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Pan Am

– airline of the United States, former primary international carrier

Not to be confused with Pan American Airways (–) or Pan American Airways (–).

For other uses, see Pan Am (disambiguation).

Pan Am mynewextsetup.us
FoundedMarch 14, ; 94 years ago&#;(March 14, )
(as Pan American Airways [PAA])
Commenced operationsOctober 19, ; 94 years ago&#;(October 19, )
Ceased operationsDecember 4, ; 29 years ago&#;(December 4, )
Hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer programWorldPass
SubsidiariesSahsa (40%) (–)
Pan Am Express (–)
Panagra (50%) (–)
Fleet size
Destinations86 countries on all six major continents at its peak in
Parent companyPan Am Corporation
HeadquartersNew York City
Miami, Florida
Key peopleJuan T. Trippe
(CEO, –)
Harold E. Gray
(CEO, –)
Najeeb E. Halaby Jr
(CEO, –)
William T. Seawell
(CEO, –)
C. Edward Acker
(CEO, –)
Thomas G. Plaskett
(CEO, –)
Russell L. Ray Jr.
(CEO, )

Pan American World Airways, originally founded as Pan American Airways[1] and commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States for much of the 20th century. It was the first airline to fly worldwide and pioneered numerous innovations of the modern airline industry, such as jet aircraft, jumbo jets, and computerized reservation systems.[2][3] Until its dissolution in , Pan Am "epitomized the luxury and glamour of intercontinental travel",[4] and it remains a cultural icon of the 20th century, identified by its blue globe logo ("The Blue Meatball"),[5] the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, and the white uniform caps of its pilots.

Founded in by two former U.S. Army Air Corps majors, Pan Am began as a scheduled airmail and passenger service flying between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba. Under the leadership of American entrepreneur Juan Trippe, in the s the airline purchased a fleet of flying boats and focused its route network on Central and South America, gradually adding transatlantic and transpacific destinations.[6] By the midth century, Pan Am enjoyed a near monopoly on international routes.[7] It led the aircraft industry into the Jet Age by acquiring new jetliners such as the Boeing and Boeing Pan Am's modern fleet allowed it to fly larger numbers of passengers, at a longer range, and with fewer stops than rivals.[8] Its primary hub and flagship terminal was the Worldport at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.[3]

During its peak between the late s and early s, Pan Am was world renowned for its advanced fleet, experienced and highly trained staff, and numerous amenities.[9] In alone, it flew 11 million passengers to 86 countries, with destinations in every continent save Antarctica. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority-owned by governments, it became the unofficial national carrier of the U.S. Pan Am was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the global airline industry association,[10] and helped shape the industry standard in hospitality and customer service.

Beginning in the mids, Pan Am began facing a series of challenges both internal and external, along with rising competition from the deregulation of the airline industry in After several attempts at financial restructuring and rebranding throughout the s, Pan Am gradually sold off its assets before declaring bankruptcy in By the time it ceased operations, the airline's trademark was the second most recognized worldwide,[11] and its loss was felt among travelers and many Americans as signifying the end of the golden age of air travel.[12] Its brand, iconography, and contributions to the industry remain well known in the 21st century.[13]

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

Flown cover autographed by pilot Cy Caldwell and carried from Key West, Florida, to Havana, Cuba, on the first contract airmail flight operated by Pan American Airways, October 19,
"Birthplace of Pan American World Airways", Key West, Florida

Pan American Airways, Incorporated (PAA) was founded as a shell company on March 14, , by United States Army Air Corps officers Henry "Hap" Arnold, Carl Spaatz and John Jouett out of concern for the growing influence of the German-owned Colombian air carrier SCADTA, in Central America. Operating in Colombia since , SCADTA lobbied hard for landing rights in the Panama Canal Zone, ostensibly to survey air routes for a connection to the United States, which the Air Corps viewed as a precursor to a possible German aerial threat to the canal.[15] In the spring of , the United States Post Office requested bids on a contract to deliver mail from Key West, Florida to Havana, Cuba before 19 October [16] Arnold and Spaatz drew up the prospectus for Pan American after they learned that SCADTA hired a company in Delaware to obtain air mail contracts from the US government.

