Yorker following up on Hamilton's claims.[7] A sample of fresh Hedysarum alpinum seeds was sent to a laboratory for HPLC analysis. Results showed that the seeds contained % beta-ODAP by weight, a concentration well within the levels known to cause lathyrism in humans, although the interpretation of the results were disputed by other chemists.[6] The article notes that while occasional ingestion of foodstuffs containing ODAP is not hazardous for healthy individuals eating a balanced diet, "individuals suffering from malnutrition, stress, and acute hunger are especially sensitive to ODAP, and are thus highly susceptible to the incapacitating effects of lathyrism after ingesting the neurotoxin".[7]

L-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds[edit]

In MarchKrakauer co-authored a scientific analysis of the Hedysarum alpinum seeds McCandless ate. Instead of ODAP, the report found relatively high levels of L-canavanine (an antimetabolite toxic to mammals) in the H. alpinum seeds and concluded "it is highly likely that the consumption of H. alpinum seeds contributed to the death of Chris McCandless."[9]

Legacy[edit]

The converted green and white bus where McCandless lived and died became a well-known destination for hikers. Known as "The Magic Bus", the International Harvester was abandoned by road workers in on the Stampede Trail. A plaque in McCandless's memory was affixed to the interior by his father, Walt McCandless.[34] McCandless's life became the subject of a number of articles, books, films, and documentaries, which helped elevate his life to the status of modern myth. He became a romantic figure to some inspired by what they see as his free-spirited idealism, but to others, he is a controversial, misguided figure.[30][36][37]

"The Magic Bus" became a pilgrimage destination for trekkers who would camp at the vehicle. Some of these experienced their own difficulties, or even died attempting to cross the Teklanika River.[36][38]

On June 18,various government agencies coordinated with an Alaska Army National Guard training mission to finally remove the bus, deemed a public safety issue after at least fifteen people had to be rescued, and at least two people died while attempting to cross the Teklanika River to reach the bus.[39][40] It was flown via CH Chinook helicopter to Healy, then via flatbed truck to an undisclosed location.[41][42][43][40]

On September 24,the Museum of the North at the University of Alaska Fairbanks announced it became the permanent home of McCandless's 'Magic Bus ' where it will be restored and an outdoor exhibit will be created.[44]

Assessments[edit]

McCandless has been a polarizing figure since his story came to widespread public attention with the publication of Krakauer's January Outside article.[30][36] While the author and many others have a sympathetic view of the young traveler,[45] others, particularly Alaskans, have expressed negative views about McCandless and those who romanticize his fate.[46]

Alaskan Park Ranger Peter Christian wrote:

When you consider McCandless from my perspective, you quickly see that what he did wasn't even particularly daring, just stupid, tragic, and inconsiderate. First off, he spent very little time learning how to actually live in the wild. He arrived at the Stampede Trail without even a map of the area. If he [had] had a good map he could have walked out of his predicament [] Essentially, Chris McCandless committed suicide.[46]

Ken Ilgunas, also an Alaskan Park Ranger and the author of The McCandless Mecca,[47] wrote in response:

Before I go any further, I should say that Pete is a really good guy [] But with that said, I think Pete is very, very wrong. [] Because I am in the unique position as both an Alaskan park ranger and a person who is, in many ways, like Chris McCandless, I feel I can speak with some authority on the subject. [] McCandless, of course, did not commit suicide. He starved to death, accidentally poisoned himself, or a combination of the two.[48]

Sherry Simpson, writing in the Anchorage Press, described her trip to the bus with a friend, and their reaction upon reading the comments that tourists had left lauding McCandless as an insightful, Thoreau-like figure:

Among my friends and acquaintances, the story of Christopher McCandless college save bank of north dakota great after-dinner conversation. Much of the time I agree with the "he had a death wish" camp because I don't know how else to reconcile what we know of his ordeal. Now and then I venture into the "what a dumbshit" territory, tempered by brief alliances with the "he was just another romantic boy on an all-American quest" partisans. Mostly I'm puzzled by the way he's emerged as a hero.[49]

Krakauer defends McCandless, claiming that what critics point to as arrogance was merely McCandless's desire for "being the first to explore a blank spot on the map." He continues: "Inhowever, there were no more blank spots on the map—not in Alaska, not anywhere. But Chris, with his idiosyncratic logic, came up with an elegant solution to this dilemma: He simply got rid of the map. In his own mind, if nowhere else, the terra would thereby remain incognita."[50]

In popular culture[edit]

Krakauer's approximately 9,word article "Death of an Innocent" (January ) was published in Outside.[51] Chip Brown's full-length article on McCandless, "I Now Walk Into the Wild" (February 8, ), was published in The New Yorker.[5] Jon Krakauer's non-fiction book Into the Wild () expands upon his Outside article and retraces McCandless's travels leading up to the hiker's eventual death.

McCandless's story was adapted by screenwriter Chip Johannessen into a episode of Chris Carter's television series Millenium, titled "Luminary."[52]

An eponymous film adaptation of Into the Wild, directed by Sean Penn with Emile Hirsch portraying McCandless, received a number of awards, including Best Picture from the American Film Institute.[53]Ron Lamothe's documentary The Call of the Wild () also covers McCandless's life story.[54]

The book Back to the Wild compiles photographs, postcards and journal entries by McCandless. A PBS documentary uncovering some additional information, with interviews, titled Return to the Wild: The Chris McCandless Story, first aired on the PBS network in November [55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Krakauer, J., et al. (). "Presence of l-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and its potential role in the death of Chris McCandless." Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. doi/mynewextsetup.us
  2. ^Krakauer, Jon (). "6". Into the Wild. Anchor Books. p.&#; ISBN&#.
  3. ^McNamee, Thomas (March 3, ). "Adventures of Alexander Supertramp". The New York Times. ISSN&#; Retrieved June 19,
  4. ^ ab"The Call of the Wild: Into the Wild Debunked". Terra Incognita films. August 21, Retrieved January 12,
  5. ^ abBrown, Chip (February 8, ). "I Now Walk Into the Wild". The New Yorker. p.&#; ISSN&#;X.
  6. ^ abDrahl, Carmen (October 28, ). "Chemists Dispute How 'Into The Wild' Protagonist Chris McCandless Died". Chemical and Engineering News. 91 (43): 30–
  7. ^ abcdeKrakauer, Jon (September 12, ). "How Chris McCandless Died". The New Yorker Blog: Page-Turner. Retrieved December 12,
  8. ^Medred, Craig. "The fiction that is Jon Krakauer's 'Into the Wild'". Anchorage Daily News.
  9. ^ abKrakauer, J., et al. (). "Presence of l-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and its potential role in the death of Chris McCandless." Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. doi/mynewextsetup.us
  10. ^Krakauer, Jon (September 12, ). "How Chris McCandless Died". The New Yorker.
  11. ^author., McCandless, Carine (November 17, ). The wild truth. ISBN&#. OCLC&#;
  12. ^Williams, Preston (October 25, ). "Remembering an Athlete Who Never Returned From the Wild". Washington Post.
  13. ^ abcKrakauer, Jon (January ). "Death of an Innocent: How Christopher McCandless Lost His Way in the Wilds"(PDF). Outside. Archived from the original(PDF) on March 3, Retrieved April 4,
  14. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into The Wild. New York City: Anchor. p.&#; ISBN&#.
  15. ^McCandless, Carine (). The Wild Truth. New York City: Harper One. ISBN&#.
  16. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into the Wild. New York: Doubleday. pp.&#;5, 32– ISBN&#.
  17. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into the Wild. New York: Doubleday. pp.&#;28– ISBN&#.
  18. ^Medred, Craig. "The beatification of Chris McCandless: From thieving poacher into saint", Anchorage Daily News (21 September )
  19. ^National Park Service, "Papers and Working Files of NPS Employees" (February )
  20. ^Medred, Craig. "The beatification of Chris McCandless: From thieving poacher into saint", Anchorage Daily News (21 September )
  21. ^Medred, Craig. "The beatification of Chris McCandless: From thieving poacher into saint", Anchorage Daily News (21 September )
  22. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into The Wild. New York City: Anchor. ISBN&#.
  23. ^Into the Wild, p.
  24. ^"Scan of Chris McCandless' note". mynewextsetup.us. Archived from the original on November 13, Retrieved August 7,
  25. ^Medred, Craig (August 12, ). "Examining Chris McCandless, 20 years after he went 'Into the Wild'". mynewextsetup.us. The Alaska Dispatch. Retrieved October 2,
  26. ^ abHewitt, Bill (October 5, ). "End of the Trail". People. Time, Inc. 38 (14). ISSN&#; Retrieved October 2,
  27. ^Into the Wild, page
  28. ^Into the Wild, page
  29. ^Krakauer, Jon (September 12, ). "How Chris McCandless Died". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 25,
  30. ^ abcdPower, Matthew. "The Cult of Chris McCandless". Archived from the original on November 24, Retrieved August 2, . Men's Journal, September Retrieved Jan 03,
  31. ^"Theory on Chris McCandless' Death - Ronald Hamilton 1". Christopher McCandless.
  32. ^"When Edible Plants Turn Their Defenses On Us". Health News Florida. October 24, Retrieved January 12,
  33. ^"Christopher McCandless Bio". Christopher McCandless.
  34. ^Sainsbury, Brendan; Benchwick, Greg; Bodry, Catherine (). Lonely Planet: Alaska (11&#;ed.). Lonely Planet. p.&#; ISBN&#.
  35. ^ abcHolland, Eva (December 5, ). "Chasing Alexander Supertramp". Atavist.
  36. ^Ottum, Lisa (March 15, ). "The Miseducation of Chris McCandless". In Hall, Dewey W. (ed.). Romantic Ecocriticism: Origins and Legacies. Lexington Publishing. pp.&#;– ISBN&#.
  37. ^"Newlywed swept away in Alaska trying to reach 'into the Wild' bus". CBS News. Associated Press. July 27, Retrieved July 27,
  38. ^Levenson, Michael (June 19, ). "'Into the Wild' Bus, Seen as a Danger, Is Airlifted From the Alaskan Wild". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, &#; via NewsColony.
  39. ^ abHerz, Nathaniel (June 18, ). "Helicopter removes 'Into the Wild' bus that lured Alaska travelers to their deaths". Alaska Public Media. Retrieved June 27,
  40. ^LaCount, Seth (June 18, ). "Alaska National Guard airlifts "Into the Wild" bus from Stampede Trail". Defense Visual Information Distribution Service. Alaska National Guard Public Affairs. Retrieved June 27,
  41. ^"Nearly 30 years after 'Into the Wild' hiker's death, infamous bus removed from Alaska wilderness". KTVA. June 18, Archived from the original on June 21, Retrieved June 19,
  42. ^Holland, Eva (June 18, ). "Alaska Airlifts 'Into the Wild' Bus Out of the Wild". Outside Online. Archived from the original on June 24, Retrieved June 27, CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  43. ^Osborne, Ryan. "Famous McCandless 'Bus ' moved to UAF's Museum of the North". mynewextsetup.us. Retrieved September 25,
  44. ^"Letters". Outside Online. Archived from the original on September 19, Retrieved December 5,
  45. ^ abGeorge Mason University English Department. Text and Community website. Christian, Peter. Chris McCandless from a Park Ranger's Perspective. Retrieved August 26,
  46. ^Ilgunas, Ken. "The McCandless Mecca". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved July 25,
  47. ^Ilgunas, Ken. "Chris McCandless from Another Alaska Park Ranger's Perspective". Plume. Retrieved July 25,
  48. ^Simpson, Sherry. "A Man Made Cold by the Universe". Anchorage Press. Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved February 15,
  49. ^Young, Gordon (February ). "North to Alaska". mynewextsetup.us Retrieved December 5,
  50. ^Krakauer, Jon (January ). "Death of an Innocent"(PDF). Outside.
  51. ^"LUMINARY - MILLENNIUM EPISODE PROFILE". Millennium. Retrieved January 12,
  52. ^"Following His Trail to Danger and Joy". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved January 12,
  53. ^Harmanci, Reyban (September 26, ). "Movie: 'Call of the Wild'". SFGate.
  54. ^"Return to the Wild". PBS. Retrieved January 12,