Also competing for the contract, Juan Trippe formed the Aviation Corporation of the Americas (ACA) on June 2, , with $, in startup capital and the backing of powerful and politically connected financiers including Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and W. Averell Harriman.[17] Their operation had the all-important landing rights for Havana, having acquired American International Airways, a small airline established in by John K. Montgomery and Richard B. Bevier as a seaplane service from Key West to Havana. A third company, Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean Airways, was established on October 11, , by New York City investment banker Richard Hoyt to bid for the contract.[18]

The Postal Service awarded Pan American Airways the US mail delivery contract to Cuba, at the end of the bidding process, but Pan American lacked any aircraft to perform the job and did not have landing rights in Cuba.[19] Just days before the 19 October deadline, the three companies decided to form a partnership. ACA chartered a Fairchild FC-2floatplane from a small Dominican Republic carrier, West Indian Aerial Express, allowing Pan Am to operate the first flight to Havana on 19 October [20] The three companies formally merged on June 23, Richard Hoyt was named as president of the new Aviation Corporation of the Americas, but Trippe and his partners held 40% of the equity and Whitney was made president. Trippe became operational head of Pan American Airways, the new company's principal operating subsidiary.[18]

The US government approved the original Pan Am's mail delivery contract with little objection, out of fears that SCADTA would have no competition in bidding for routes between Latin America and the United States. The government further helped Pan Am by insulating it from its US competitors, seeing the airline as the "chosen instrument" for US-based international air routes. The airline expanded internationally, benefiting from a virtual monopoly on foreign routes.[22]

Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Am's network through all of Central and South America. During the late s and early s, Pan Am purchased a number of ailing or defunct airlines in Central and South America and negotiated with postal officials to win most of the government's airmail contracts to the region. In September Trippe toured Latin America with Charles Lindbergh to negotiate landing rights in a number of countries, including Barranquilla on SCADTA's home turf of Colombia, as well as Maracaibo and Caracas in Venezuela. By the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru. Following government favors for the denial of mail contracts to their competition, a forced merger was created with New York, Rio, and Buenos Aires Line, giving a seaplane route along the east coast of South America to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and westbound to Santiago, Chile.[23][24][25] Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was later renamed as Panair do Brasil. Pan Am also partnered with the Grace Shipping Company in to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America.[18] In the same year, Pan Am acquired a controlling stake in Mexicana de Aviación and took over Mexicana's Ford Trimotor route between Brownsville, Texas and Mexico City, extending this service to the Yucatan Peninsula to connect with Pan Am's Caribbean route network.[27]

Pan Am's holding company, the Aviation Corporation of the Americas, was one of the most sought after stocks on the New York Curb Exchange in , and flurries of speculation surrounded each of its new route awards. In April Trippe and his associates reached an agreement with United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (UATC) to segregate Pan Am operations to the south of the Mexico – United States border, in exchange for UATC taking a large shareholder stake (UATC was the parent company of what are now Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, and United Airlines).[28][29] The Aviation Corporation of the Americas changed its name to Pan American Airways Corporation in

Clipper era[edit]

advertising mailer for Pan Am's "Flying Clipper Cruises" to South America
PAA's China Clipper[30]service cut the time of a transpacific crossing from as much as six weeks by sea to just six days by air.

Pan Am started its South American routes with Consolidated Commodore and Sikorsky Sflying boats. The S, larger than the eight-passenger S, began flying for Pan Am in Carrying the nicknames American Clipper, Southern Clipper, and Caribbean Clipper, they were the first of the series of 28 Clippers that symbolized Pan Am between and During this time, Pan Am operated Clipper services to Latin America from the International Pan American Airport at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida.