External links[edit]

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

North Dakota Announces Accounts-at-Birth Program for College

Following in the footsteps of Maine, Rhode Island, San Francisco, and others, North Dakota launched a new initiative Wednesday -- what's being called the Children FIRST program -- that provides college savings accounts at birth. Every newborn in the state will now be eligible for a $ grant, and as is the case with Maine's Harold Alfond Challenge, the child must be signed up before his or her first birthday.

Unlike Maine's program (which offers $ at birth) however, North Dakota requires that the initial $ be matched within four years by the family or another private source. The Bank of North Dakota, which is the only state-owned bank in the U.S., will oversee the program and finance the grants.

To note: North Dakota is also one of ten states whose college savings plan currently provides matching grants to low- and moderate-income families. 

The state issues a one-time grant of up to $ for families with incomes of $40, or lower ($80, for married couples), and up-to-three-year matching grants for families with incomes of $20, or below ($40, if married). Low-income families in particular stand to reap these incentives, and conceivably could accumulate nearly $2, in three years by only putting in $ of their own money.

The state would do well to heed the lessons from Maine's Harold Alfond Challenge, which has seen enrollment in their plan teeter around 40% of all eligible savers, possibly due to the requirement that college save bank of north dakota be signed up in year one. Automatic enrollment, of course, can be a powerful tool in ensuring universal participation, particularly for low-income households. San Francisco's Kindergarten-to-College program, for example, has begun to do just that.

Regardless, this is a broadly positive development that could act as an incubator for a future federal child savings account policy.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

FARGO, N.D. (AP) — Andrew Morgan had 24 points as North Dakota State easily beat Northland on Thursday night.

Morgan made 10 of 11 shots and added nine rebounds.

Rocky Kreuser had 14 points for North Dakota State (), which earned its fourth straight home victory. Dezmond McKinney and Maleeck Harden-Hayes each added 13 points. Boden Skunberg had a career-high 11 rebounds plus 12 points.

Ryan Rawlings had 16 points for the LumberJacks. Jordan Brennan added 11 points.

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For more AP college basketball coverage: mynewextsetup.us and mynewextsetup.us—Top25

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This was generated by Automated Insights, mynewextsetup.us, using data from STATS LLC, mynewextsetup.us

Copyright The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Prosperity Now Until our economy works for everyone

On May 18, North Dakota launched a new program to help families save for college. The Children First program, which is being administered by the Bank of North Dakota, will provide a $ grant in a college savings plan for any newborn born on January 1, or later. To qualify, the state grant must be matched by a private source by the child's fourth birthday. The bank has set aside $1 million for the grants. North Dakota has nearly 9, babies born each year. The Children First program builds on other savings incentives in North Dakota's College SAVE plan.

A savings plan is a state-sponsored, tax-preferred savings plan for college. Every state has at least one plan, and many states offer multiple plans. Although savings plans are mostly used by higher income families, they can be an important asset building tool for low- and moderate-income families as well. Recognizing this opportunity, 12 states have created financial incentives for families who save in the plan. For example, Arkansas's plan offers a match on contributions to families with an income below $30, and a match for families with an income between $30, and $60, a year, up to $ a year. So for every $1 a low-income family saves for their child's education, the state adds $2 on top of that, both encouraging and catalyzing the savings.

mynewextsetup.us

North Dakota isn't the only state that has recently created a new program incentivizing savings for families. InNevada created the Silver State Matching Grant program, which provides a match on contributions for families with income below $41, a year, and a 50% match for families with income between $41, and $61, up to $ a year.

Within the past few years, three states – Illinois, Kentucky, and Oklahoma – have established task forces or legislative study commissions to explore incentives for college savings as an incremental step toward establishing college save bank of north dakota policies.

Incenting savings through plans is a sometimes overlooked asset building policy strategy. However, plans can be a powerful tool to reach a large number of low-income families. States should build on the momentum of North Dakota, Nevada, and others by creating their own matching programs for their states' programs.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

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Top Conservation Wins for Birds

This year our conservation leaders, bird advocates, college students, ambassadors, volunteers, and scientists accomplished amazing things. Through early-December, more than , of us contacted decision-makers more than 1, times on behalf of birds. All of the accomplishments listed below come from the hard work and dedication of our members, chapters, volunteers, and staff. We're very proud of what we have been able to accomplish together over the past 12 months.

Keep reading to see the most important ways that our flock worked together this year.

Reinstated Three National Monuments

In October, college save bank of north dakota Biden-Harris administration restored protections for three national monuments—Northeast Canyons and Seamounts off the coast of New England, and Bears Ears and Grand Staircase-Escalante in Utah—that the previous administration had shrunk or opened up to commercial exploitation.

Inthe Trump administration downsized Bears Ears by 85 percent and Grand Staircase-Escalante by nearly 50 percent. And inPresident Trump signed a proclamation to open the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument to commercial fishing. This rollback increased the risk of seabirds getting hooked on fishing line or caught in a net and reduced the amount of fish available for them to eat. Audubon’s Seabird Institute was instrumental in uncovering that Maine’s recently restored populations of Atlantic Puffins rely on this monument to stock up on fish in winter months. The reinstated protections mean that these areas will be safe for birds to forage for fish in the coming years. 

Restoring Federal Safeguards to Globally Significant Wetlands

In January  Audubon and conservation partners filed a lawsuit challenging the Trump administration’s unlawful attempt to revive a massive project known as the Yazoo Pumps that would drain Mississippi Flyway wetlands that support more than 28 million migratory birds annually. In response to the lawsuit, in November the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restored its Clean Water Act veto of the Yazoo Pumps, effectively halting the project and ensuring some of the nation’s richest habitats are protected once again.

Audubon engaged more than 93, scientists, conservation and social justice organizations, citizens, and Audubon members to deliver comments opposing the project. Audubon and partners also developed and shared with EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers a suite of nature-based solutions that would provide effective flood relief for vulnerable communities while benefitting birds and other wildlife.