In Pan Am turned to Britain and France to begin seaplane service between the United States and Europe. Pan Am reached an agreement with both countries to offer service from Norfolk, Virginia, to Europe via Bermuda and the Azores using the Ss. A joint service from Port Washington, New York, to Bermuda began in June , with Pan Am using Sikorskys and Imperial Airways using the C class flying boat RMA Cavalier.[31]

On July 5, , survey flights across the North Atlantic began. Pan Am Clipper III, a Sikorsky S, landed at Botwood in the Bay of Exploits in Newfoundland from Port Washington, via Shediac, New Brunswick. The next day Pan Am Clipper III left Botwood for Foynes in County Limerick, Ireland. The same day, a Short Empire C-Class flying boat, the Caledonia, left Foynes for Botwood, and landed July 6, , reaching Montreal on July 8 and New York on July 9.

Trippe decided to start a service from San Francisco to Honolulu and on to Hong Kong and Auckland following steamship routes. After negotiating traffic rights in to land at Pearl Harbor, Midway Island, Wake Island, Guam, and Subic Bay (Manila),[33] Pan Am shipped $, worth of aeronautical equipment and construction crews westward in March using the S.S. North Haven, a 15,ton merchant ship chartered for the purpose of provisioning each island that the clippers would stop at on their 4- to 5-day flight.[34] Pan Am ran its first survey flight to Honolulu in April with a Sikorsky S flying boat.[35] Construction crews, including Bill Mullahey who would later oversee Pan Am's Pacific operations, cleared coral from lagoons, constructed hotels, and installed the radio navigation equipment necessary for the clippers to island hop from Hawaii to Asia.[36] The airline won the contract for a San Francisco–Canton mail route later that year and operated its first commercial flight carrying mail and express (no passengers) in a Martin M from Alameda to Manila amid media fanfare on November 22, The five-leg, 8,mile (13,&#;km) flight arrived in Manila on November 29 and returned to San Francisco on December 6, cutting the time between the two cities by the fastest scheduled steamship by over two weeks.[37] (Both the United States and Philippine Islands issued special stamps for the two flights.) The first passenger flight left Alameda on October 21, [6] The fare from San Francisco to Manila or Hong Kong in was US$ one way (about $ in ) and US$1, round trip.[38]

Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Am's network through all of Central and South America. During the late s and early s, Pan Am purchased a number of ailing or defunct airlines in Central and South America and negotiated with postal officials to win most of the government's airmail contracts to the region. In September Trippe toured Latin America with Charles Lindbergh to negotiate landing rights in a number of countries, including Barranquilla on SCADTA's home turf of Colombia, as well as Maracaibo and Caracas in Venezuela. By the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru. Following government favors for the denial of mail contracts to their competition, a forced merger was created with New York, Rio, and Buenos Aires Line, giving a seaplane route along the east coast of South America to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and westbound to Santiago, Chile.[23][39] Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was later renamed as Panair do Brasil. Pan Am also partnered with Grace Shipping Company in to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America.[18] In the same year, Pan Am acquired a controlling stake in Mexicana de Aviación and took over Mexicana's Ford Trimotor route between Brownsville, Texas and Mexico City, extending this service to the Yucatan Peninsula to connect with Pan Am's Caribbean route network.[27]

On August 6, , Juan Trippe accepted United States aviation's highest annual prize, the Collier Trophy, on behalf of PAA from President Franklin D. Roosevelt for the company's "establishment of the transpacific airline and the successful execution of extended overwater navigation and the regular operations thereof."[40]

Stamps issued by the United States and Philippine Islands for Air Mail carried on the first flights in each direction of PAA's Transpacific "China Clipper"service between San Francisco, California, and Manila, Philippines. (November 22 – December 6, )
Flown cover carried around the world on PAA Boeing Clippersand by Imperial Airways, June 24 – July 28,
Pan Am's flying boat terminal at Dinner Keyin Miami, Florida, was a hubof inter-American travel during the s and s.