Delivered Water to the Parched Colorado River Delta

From May through October this year, 35, acre-feet of Colorado River water—about 11 billion gallons—made its way from the U.S.-Mexico border to the river’s fan-shaped terminus miles away. It is the first time since a brief period in that the Colorado reached the sea. Because of the tireless advocacy by Raise the River, a binational alliance of six conservation groups including Audubon, and a series of delicate negotiations between the U.S. and Mexico, the delta will see more of this in the future: by it will receiveacre-feet of water in total.

These water deliveries have real impact. After the pulse of water and some targeted water deliveries to restore riparian habitats, the delta bloomed in response: Bird abundance rose 20 percent and avian diversity increased 42 percent, showing even a modest amount of water can make a big difference.

Securing Water for Great Salt Lake Wetlands

In October, the Utah Division of Water Rights approved applications to deliver water to Farmington Bay of Great Salt Lake via the Jordan River. An innovative partnership is laying the groundwork to voluntarily share water for the lake to meet crucial needs for people, birds, and other wildlife.

The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Rio Tinto Kennecott, Central Utah Water Conservancy District, National Audubon Society, The Nature Conservancy, and Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission collaborated to achieve this important step college save bank of north dakota addressing Great Salt Lake’s declining water levels. Through two donations of water rights, up to approximately 21, acre-feet of water annually could be delivered to Farmington Bay over the next ten years.

Keeping water flowing to Great Salt Lake’s wetlands and open water habitats is vital to maintaining important natural areas of international and hemispheric importance for birds, while also benefiting people.

Delivering More Than 80 million Gallons of Water to the Drying Rio Grande

In order to address the Rio Grande’s crippling drought and one of the driest water supplies in over 50 years, Audubon is doing its part to create solutions that work for people and the birds that rely on a healthy flowing river. Through long-term funding support from the Bonneville Environmental Foundation, Audubon released more than 80 million gallons of water into the Rio Grande in an effort that is tightly coordinated with water managers and biologists to ensure effective and efficient use. Audubon secures this water through voluntary leases of water rights from water users. For our farming communities, this means an ability to manage through crop shortfalls—to come out the other side of a growing season with the farm intact and hope for future revenue. For our river this means an ability to survive drying and associated stresses to riverside plant and animal communities.

Helping Black Skimmers Nest Again on the Gulf

For the first time in 10 years, Black Skimmers successfully fledged chicks on the Louisiana mainland, thanks in part to a recent project to restore beaches in the southwestern corner of the state.

In late July, Audubon biologists located a Black Skimmer nest “scrape,” or a depression in the sand, containing four eggs along a Cameron Parish shoreline restoration site near Holly Beach. By mid-August, three skimmer pairs had initiated nesting in the area. A dedicated set of stewards and volunteers protected the birds from beachgoers throughout the summer and early fall, and the final chick fledged in College save bank of north dakota src="mynewextsetup.us" alt="">

Launching a Bird-friendly Forester Program

This year, Audubon’s Connecticut and New York regional office, along with Audubon Vermont, launched the Audubon Forester Training and Endorsement Program to help create high-quality habitat at scale. More than foresters in 19 states attended the first two training webinar series launched in May The program will grow a national network of professional foresters who, once endorsed, can connect with landowners and work together to prioritize habitat for birds college save bank of north dakota other wildlife. Foresters in the program learn about birds in decline, and landscape and stand-level planning and management to improve forest habitat diversity.

Protecting One of North America’s Most Imperiled Bird Species 

In response to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) proposal to list the Lesser Prairie Chicken as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), 22, Audubon members voiced their support for extending further protections to these birds who whose home range includes parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and New Mexico. The listing will prohibit anyone from harming the birds either directly or indirectly, and it requires the development of a recovery plan for the species and the identification of critical habitat. New federal investments and incentives for landowners resulting from the what credit score you need for amazon credit card decision will make our grassland healthier, improve the infiltration of groundwater, sequester carbon, and make the rangeland more resilient overall. This is good for the bird and for ranchers, farmers, and communities who depend on these resources.

Taking Regenerative Agriculture to Market

In April, Audubon and Panorama Meats, the largest producer of organic grass-fed, grass-finished beef in the U.S. announced a one-million-acre regenerative grassland partnership—the largest such program in the country. The commitment will create individual habitat management plans with every family rancher in the Panorama Organic network through Audubon’s Conservation Ranching Initiative.

The Audubon Conservation Ranching Initiative seeks to enhance the stewardship of grasslands for the benefit of birds, as they have suffered significant decline over the past 50 years due to the loss of U.S. grasslands to widespread development. The initiative empowers consumers to support programs that restore bird populations via conservation practices by selectively purchasing beef nationwide from Audubon-certified farms and ranches, including Panorama Organic and other participating brands.

Starting Restoration on Crab Bank, a Critically Important Barrier Island

After Audubon South Carolina secured the necessary funding, including a grant from National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, the Army Corps of Engineers has begun reconstruction of Crab Bank. The restoration should be completed by the end of the year, in time for the start of the nesting season.

Historically, the protected barrier island served as one of the last remaining safe critical nesting area for thousands of shorebirds and seabirds in South Carolina. After heightened erosion caused by a series of severe storms, the island experienced its first year on record of no nests in Dredge material from Charleston Harbor is being used by the Army Corps of Engineers to restore the island to approximately 30 acres of valuable high ground. After the birds arrive, Audubon will partner with a coalition of local groups to monitor the island, host a live video feed of nesting, and steward the island for years to come.

Keeping Sprawl Out of Environmentally Sensitive Areas

Inlegislation in Florida mandated the construction of miles of new turnpikes through some of Florida’s most sensitive environmental areas and important rural farmland areas, effectively prying them open for future development and sprawl. But after months of meetings and important policy work, Florida state senator Gayle Harrell (R-Stuart), chair of the Transportation Committee, introduced Senate Bill , which repeals the earlier mandate.

Audubon worked diligently to make sure this legislation enshrined in the statute new language requires that Department of Transportation takes into consideration the protective recommendations from prior task forces that did environmental assessments of the highway projects, and include some of the most environmentally protective guidelines for highway planning and design ever prescribed in Florida, in the event the turnpikes are proposed again in the future.

Celebrating the Completion of a Year Restoration of the Kissimmee River

On July 29, Audubon Florida, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the South Florida Water Management District celebrated the 40 miles of restored river and floodplains, and more than 25, acres of restored wetlands along the Kissimmee River, the largest functioning restoration project in the world. The Kissimmee River once stretched miles in length, curving through Central Florida as a haven for wildlife, and its two-mile-wide floodplain was regularly inundated by seasonal rainfall, which provided important habitat to fish, wading birds, and other species.

Following restoration, Lake Kissimmee is expected to rise one and a half feet, storing water to feed the river during the dry season and rehydrating another 20 square miles of dried marshes. The river’s floodplain will flood seasonally and the river will meander again in order to replicate its natural path.

Securing $35 Million for Gulf Coast Birds

In March, the Deepwater Horizon Trustees announced nearly $ million in new Gulf restoration projects, including almost $35 million specifically to support bird populations that are still recovering from the oil spill nearly 11 years ago. Several of the projects selected for funding are included in Audubon’s vision for restoring the Gulf of Mexico.

Among the projects proposed is the Bird Nesting and Foraging Area Stewardship project, which will support coastal bird stewardship across four Gulf states. Other projects to support birds include restoring, protecting, and managing critical nesting islands like Chester Island in Texas, the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana, Round Island in Mississippi, and Dauphin Island in Alabama. Finally, another new project will identify and remove marine debris at key “hotspots” on the Gulf Coast, where birds and sea turtles are at risk of ingesting or getting entangled in marine debris such as discarded fishing line, nets, or traps.

Advocating for Marine Protections

In January, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA for short, announced it will expand the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary to nearly triple its current size. Situated on salt domes rising up from the seafloor, Flower Garden Banks is one of only two marine sanctuaries in the entire Gulf of Mexico. Its brightly colored coral reefs are an important feeding ground for seabirds like Northern Gannets and Magnificent Frigatebirds.

Restoring Grasslands from Marginal Grazing Land

Audubon Dakota successfully launched the Conservation Forage Program that aims to restore 18, acres of marginal cropland back to grassland in North Dakota to improve forage availability and quality. These grassland acres will benefit the landowner and livestock, as well as grassland birds and native wildlife, while protecting North Dakota's air and water quality for future generations.

Saving Percent of Tricolored Blackbird Colonies

Each spring and summer, Audubon California works with landowners and community partners to protect Tricolored Blackbirds across the state. This year that collaboration helped save percent—, birds in total—of the Tricolored Blackbird colonies nesting on agricultural fields. In years of drought, the Tricolored Blackbird's native habitat becomes even more limited, making the success of our program essential to the species' survival. This year, the largest colony detected was estimated to host around 30, birds.

Protecting One of the Last Undeveloped Barrier Islands in North Carolina

Hutaff Island, one of North Carolina’s last privately owned undeveloped barrier islands, will be conserved forever thanks to a partnership between Audubon North Carolina, NC Coastal Land Trust, and the Hutaff/McEachern family, funded by conservation philanthropist Tim Sweeney.