Pan Am also used Boeing flying boats for the Pacific route: in China, passengers could connect to domestic flights on the Pan Am-operated China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC) network, co-owned with the Chinese government. Pan Am flew to Singapore for the first time in , starting a semi-monthly service which reduced San Francisco–Singapore travel times from 25 days to six days.[41]

Six large, long-range Boeing flying boats were delivered to Pan Am in early On March 30, , the Yankee Clipper, piloted by Harold E. Gray, made the first-ever trans-Atlantic passenger flight. The first leg of the flight, Baltimore to Horta, took 17 hours and 32 minutes and covered 2, miles (3,&#;km). The second leg from Horta to Pan Am's newly built airport in Lisbon took 7 hours and 7 minutes and covered 1, miles (1,&#;km).[42] The Boeing also enabled the start of scheduled weekly contract Foreign Air Mail (F.A.M. 18) service and later passenger flights from New York (Port Washington, L.I.) to both France and Britain. The Southern route to France was inaugurated for airmail on May 20, , by the Yankee Clipper piloted by Arthur E. LaPorte flying via Horta, Azores, and Lisbon, Portugal to Marseilles.[43] Passenger service over the route was added on June 28, , by the Dixie Clipper piloted by R.O.D. Sullivan.[44] The Eastbound trip departed every Wednesday at Noon and arrived at Marseilles on Friday at 3 pm GCT with return service leaving Marseilles on Sunday at 8 am and arriving at Port Washington on Tuesday at 7 am. The Northern transatlantic route to Britain was inaugurated for Air Mail service on June 24, , by the Yankee Clipper piloted by Harold Gray flying via Shediac (New Brunswick), Botwood (Newfoundland), and Foynes (Ireland) to Southampton.[45][46] Passenger service was added on the Northern route on July 8, , by the Yankee Clipper.[47] Eastbound flights left on Saturday at am and arrived at Southampton on Sunday at 1 pm GCT. Westbound service departed Southampton on Wednesday at Noon and arrived at Port Washington on Thursday at 3 pm. After the outbreak of World War II in Europe on September 1, , the terminus became Foynes until the service ceased for the winter on October 5 while transatlantic service to Lisbon via the Azores continued into During World War II, Pan Am flew over 90&#;million&#;mi (&#;million&#;km) worldwide in support of military operations.[22]

The "Clippers" — the name hearkened back to the 19th century fast-sailing clippers — were the only American passenger aircraft of the time capable of intercontinental travel. To compete with ocean liners, the airline offered first-class seats on such flights, and the style of flight crews became more formal. Instead of being leather-jacketed, silk-scarved airmail pilots, the crews of the "Clippers" wore naval-style uniforms and adopted a set procession when boarding the aircraft.[48] In Pan Am and TWA both received and began using Boeing Stratoliner, the first pressurized airliner in service and the first with a flight engineer in the crew. The Boeing 's airline service was short-lived, as all were commandeered for military service when the United States entered World War II.

During World War II most Clippers were pressed into military service. A new Pan Am subsidiary pioneered a new air military-supply route across the Atlantic from Brazil to West Africa. The onward flight to Sudan and Egypt tracked an existing British civil air route.[50] In January , the Pacific Clipper completed the first circumnavigation of the globe by a commercial airliner. Another first occurred in January , when Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first US president to fly abroad, in the Dixie Clipper. During this period Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry was a Clipper pilot; he was aboard the Clipper Eclipse when it crashed in Syria on June 19, [52][53]

While waiting at Foynes, Ireland, for a Pan Am Clipper flight to New York in , passengers were served a drink today known as Irish coffee by Chef Joe Sheridan.[54]

Post-war expansion and modernization[edit]

The growing importance of air transport in the post-war era meant that Pan Am would no longer enjoy the official patronage it had been afforded in pre-war days to prevent the emergence of any meaningful competition, both at home and abroad.[55]