Hutaff is a 2-mile long ribbon of pristine beach and saltmarsh located between Lea Island and Topsail Beach to the north and Figure 8 Island to the south. Conserving this wild and uninhabited place in perpetuity will keep the island’s natural inlets and dynamic ecosystems intact, providing critical habitat for sea turtles, vulnerable beach-nesting birds like Black Skimmers, and a host of other rare and threatened wildlife.

Launching the Audubon Americas Program

After a year of analyzing our past work and other successful programs throughout Latin America, Audubon launched its Audubon Americas program to tackle full life-cycle conservation across the hemisphere. Audubon Americas will work mainly in Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and The Bahamas, focusing on regenerative agriculture and protecting key sites in the Americas that support both migratory and resident bird species. Learn more here.

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college save bank of north dakota
college save bank of north dakota

College save bank of north dakota -

Prosperity Now Until our economy works for everyone

On May 18, North Dakota launched a new program to help families save for college. The Children First program, which is being administered by the Bank of North Dakota, will provide a $ grant in a college savings plan for any newborn born on January 1, or later. To qualify, the state grant must be matched by a private source by the child's fourth birthday. The bank has set aside $1 million for the grants. North Dakota has nearly 9, babies born each year. The Children First program builds on other savings incentives in North Dakota's College SAVE plan.

A savings plan is a state-sponsored, tax-preferred savings plan for college. Every state has at least one plan, and many states offer multiple plans. Although savings plans are mostly used by higher income families, they can be an important asset building tool for low- and moderate-income families as well. Recognizing this opportunity, 12 states have created financial incentives for families who save in the plan. For example, Arkansas's plan offers a match on contributions to families with an income below $30,, and a match for families with an income between $30, and $60, a year, up to $ a year. So for every $1 a low-income family saves for their child's education, the state adds $2 on top of that, both encouraging and catalyzing the savings.

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North Dakota isn't the only state that has recently created a new program incentivizing savings for families. In , Nevada created the Silver State Matching Grant program, which provides a match on contributions for families with income below $41, a year, and a 50% match for families with income between $41, and $61,, up to $ a year.

Within the past few years, three states – Illinois, Kentucky, and Oklahoma – have established task forces or legislative study commissions to explore incentives for college savings as an incremental step toward establishing matched policies.

Incenting savings through plans is a sometimes overlooked asset building policy strategy. However, plans can be a powerful tool to reach a large number of low-income families. States should build on the momentum of North Dakota, Nevada, and others by creating their own matching programs for their states' programs.

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College Savings Plans

1. Up to $10, over the lifetime of the beneficiary or sibling of the beneficiary.

2. You will earn 2 Points per dollar in eligible net purchases (net purchases are purchases minus credits and returns) that you charge. Account must be open and in good standing to earn and redeem rewards and benefits. Upon approval, refer to your Program Rules for additional information. You may not redeem Reward Points, and you will immediately lose all of your Reward Points, if your Account is closed to future transactions (including, but not limited to, due to Program misuse, failure to pay, bankruptcy, or death). Reward Points will not expire as long as your Account remains open. Certain transactions are not eligible for Reward Points, including Advances (as defined in the Agreement, including wire transfers, travelers checks, money orders, foreign cash transactions, betting transactions, lottery tickets and ATM disbursements), Annual Fee, convenience checks, balance transfers, unauthorized or fraudulent charges, overdraft advances, interest charges, fees, credit insurance charges, transactions to fund certain prepaid card products, U.S. Mint purchases, or transactions to purchase cash convertible items. The 2% cash back rewards value applies only to Points redeemed for a deposit into an eligible Fidelity® account. The redemption value is different if you choose to redeem your Points for other rewards such as travel options, merchandise, gift cards, and/or statement credit. Other restrictions apply. Full details appear in the Program Rules new card customers receive with their card. Establishment or ownership of a Fidelity® account or other relationship with Fidelity Investments® is not required to obtain a card or to be eligible to use Points to obtain any rewards offered under the program other than Fidelity Rewards.

3. Because the interest and other fees charged on any outstanding balance are greater than the cash value of the rewards points, you may pay more in fees and interest than the value of the points you earn if you do not pay your bill in full each month.

The creditor and issuer of this card is Elan Financial Services, pursuant to license from Visa U.S.A. Inc.

Visa and Visa Signature are registered trademarks of Visa International Service Association and are used by the issuer pursuant to license from Visa U.S.A

Guidance provided by Fidelity through the Planning and Guidance Center is educational in nature, is not individualized, and is not intended to serve as the primary basis for your investment or tax-planning decisions.

The UNIQUE College Investing Plan, mynewextsetup.us College Investing Plan, DE Education Savings Plan, AZ, Arizona's Education Savings Plan, and the Connecticut Higher Education Trust (CHET) College Savings Plan - Direct Plan are offered by the state of New Hampshire, MEFA, the state of Delaware, and the state of Arizona with the Arizona State Treasurer's Office as the Plan Administrator and the Arizona State Board of Investment as Plan Trustee, and the Treasurer of the state of Connecticut respectively, and managed by Fidelity Investments.

If you or the designated beneficiary is not a New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Delaware, Arizona or Connecticut resident, you may want to consider, before investing, whether your state or the beneficiary's home state offers its residents a plan with alternate state tax advantages or other state benefitssuch as financial aid, scholarship funds and protection from creditors.

Units of the portfolios are municipal securities and may be subject to market volatility and fluctuation.

Please carefully consider the plan's investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses before investing. For this and other information on any college savings plan managed by Fidelity, contact Fidelity for a free Fact Kit, or view one online. Read it carefully before you invest or send money.

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North Dakota Announces Accounts-at-Birth Program for College

Following in the footsteps of Maine, Rhode Island, San Francisco, and others, North Dakota launched a new initiative Wednesday -- what's being called the Children FIRST program -- that provides college savings accounts at birth. Every newborn in the state will now be eligible for a $ grant, and as is the case with Maine's Harold Alfond Challenge, the child must be signed up before his or her first birthday.

Unlike Maine's program (which offers $ at birth) however, North Dakota requires that the initial $ be matched within four years by the family or another private source. The Bank of North Dakota, which is the only state-owned bank in the U.S., will oversee the program and finance the grants.

To note: North Dakota is also one of ten states whose college savings plan currently provides matching grants to low- and moderate-income families. 

The state issues a one-time grant of up to $ for families with incomes of $40, or lower ($80, for married couples), and up-to-three-year matching grants for families with incomes of $20, or below ($40, if married). Low-income families in particular stand to reap these incentives, and conceivably could accumulate nearly $2, in three years by only putting in $ of their own money.

The state would do well to heed the lessons from Maine's Harold Alfond Challenge, which has seen enrollment in their plan teeter around 40% of all eligible savers, possibly due to the requirement that children be signed up in year one. Automatic enrollment, of course, can be a powerful tool in ensuring universal participation, particularly for low-income households. San Francisco's Kindergarten-to-College program, for example, has begun to do just that.

Regardless, this is a broadly positive development that could act as an incubator for a future federal child savings account policy.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Chris McCandless

American hiker and explorer

Christopher Johnson McCandless (; February 12, [2] – c. August ), also known by his self-made nickname "Alexander Supertramp",[3] was an American adventurer who sought an increasingly nomadic lifestyle as he grew up. McCandless is the subject of Into the Wild, a nonfiction book by Jon Krakauer that was later made into a full-length feature film.

After graduating from Emory University in Georgia in , McCandless traveled across North America and eventually hitchhiked to Alaska in April There, he entered the Alaskan bush with minimal supplies, hoping to live simply off the land. On the eastern bank of the Sushana River, McCandless found an abandoned bus, Fairbanks Bus , which he used as a makeshift shelter until his death. In September, his decomposing body, weighing only 67 pounds (30&#;kg), was found inside the bus by a hunter. McCandless's cause of death was officially ruled to be starvation,[4][5] although the exact circumstances relating to his death remain the subject of some debate.[6][7][8][9]

In January , Krakauer published an article about McCandless in that month's issue of Outside magazine. He had been assigned the story and had written it under a tight deadline.[10] Inspired by the details of McCandless's story, Krakauer wrote the biographical book Into the Wild, which was subsequently adapted into a film directed by Sean Penn, with Emile Hirsch portraying McCandless. That same year, McCandless became the subject of Ron Lamothe's documentary The Call of the Wild.

Early life[edit]

Christopher Johnson McCandless was born in El Segundo, California. He was the eldest child of Wilhelmina "Billie" McCandless (née Johnson) and Walter "Walt" McCandless, and had a younger sister named Carine. McCandless also had six half-siblings from Walt's first marriage, who lived with their mother in California and later Denver, Colorado. In , the family relocated to Annandale, Virginia, where McCandless's father was hired as an antenna specialist for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). McCandless's mother worked as a secretary for Hughes Aircraft. The couple went on to establish a successful consultancy business out of their home, specializing in Walt's area of expertise.[citation needed]

Carine McCandless alleged in her memoir The Wild Truth that her parents inflicted verbal and physical abuse upon each other and their children, often fueled by her father's alcoholism. She cited their abusive childhood, as well as his reading of Jack London's The Call of the Wild as the motivating factors in her brother's desire to "disappear" into the wilderness.[11] In a statement released to the media shortly before the memoir was released, Walt and Billie McCandless denied their daughter's accusations, stating that her book is "fictionalized writing [that] has absolutely nothing to do with our beloved son, Chris, his journey or his character. This whole unfortunate event in Chris's life 22 years ago is about Chris and his dreams."[citation needed]

In , McCandless graduated from W.T. Woodson High School in Fairfax, Virginia.[12] He excelled academically, although a number of teachers and fellow students observed that he "marched to the beat of a different drummer." McCandless also served as captain of the cross-country team, where he would urge teammates to treat running as a spiritual exercise in which they were "running against the forces of darkness&#; all the evil in the world, all the hatred."[13]

McCandless traveled to southern California and reconnected with distant relatives and friends in the summer of While there McCandless learned that his father had lived for a time in a bigamous union with his second wife; he had also fathered a child with his first wife after the birth of his children by his second wife. Jon Krakauer speculated that this discovery may have had a profound impact on McCandless.[14]

McCandless graduated from Emory University in May , with a bachelor's degree in the double majors of history and anthropology.[13] After graduating, he donated his college savings of $24, (approximately $50, in ) to Oxfam, and adopted a vagabond lifestyle, working when necessary as a restaurant food preparer and farm-hand.[15] An avid outdoorsman, McCandless completed several lengthy wilderness hiking trips, and paddled a canoe down a portion of the Colorado River before hitchhiking to Alaska in April [16]

Travels[edit]

McCandless left Virginia in the summer of , driving a Datsun west in an apparent cross country trip, attempting to reach California. McCandless's car was not in good condition and suffered numerous breakdowns as he made his way out of the eastern United States. He also carried no car insurance on the vehicle and was driving with expired license plates. By the end of the summer, McCandless had reached the Lake Mead National Recreation Area where a flash flood disabled his car beyond repair. Fearful of fines or possibly even arrest due to lack of a valid license, registration, and insurance, he removed the car's license plates, took what he could carry, and kept moving on foot. His car was later found, repaired, and put into service as an undercover vehicle for the local police department.[17]

Traveling northwest, McCandless then hitchhiked into the Sierra Nevada mountains where, out of supplies and food, he broke into an abandoned cabin to steal food, supplies, and money. Throughout the winter of , and in , McCandless appears to have lived in hermit camps with other vagrants in the Sierra Nevada region. He was suspected of burglarizing other cabins when food and money ran low, but only one case was ever positively confirmed by authorities after his death.[18]

Mexico and arrest[edit]

In early , McCandless left the Sierra Nevada and hitchhiked in a circular course south through California, into Arizona, and then north to South Dakota. Completely out of cash with no means to support himself, he obtained a job as a grain elevator operator in Carthage, South Dakota. He worked at this job for the remainder of , until one day suddenly quitting and leaving his supervisor a postcard which read:

"Tramping is too easy with all this money. My days were more exciting when I was penniless and had to forage around for my next meal I've decided that I'm going to live this life for some time to come."

McCandless then headed to Colorado, where he used money from his job to buy kayak supplies as well as a handgun. He then navigated the Colorado River, without a permit, and was occasionally pursued by wildlife and park rangers who had heard of his exploits from other river travelers, several of whom had been concerned that McCandless had been seen white water rafting in dangerous areas of the river with no safety equipment. In all, reports of McCandless were received at Lake Havasu, Bill Williams River, the Colorado River Reservoir, Cibola Wildlife Refuge, Imperial Wildlife Refuge and Yuma Ground. The authorities attempted, but never succeeded, in locating McCandless who was wanted due to his lack of proper river training as well as operating on the river without a valid boating license.[19]

McCandless eventually followed the Colorado River all the way to Mexico, where he crossed the international border through a spillway at the Morelos Dam. After encountering waterfalls, through which he could no longer navigate in a canoe, McCandless abandoned his river journey and spent a few days alone at the village of El Golfo de Santa Clara (31°41′13″N°29′49″W / °N °W / ; ), in the province of Sonora. Finding Mexico intimidating, with no way to support himself, he attempted to re-enter the U.S. and was arrested for carrying a firearm at a border checkpoint. McCandless was briefly held in custody but released without charges after his gun was confiscated. Following this experience in Mexico, McCandless began hitchhiking north, eventually winding up back in South Dakota.[20]

Alaska[edit]

In April , McCandless hitchhiked from South Dakota to Fairbanks, Alaska. After his death, witnesses stated they had seen McCandless in Alaska first at Dot Lake with several other sightings in Fairbanks. McCandless was stated to be traveling with a "big backpack" and would give a false name if asked his identity. He was described as very suspicious of people around him, unkempt, and smelling due to lack of hygiene. One witness described McCandless as "generally strange, weird, with a weird energy".[21]

In the summer of , McCandless was seen at Delta Junction, Alaska, and was then last seen alive at the head of the Stampede Trail on April 28 by a local electrician named Jim Gallien. Gallien, who had given McCandless a ride from Fairbanks to the start of the rugged track just outside the small town of Healy, later said he had been seriously concerned about the safety of McCandless (who introduced himself as "Alex") after noticing his light pack, minimal equipment, meager rations, and obvious lack of experience. Gallien said he had deep doubts about "Alex's" ability to survive the harsh and unforgiving Alaskan bush.

Gallien tried repeatedly to persuade McCandless to delay the trip, at one point offering to detour to Anchorage and buy him suitable equipment and supplies. However, McCandless ignored Gallien's persistent warnings and refused his offers of assistance (though McCandless did accept a pair of Xtratufs, two sandwiches, and a packet of corn chips from Gallien). Gallien dropped McCandless off believing he would head back towards the highway within a few days as hunger set in.[22]

After hiking along the snow-covered Stampede Trail, McCandless came upon an abandoned bus (about 28 miles (45&#;km) west of Healy at 63°52′″N°46′″W / °N °W / ; ) alongside an overgrown section of the trail near Denali National Park. McCandless, according to Krakauer, attempted to continue "heading west until [he] hit the Bering Sea." However, he was deterred by the thick Alaskan bush and returned to the bus, where he set up camp and lived off the land. He had kilograms (&#;lb) of rice; a Remingtonsemi-automatic rifle with rounds of LRhollowpoint ammunition; a number of books, including one on local plant life; some personal effects and a few items of camping equipment. Self-portrait photographs and journal entries indicate he foraged for edible plants and hunted game including porcupines, squirrels, and birds such as ptarmigans and Canada geese. On June 9, , McCandless illegally stalked and shot a moose. However, the meat spoiled within days after he failed in his efforts to preserve it.

It had been speculated that McCandless was responsible for vandalizing several cabins in the area that were stocked with food, survival equipment, and emergency supplies. In response, Denali National Park Chief Ranger Ken Kehrer has categorically stated that McCandless was not considered a viable suspect by the National Park Service.[23]

McCandless's journal documents days in the area. In July, after living in the bus for a little over two months, he decided to head back to civilization, but the trail was blocked by the impassable Teklanika River swollen with late-summer runoff from the Cantwell Glacier; the watercourse by that stage was considerably higher and swifter than when he had crossed in April. McCandless did not have a detailed topographical map of the region and was unaware of the existence of an abandoned, hand-operated cable car that crossed the river 1&#;2 mile (&#;m) downstream from where he had previously crossed.[13] At this point, McCandless headed back to the bus and re-established his camp. He posted an S.O.S. note on the bus stating:

Attention Possible Visitors. S.O.S. I need your help. I am injured, near death, and too weak to hike out. I am all alone, this is no joke. In the name of God, please remain to save me. I am out collecting berries close by and shall return this evening. Thank you, Chris McCandless. August&#;?[24]

Death[edit]

McCandless's final written journal entry, noted as "Day ", simply read, "BEAUTIFUL BLUE BERRIES."[25] Days through contained no words and were marked only with slashes, and on Day there was no entry.[26] The exact date and time of his death are unknown. Near the time of his death, McCandless took a picture of himself waving while holding a written note, which read:

I HAVE HAD A HAPPY LIFE AND THANK THE LORD. GOODBYE AND MAY GOD BLESS ALL![27]

On September 6, , a group of hunters who were looking for shelter for the night came upon the converted bus where McCandless had been staying. Upon entering, they smelled what they thought was rotting food and discovered "a lump" in a sleeping bag in the back of the bus. The hunters radioed police, who arrived the following day. They found McCandless's decomposing remains in the sleeping bag. It is theorized that he died from starvation approximately two weeks before his body was found.[26]

Theories of malnutrition[edit]

Rabbit starvation[edit]

In his book Into the Wild (), Krakauer suggests two factors may have contributed to McCandless's death. First, he offered that McCandless was running the risk of "rabbit starvation", from over-relying on lean game for nutrition.[28]

Swainsonine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds[edit]

Krakauer also speculated[29] that McCandless might have been poisoned by a toxic alkaloid called swainsonine, by ingesting seeds (from Hedysarum alpinum or Hedysarum mackenzii) containing the toxin, or possibly by a mold that grows on them (Rhizoctonia leguminicola) when he put them damp into a plastic bag. Swainsonine inhibits metabolism of glycoproteins, which causes starvation despite ample caloric intake.[7]