Although Pan Am continued to use its political influence to lobby for protection of its position as America's primary international airline, it encountered increasing competition – first from American Export Airlines across the Atlantic to Europe, and subsequently from others including TWA to Europe, Braniff to South America, United to Hawaii and Northwest Orient to East Asia, as well as five potential rivals to Mexico. This changed situation resulted from the new post-war approach the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) took toward the promotion of competition between major US carriers on key domestic and international scheduled routes compared with pre-war US aviation policy.[55][57]

American Overseas Airlines (AOA) was the first airline to begin regular landplane flights across the Atlantic, on October 24, In January Pan Am scheduled seven DC-4s a week east from LaGuardia Airport, five to London (Hurn Airport) and two to Lisbon. Time to Hurn was 17 hours 40 minutes including stops or 20 hours 45 minutes to Lisbon. A Boeing flying boat flew LaGuardia to Lisbon once every two weeks in 29 hours 30 minutes; flying boat flights ended shortly thereafter.[nb 1]

TWA's transatlantic challenge – the impending introduction of its faster, pressurized Lockheed Constellations – resulted in Pan Am ordering its own Constellation fleet at $, apiece. Pan Am began transatlantic Constellation flights on January 14, , beating TWA by three weeks.[55]

In January , a flight from Miami to Buenos Aires took 71 hours and 15 minutes in a Pan Am DC-3, but the following summer DC-4s flew Idlewild to Buenos Aires in 38 hr 30 min. In January Pan Am's DC-7Bs flew New York to Buenos Aires in 25 hours 20 minutes, while the National – Pan Am – Panagra DC-7B via Panama and Lima took 22 hours 45 minutes.[58]Convair s replaced DC-3s and other pre-war types on Pan Am's shorter flights in the Caribbean and South America. Pan Am also acquired a few Curtiss Cs for a freight network that eventually extended to Buenos Aires.[57]

In January Pan Am had no transpacific flights beyond Hawaii, but they soon resumed with DC-4s. In January the California to Tokyo flight was a daily Stratocruiser that took 31 hours 45 minutes from San Francisco or 32 hours 15 minutes from Los Angeles. (A flight to Seattle and a connection to Northwest's DC-7C totaled 24 hours 13 minutes from San Francisco, but Pan Am was not allowed to fly that route.)[58] The Stratocruisers' double-deck fuselage with sleeping berths and a lower-deck lounge helped it compete with its rival. "Super Stratocruisers" with more fuel appeared on Pan Am's transatlantic routes in November , making nonstop eastward and one-stop westward schedules more reliably.

In June Pan Am started the first scheduled round-the-world airline flight. In September the weekly DC-4 was scheduled to leave San Francisco at Thursday as Flight 1, stopping at Honolulu, Midway, Wake, Guam, Manila, Bangkok and arriving in Calcutta on Monday at , where it met Flight 2, a Constellation that had left New York at Friday. The DC-4 returned to San Francisco as Flight 2; the Constellation left Calcutta Tuesday, stopped at Karachi, Istanbul, London, Shannon, Gander, and arrived LaGuardia Thursday at A few months later PA 3 took over the Manila route while PA 1 shifted to Tokyo and Shanghai. All Pan Am round-the-world flights included at least one change of plane until Boeing s took over in PA 1 became daily in –63, making different en-route stops on different days of the week; in January it left San Francisco at daily and was scheduled into New York 56 hr 10 min later. Los Angeles replaced San Francisco in ; when Boeing s finished replacing s in all stops except Tehran and Karachi were served daily in each direction. For a year or so in –76 Pan Am finally completed the round-the-world trip, New York to New York.[59]

In January Pan American Airways Corporation officially became Pan American World Airways, Inc. (The airline had begun calling itself Pan American World Airways in )[60][61] In September Pan Am completed the $&#;million purchase of American Overseas Airlines from American Airlines.[55] That month Pan Am ordered 45 Douglas DC-6Bs. The first, Clipper Liberty Bell (NC),[62] inaugurated Pan Am's all-tourist class Rainbow service between New York and London on May 1, , to complement the all-firstPresident Stratocruiser service.[61] From June , DC-6Bs began replacing DC-4s on Pan Am's internal German routes.[63][64][65]