However, in an article in the September issue of Men's Journal, Matthew Power states that extensive laboratory testing showed there were no toxins or alkaloids present in the H. alpinum seeds McCandless had been eating. Dr. Thomas Clausen, the chair of the chemistry and biochemistry department at University of Alaska Fairbanks, said, "I tore that plant apart. There were no toxins. No alkaloids. I'd eat it myself."[30] Analysis of the wild sweet peas, given as the cause of McCandless's death in Into the Wild, found no toxic compounds, and there is not a single account in modern medical literature of anyone being poisoned by this species of plant.[4] As Power put it: "He didn't find a way out of the bush, couldn't catch enough food to survive, and simply starved to death".[30]

Lathyrism due to ODAP in Hedysarum alpinum seeds[edit]

In , a new hypothesis was proposed. Ronald Hamilton, a retired bookbinder at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania,[7] suggested a link between the symptoms described by McCandless and the poisoning of Jewish prisoners in the Nazi concentration camp in Vapniarca. He put forward the proposal that McCandless starved to death because he was suffering from paralysis in his legs induced by lathyrism, which prevented him from gathering food or hiking.[31] Lathyrism may be caused by ODAP poisoning from seeds of Hedysarum alpinum (commonly called wild potato). The ODAP, a toxic amino acid, had not been detected by the previous studies of the seeds because they had suspected and tested for a toxic alkaloid, rather than an amino acid, and nobody had previously suspected that Hedysarum alpinum seeds contained this toxin. The protein would be relatively harmless to someone who was well-fed and on a normal diet, but toxic to someone who was malnourished, physically stressed, and on an irregular and insufficient diet, as McCandless was.[32] As Krakauer points out, McCandless's field guide did not warn of any dangers of eating the seeds, which were not yet known to be toxic. Krakauer suspects this is the meaning of McCandless's journal entry of July 30, which states, "EXTREMELY WEAK. FAULT OF POT[ATO] SEED. MUCH TROUBLE JUST TO STAND UP. STARVING. GREAT JEOPARDY."[33]

In September , Krakauer published an article in The New Yorker following up on Hamilton's claims.[7] A sample of fresh Hedysarum alpinum seeds was sent to a laboratory for HPLC analysis. Results showed that the seeds contained % beta-ODAP by weight, a concentration well within the levels known to cause lathyrism in humans, although the interpretation of the results were disputed by other chemists.[6] The article notes that while occasional ingestion of foodstuffs containing ODAP is not hazardous for healthy individuals eating a balanced diet, "individuals suffering from malnutrition, stress, and acute hunger are especially sensitive to ODAP, and are thus highly susceptible to the incapacitating effects of lathyrism after ingesting the neurotoxin".[7]

L-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds[edit]

In March , Krakauer co-authored a scientific analysis of the Hedysarum alpinum seeds McCandless ate. Instead of ODAP, the report found relatively high levels of L-canavanine (an antimetabolite toxic to mammals) in the H. alpinum seeds and concluded "it is highly likely that the consumption of H. alpinum seeds contributed to the death of Chris McCandless."[9]

Legacy[edit]

The converted green and white bus where McCandless lived and died became a well-known destination for hikers. Known as "The Magic Bus", the International Harvester was abandoned by road workers in on the Stampede Trail. A plaque in McCandless's memory was affixed to the interior by his father, Walt McCandless.[34] McCandless's life became the subject of a number of articles, books, films, and documentaries, which helped elevate his life to the status of modern myth. He became a romantic figure to some inspired by what they see as his free-spirited idealism, but to others, he is a controversial, misguided figure.[30][36][37]

"The Magic Bus" became a pilgrimage destination for trekkers who would camp at the vehicle. Some of these experienced their own difficulties, or even died attempting to cross the Teklanika River.[36][38]

On June 18, , various government agencies coordinated with an Alaska Army National Guard training mission to finally remove the bus, deemed a public safety issue after at least fifteen people had to be rescued, and at least two people died while attempting to cross the Teklanika River to reach the bus.[39][40] It was flown via CH Chinook helicopter to Healy, then via flatbed truck to an undisclosed location.[41][42][43][40]

On September 24, , the Museum of the North at the University of Alaska Fairbanks announced it became the permanent home of McCandless's 'Magic Bus ' where it will be restored and an outdoor exhibit will be created.[44]

Assessments[edit]

McCandless has been a polarizing figure since his story came to widespread public attention with the publication of Krakauer's January Outside article.[30][36] While the author and many others have a sympathetic view of the young traveler,[45] others, particularly Alaskans, have expressed negative views about McCandless and those who romanticize his fate.[46]

Alaskan Park Ranger Peter Christian wrote:

When you consider McCandless from my perspective, you quickly see that what he did wasn't even particularly daring, just stupid, tragic, and inconsiderate. First off, he spent very little time learning how to actually live in the wild. He arrived at the Stampede Trail without even a map of the area. If he [had] had a good map he could have walked out of his predicament [] Essentially, Chris McCandless committed suicide.[46]

Ken Ilgunas, also an Alaskan Park Ranger and the author of The McCandless Mecca,[47] wrote in response:

Before I go any further, I should say that Pete is a really good guy [] But with that said, I think Pete is very, very wrong. [] Because I am in the unique position as both an Alaskan park ranger and a person who is, in many ways, like Chris McCandless, I feel I can speak with some authority on the subject. [] McCandless, of course, did not commit suicide. He starved to death, accidentally poisoned himself, or a combination of the two.[48]

Sherry Simpson, writing in the Anchorage Press, described her trip to the bus with a friend, and their reaction upon reading the comments that tourists had left lauding McCandless as an insightful, Thoreau-like figure:

Among my friends and acquaintances, the story of Christopher McCandless makes great after-dinner conversation. Much of the time I agree with the "he had a death wish" camp because I don't know how else to reconcile what we know of his ordeal. Now and then I venture into the "what a dumbshit" territory, tempered by brief alliances with the "he was just another romantic boy on an all-American quest" partisans. Mostly I'm puzzled by the way he's emerged as a hero.[49]

Krakauer defends McCandless, claiming that what critics point to as arrogance was merely McCandless's desire for "being the first to explore a blank spot on the map." He continues: "In , however, there were no more blank spots on the map—not in Alaska, not anywhere. But Chris, with his idiosyncratic logic, came up with an elegant solution to this dilemma: He simply got rid of the map. In his own mind, if nowhere else, the terra would thereby remain incognita."[50]

In popular culture[edit]

Krakauer's approximately 9,word article "Death of an Innocent" (January ) was published in Outside.[51] Chip Brown's full-length article on McCandless, "I Now Walk Into the Wild" (February 8, ), was published in The New Yorker.[5] Jon Krakauer's non-fiction book Into the Wild () expands upon his Outside article and retraces McCandless's travels leading up to the hiker's eventual death.

McCandless's story was adapted by screenwriter Chip Johannessen into a episode of Chris Carter's television series Millenium, titled "Luminary."[52]

An eponymous film adaptation of Into the Wild, directed by Sean Penn with Emile Hirsch portraying McCandless, received a number of awards, including Best Picture from the American Film Institute.[53]Ron Lamothe's documentary The Call of the Wild () also covers McCandless's life story.[54]

The book Back to the Wild compiles photographs, postcards and journal entries by McCandless. A PBS documentary uncovering some additional information, with interviews, titled Return to the Wild: The Chris McCandless Story, first aired on the PBS network in November [55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Krakauer, J., et al. (). "Presence of l-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and its potential role in the death of Chris McCandless." Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. doi/mynewextsetup.us
  2. ^Krakauer, Jon (). "6". Into the Wild. Anchor Books. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  3. ^McNamee, Thomas (March 3, ). "Adventures of Alexander Supertramp". The New York Times. ISSN&#; Retrieved June 19,
  4. ^ ab"The Call of the Wild: Into the Wild Debunked". Terra Incognita films. August 21, Retrieved January 12,
  5. ^ abBrown, Chip (February 8, ). "I Now Walk Into the Wild". The New Yorker. p.&#; ISSN&#;X.
  6. ^ abDrahl, Carmen (October 28, ). "Chemists Dispute How 'Into The Wild' Protagonist Chris McCandless Died". Chemical and Engineering News. 91 (43): 30–
  7. ^ abcdeKrakauer, Jon (September 12, ). "How Chris McCandless Died". The New Yorker Blog: Page-Turner. Retrieved December 12,
  8. ^Medred, Craig. "The fiction that is Jon Krakauer's 'Into the Wild'". Anchorage Daily News.
  9. ^ abKrakauer, J., et al. (). "Presence of l-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and its potential role in the death of Chris McCandless." Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. doi/mynewextsetup.us
  10. ^Krakauer, Jon (September 12, ). "How Chris McCandless Died". The New Yorker.
  11. ^author., McCandless, Carine (November 17, ). The wild truth. ISBN&#;. OCLC&#;
  12. ^Williams, Preston (October 25, ). "Remembering an Athlete Who Never Returned From the Wild". Washington Post.
  13. ^ abcKrakauer, Jon (January ). "Death of an Innocent: How Christopher McCandless Lost His Way in the Wilds"(PDF). Outside. Archived from the original(PDF) on March 3, Retrieved April 4,
  14. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into The Wild. New York City: Anchor. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  15. ^McCandless, Carine (). The Wild Truth. New York City: Harper One. ISBN&#;.
  16. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into the Wild. New York: Doubleday. pp.&#;5, 32– ISBN&#;.
  17. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into the Wild. New York: Doubleday. pp.&#;28– ISBN&#;.
  18. ^Medred, Craig. "The beatification of Chris McCandless: From thieving poacher into saint", Anchorage Daily News (21 September )
  19. ^National Park Service, "Papers and Working Files of NPS Employees" (February )
  20. ^Medred, Craig. "The beatification of Chris McCandless: From thieving poacher into saint", Anchorage Daily News (21 September )
  21. ^Medred, Craig. "The beatification of Chris McCandless: From thieving poacher into saint", Anchorage Daily News (21 September )
  22. ^Krakauer, Jon (). Into The Wild. New York City: Anchor. ISBN&#;.
  23. ^Into the Wild, p.
  24. ^"Scan of Chris McCandless' note". mynewextsetup.us. Archived from the original on November 13, Retrieved August 7,
  25. ^Medred, Craig (August 12, ). "Examining Chris McCandless, 20 years after he went 'Into the Wild'". mynewextsetup.us. The Alaska Dispatch. Retrieved October 2,
  26. ^ abHewitt, Bill (October 5, ). "End of the Trail". People. Time, Inc. 38 (14). ISSN&#; Retrieved October 2,
  27. ^Into the Wild, page
  28. ^Into the Wild, page
  29. ^Krakauer, Jon (September 12, ). "How Chris McCandless Died". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 25,
  30. ^ abcdPower, Matthew. "The Cult of Chris McCandless". Archived from the original on November 24, Retrieved August 2, . Men's Journal, September Retrieved Jan 03,
  31. ^"Theory on Chris McCandless' Death - Ronald Hamilton 1". Christopher McCandless.
  32. ^"When Edible Plants Turn Their Defenses On Us". Health News Florida. October 24, Retrieved January 12,
  33. ^"Christopher McCandless Bio". Christopher McCandless.
  34. ^Sainsbury, Brendan; Benchwick, Greg; Bodry, Catherine (). Lonely Planet: Alaska (11&#;ed.). Lonely Planet. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  35. ^ abcHolland, Eva (December 5, ). "Chasing Alexander Supertramp". Atavist.
  36. ^Ottum, Lisa (March 15, ). "The Miseducation of Chris McCandless". In Hall, Dewey W. (ed.). Romantic Ecocriticism: Origins and Legacies. Lexington Publishing. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
  37. ^"Newlywed swept away in Alaska trying to reach 'into the Wild' bus". CBS News. Associated Press. July 27, Retrieved July 27,
  38. ^Levenson, Michael (June 19, ). "'Into the Wild' Bus, Seen as a Danger, Is Airlifted From the Alaskan Wild". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, &#; via NewsColony.
  39. ^ abHerz, Nathaniel (June 18, ). "Helicopter removes 'Into the Wild' bus that lured Alaska travelers to their deaths". Alaska Public Media. Retrieved June 27,
  40. ^LaCount, Seth (June 18, ). "Alaska National Guard airlifts "Into the Wild" bus from Stampede Trail". Defense Visual Information Distribution Service. Alaska National Guard Public Affairs. Retrieved June 27,
  41. ^"Nearly 30 years after 'Into the Wild' hiker's death, infamous bus removed from Alaska wilderness". KTVA. June 18, Archived from the original on June 21, Retrieved June 19,
  42. ^Holland, Eva (June 18, ). "Alaska Airlifts 'Into the Wild' Bus Out of the Wild". Outside Online. Archived from the original on June 24, Retrieved June 27, CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  43. ^Osborne, Ryan. "Famous McCandless 'Bus ' moved to UAF's Museum of the North". mynewextsetup.us. Retrieved September 25,
  44. ^"Letters". Outside Online. Archived from the original on September 19, Retrieved December 5,
  45. ^ abGeorge Mason University English Department. Text and Community website. Christian, Peter. Chris McCandless from a Park Ranger's Perspective. Retrieved August 26,
  46. ^Ilgunas, Ken. "The McCandless Mecca". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved July 25,
  47. ^Ilgunas, Ken. "Chris McCandless from Another Alaska Park Ranger's Perspective". Plume. Retrieved July 25,
  48. ^Simpson, Sherry. "A Man Made Cold by the Universe". Anchorage Press. Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved February 15,
  49. ^Young, Gordon (February ). "North to Alaska". mynewextsetup.us Retrieved December 5,
  50. ^Krakauer, Jon (January ). "Death of an Innocent"(PDF). Outside.
  51. ^"LUMINARY - MILLENNIUM EPISODE PROFILE". Millennium. Retrieved January 12,
  52. ^"Following His Trail to Danger and Joy". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved January 12,
  53. ^Harmanci, Reyban (September 26, ). "Movie: 'Call of the Wild'". SFGate.
  54. ^"Return to the Wild". PBS. Retrieved January 12,

External links[edit]

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Bank of North Dakota president pushing 'College SAVE' plan

The president of the Bank of North Dakota is hoping more people will take advantage of a program designed to help families save for college.

It’s called “College SAVE.”  Bank president Eric Hardmeyer said anyone can contribute to a College SAVE account, and that contributed money is non-taxable.

Hardmeyer told the Board of Higher Education it could help reduce student loan debt.

"I think we all recognize that our students are graduating with an average of $30, to $40, in debt," Hardmeyer told the Board. "We (at the Bank) see that first hand every day, as students refinance and take out loans. So we understand the issues around student loan debt."

Hardmeyer said the College SAVE program is one program that can really make an impact in reducing the amount of debt.

Hardmeyer said right now, there's $ million in the program. But he said there's room to grow.

"There are about newborns every year," Hardmeyer said. "We're only getting about 10 percent of them to start saving. If we could do a little bit better job there,  that number could grow significantly."

Hardmeyer said the Bank continues a media campaign to increase interest in the program.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Top Conservation Wins for Birds

This year our conservation leaders, bird advocates, college students, ambassadors, volunteers, and scientists accomplished amazing things. Through early-December, more than , of us contacted decision-makers more than 1,, times on behalf of birds. All of the accomplishments listed below come from the hard work and dedication of our members, chapters, volunteers, and staff. We're very proud of what we have been able to accomplish together over the past 12 months.

Keep reading to see the most important ways that our flock worked together this year.

Reinstated Three National Monuments

In October, the Biden-Harris administration restored protections for three national monuments—Northeast Canyons and Seamounts off the coast of New England, and Bears Ears and Grand Staircase-Escalante in Utah—that the previous administration had shrunk or opened up to commercial exploitation.

In , the Trump administration downsized Bears Ears by 85 percent and Grand Staircase-Escalante by nearly 50 percent. And in , President Trump signed a proclamation to open the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument to commercial fishing. This rollback increased the risk of seabirds getting hooked on fishing line or caught in a net and reduced the amount of fish available for them to eat. Audubon’s Seabird Institute was instrumental in uncovering that Maine’s recently restored populations of Atlantic Puffins rely on this monument to stock up on fish in winter months. The reinstated protections mean that these areas will be safe for birds to forage for fish in the coming years. 

Restoring Federal Safeguards to Globally Significant Wetlands

In January  Audubon and conservation partners filed a lawsuit challenging the Trump administration’s unlawful attempt to revive a massive project known as the Yazoo Pumps that would drain Mississippi Flyway wetlands that support more than 28 million migratory birds annually. In response to the lawsuit, in November the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restored its Clean Water Act veto of the Yazoo Pumps, effectively halting the project and ensuring some of the nation’s richest habitats are protected once again.

Audubon engaged more than 93, scientists, conservation and social justice organizations, citizens, and Audubon members to deliver comments opposing the project. Audubon and partners also developed and shared with EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers a suite of nature-based solutions that would provide effective flood relief for vulnerable communities while benefitting birds and other wildlife.

Delivered Water to the Parched Colorado River Delta

From May through October this year, 35, acre-feet of Colorado River water—about 11 billion gallons—made its way from the U.S.-Mexico border to the river’s fan-shaped terminus miles away. It is the first time since a brief period in that the Colorado reached the sea. Because of the tireless advocacy by Raise the River, a binational alliance of six conservation groups including Audubon, and a series of delicate negotiations between the U.S. and Mexico, the delta will see more of this in the future: by it will receive , acre-feet of water in total.

These water deliveries have real impact. After the pulse of water and some targeted water deliveries to restore riparian habitats, the delta bloomed in response: Bird abundance rose 20 percent and avian diversity increased 42 percent, showing even a modest amount of water can make a big difference.

Securing Water for Great Salt Lake Wetlands

In October, the Utah Division of Water Rights approved applications to deliver water to Farmington Bay of Great Salt Lake via the Jordan River. An innovative partnership is laying the groundwork to voluntarily share water for the lake to meet crucial needs for people, birds, and other wildlife.

The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Rio Tinto Kennecott, Central Utah Water Conservancy District, National Audubon Society, The Nature Conservancy, and Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission collaborated to achieve this important step in addressing Great Salt Lake’s declining water levels. Through two donations of water rights, up to approximately 21, acre-feet of water annually could be delivered to Farmington Bay over the next ten years.

Keeping water flowing to Great Salt Lake’s wetlands and open water habitats is vital to maintaining important natural areas of international and hemispheric importance for birds, while also benefiting people.

Delivering More Than 80 million Gallons of Water to the Drying Rio Grande

In order to address the Rio Grande’s crippling drought and one of the driest water supplies in over 50 years, Audubon is doing its part to create solutions that work for people and the birds that rely on a healthy flowing river. Through long-term funding support from the Bonneville Environmental Foundation, Audubon released more than 80 million gallons of water into the Rio Grande in an effort that is tightly coordinated with water managers and biologists to ensure effective and efficient use. Audubon secures this water through voluntary leases of water rights from water users. For our farming communities, this means an ability to manage through crop shortfalls—to come out the other side of a growing season with the farm intact and hope for future revenue. For our river this means an ability to survive drying and associated stresses to riverside plant and animal communities.

Helping Black Skimmers Nest Again on the Gulf

For the first time in 10 years, Black Skimmers successfully fledged chicks on the Louisiana mainland, thanks in part to a recent project to restore beaches in the southwestern corner of the state.

In late July, Audubon biologists located a Black Skimmer nest “scrape,” or a depression in the sand, containing four eggs along a Cameron Parish shoreline restoration site near Holly Beach. By mid-August, three skimmer pairs had initiated nesting in the area. A dedicated set of stewards and volunteers protected the birds from beachgoers throughout the summer and early fall, and the final chick fledged in September.

Launching a Bird-friendly Forester Program

This year, Audubon’s Connecticut and New York regional office, along with Audubon Vermont, launched the Audubon Forester Training and Endorsement Program to help create high-quality habitat at scale. More than foresters in 19 states attended the first two training webinar series launched in May The program will grow a national network of professional foresters who, once endorsed, can connect with landowners and work together to prioritize habitat for birds and other wildlife. Foresters in the program learn about birds in decline, and landscape and stand-level planning and management to improve forest habitat diversity.

Protecting One of North America’s Most Imperiled Bird Species 

In response to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) proposal to list the Lesser Prairie Chicken as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), 22, Audubon members voiced their support for extending further protections to these birds who whose home range includes parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and New Mexico. The listing will prohibit anyone from harming the birds either directly or indirectly, and it requires the development of a recovery plan for the species and the identification of critical habitat. New federal investments and incentives for landowners resulting from the listing decision will make our grassland healthier, improve the infiltration of groundwater, sequester carbon, and make the rangeland more resilient overall. This is good for the bird and for ranchers, farmers, and communities who depend on these resources.

Taking Regenerative Agriculture to Market

In April, Audubon and Panorama Meats, the largest producer of organic grass-fed, grass-finished beef in the U.S. announced a one-million-acre regenerative grassland partnership—the largest such program in the country. The commitment will create individual habitat management plans with every family rancher in the Panorama Organic network through Audubon’s Conservation Ranching Initiative.

The Audubon Conservation Ranching Initiative seeks to enhance the stewardship of grasslands for the benefit of birds, as they have suffered significant decline over the past 50 years due to the loss of U.S. grasslands to widespread development. The initiative empowers consumers to support programs that restore bird populations via conservation practices by selectively purchasing beef nationwide from Audubon-certified farms and ranches, including Panorama Organic and other participating brands.

Starting Restoration on Crab Bank, a Critically Important Barrier Island

After Audubon South Carolina secured the necessary funding, including a grant from National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, the Army Corps of Engineers has begun reconstruction of Crab Bank. The restoration should be completed by the end of the year, in time for the start of the nesting season.

Historically, the protected barrier island served as one of the last remaining safe critical nesting area for thousands of shorebirds and seabirds in South Carolina. After heightened erosion caused by a series of severe storms, the island experienced its first year on record of no nests in Dredge material from Charleston Harbor is being used by the Army Corps of Engineers to restore the island to approximately 30 acres of valuable high ground. After the birds arrive, Audubon will partner with a coalition of local groups to monitor the island, host a live video feed of nesting, and steward the island for years to come.

Keeping Sprawl Out of Environmentally Sensitive Areas

In , legislation in Florida mandated the construction of miles of new turnpikes through some of Florida’s most sensitive environmental areas and important rural farmland areas, effectively prying them open for future development and sprawl. But after months of meetings and important policy work, Florida state senator Gayle Harrell (R-Stuart), chair of the Transportation Committee, introduced Senate Bill , which repeals the earlier mandate.

Audubon worked diligently to make sure this legislation enshrined in the statute new language requires that Department of Transportation takes into consideration the protective recommendations from prior task forces that did environmental assessments of the highway projects, and include some of the most environmentally protective guidelines for highway planning and design ever prescribed in Florida, in the event the turnpikes are proposed again in the future.

Celebrating the Completion of a Year Restoration of the Kissimmee River

On July 29, Audubon Florida, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the South Florida Water Management District celebrated the 40 miles of restored river and floodplains, and more than 25, acres of restored wetlands along the Kissimmee River, the largest functioning restoration project in the world. The Kissimmee River once stretched miles in length, curving through Central Florida as a haven for wildlife, and its two-mile-wide floodplain was regularly inundated by seasonal rainfall, which provided important habitat to fish, wading birds, and other species.

Following restoration, Lake Kissimmee is expected to rise one and a half feet, storing water to feed the river during the dry season and rehydrating another 20 square miles of dried marshes. The river’s floodplain will flood seasonally and the river will meander again in order to replicate its natural path.

Securing $35 Million for Gulf Coast Birds

In March, the Deepwater Horizon Trustees announced nearly $ million in new Gulf restoration projects, including almost $35 million specifically to support bird populations that are still recovering from the oil spill nearly 11 years ago. Several of the projects selected for funding are included in Audubon’s vision for restoring the Gulf of Mexico.

Among the projects proposed is the Bird Nesting and Foraging Area Stewardship project, which will support coastal bird stewardship across four Gulf states. Other projects to support birds include restoring, protecting, and managing critical nesting islands like Chester Island in Texas, the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana, Round Island in Mississippi, and Dauphin Island in Alabama. Finally, another new project will identify and remove marine debris at key “hotspots” on the Gulf Coast, where birds and sea turtles are at risk of ingesting or getting entangled in marine debris such as discarded fishing line, nets, or traps.

Advocating for Marine Protections

In January, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA for short, announced it will expand the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary to nearly triple its current size. Situated on salt domes rising up from the seafloor, Flower Garden Banks is one of only two marine sanctuaries in the entire Gulf of Mexico. Its brightly colored coral reefs are an important feeding ground for seabirds like Northern Gannets and Magnificent Frigatebirds.

Restoring Grasslands from Marginal Grazing Land

Audubon Dakota successfully launched the Conservation Forage Program that aims to restore 18, acres of marginal cropland back to grassland in North Dakota to improve forage availability and quality. These grassland acres will benefit the landowner and livestock, as well as grassland birds and native wildlife, while protecting North Dakota's air and water quality for future generations.

Saving Percent of Tricolored Blackbird Colonies

Each spring and summer, Audubon California works with landowners and community partners to protect Tricolored Blackbirds across the state. This year that collaboration helped save percent—, birds in total—of the Tricolored Blackbird colonies nesting on agricultural fields. In years of drought, the Tricolored Blackbird's native habitat becomes even more limited, making the success of our program essential to the species' survival. This year, the largest colony detected was estimated to host around 30, birds.

Protecting One of the Last Undeveloped Barrier Islands in North Carolina

Hutaff Island, one of North Carolina’s last privately owned undeveloped barrier islands, will be conserved forever thanks to a partnership between Audubon North Carolina, NC Coastal Land Trust, and the Hutaff/McEachern family, funded by conservation philanthropist Tim Sweeney.

Hutaff is a 2-mile long ribbon of pristine beach and saltmarsh located between Lea Island and Topsail Beach to the north and Figure 8 Island to the south. Conserving this wild and uninhabited place in perpetuity will keep the island’s natural inlets and dynamic ecosystems intact, providing critical habitat for sea turtles, vulnerable beach-nesting birds like Black Skimmers, and a host of other rare and threatened wildlife.

Launching the Audubon Americas Program

After a year of analyzing our past work and other successful programs throughout Latin America, Audubon launched its Audubon Americas program to tackle full life-cycle conservation across the hemisphere. Audubon Americas will work mainly in Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, and The Bahamas, focusing on regenerative agriculture and protecting key sites in the Americas that support both migratory and resident bird species. Learn more here.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us
college save bank of north dakota

Comments

  1. අපි ලක්සපහක් දැම්මොත් අවුරැදුපහකට මාසයකට පොලි කියක් ගන්නපුලුවන්ද

  2. @Fate exactly. I make $60000 per year in Maryland and rent a one-bedroom apartment. I have a friend who makes $45000 in Vermont and owns a home. Location, location, location.

  3. If it's similar to a bank it's $2500...however when I tried at Bank of America which is not my bank that's the total they told me. When I went to my bank they let me withdraw more. When you go to your credit union, know how much you have available before you try. If you need more than $2500, allow extra days just in case they only let you withdraw $2500 per day. At an ATM it's $1000 per day. Thanks for asking.

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