Pan Am introduced the Douglas DC-7C "Seven Seas" on transatlantic routes in summer In January the DC-7C nonstop took 10 hours 45 minutes Idlewild to London, enabling Pan Am to hold its own against TWA's Super Constellations and Starliners. In Pan Am started DC-7C flights direct from the West Coast of the United States to London and Paris with a fuel stop in Canada or Greenland. The introduction of the faster Bristol Britanniaturboprop by British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) between New York and London from December 19, , ended Pan Am's competitive leadership there.[66][61]

In January Pan Am scheduled 47 flights a week east from Idlewild to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and beyond; the following August there were [58]

Jet age[edit]

Although Pan Am contemplated purchasing the United Kingdom's De Havilland Comets (having been the first jetliner in the world), they ultimately waited for Boeing to release their first jetliner, and thus was the launch customer of the Boeing , placing an order for 20 in October It also ordered 25 of Douglas's DC-8, which could seat six across (the originally was to be inches ( m) wide with five-abreast seating; Boeing widened it to match the DC-8). The combined order value was $&#;million. Pan Am's first scheduled jet flight was from New York Idlewild to Paris Le Bourget (stopping at Gander to refuel) on October 26, , with Boeing Clipper America (NPA) with passengers.[69] The "Intercontinental" series in –60, and the Douglas DC-8 in March , enabled non-stop transatlantic crossings with a viable payload in both directions.[citation needed]

Widebody era[edit]

Pan Am was the launch customer of the Boeing , placing a $&#;million order for 25 in April [70][71] On January 15, First LadyPat Nixon christened a Pan Am Boeing Clipper Young America at Washington Dulles in the presence of Pan Am president Najeeb Halaby. During the next few days, Pan Am flew several s to major airports in the United States as a public relations effort, allowing the public to tour the airplanes. Pan Am began its final preparations for the first service on the evening of January 21, , when Clipper Young America was scheduled to fly from New York John F. Kennedy to London Heathrow. An engine failure delayed the inaugural flight's departure by several hours, necessitating the substitution of another , Clipper Victor, which eventually flew to London Heathrow.[72] Passengers cheered and drank champagne as the jet finally lifted off from the runway at John F. Kennedy Airport.

Pan Am carried 11 million passengers over 20 billion miles (32 billion km) in , the year it revolutionized air travel with the first widebodied airliner.[73]

Supersonic plans[edit]

Pan Am was one of the first three airlines to sign options for the Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde, but like other airlines that took out options – with the exception of BOAC and Air France – it did not purchase the supersonic jet. Pan Am was the first US airline to sign for the Boeing , the American supersonic transport (SST) project, with 15 delivery positions reserved;[74] these aircraft never saw service after Congress voted against additional funding in [75]

Computerized reservations, Pan Am Building and Worldport[edit]

Pan Am Building from Park Avenue,

Pan Am commissioned IBM to build PANAMAC, a large computer that booked airline and hotel reservations, which was installed in It also held large amounts of information about cities, countries, airports, aircraft, hotels, and restaurants.[76]

The computer occupied the fourth floor of the Pan Am Building, which was the largest commercial office building in the world for some time.[77]

The airline also built Worldport, a terminal building at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York. It was distinguished by its elliptical, four-acre (16,&#;m2) roof, suspended far from the outside columns of the terminal below by 32 sets of steel posts and cables. The terminal was designed to allow passengers to board and disembark via stairs without getting wet by parking the nose of the aircraft under the overhang. The introduction of the jetbridge made this feature obsolete. Pan Am built a gilded training building in the style of Edward Durell Stone designed by Steward-Skinner Architects in Miami.

Pan Am Holiday pamphlet for destination New Zealand()

Peak[edit]

At its peak in the late s and early s, Pan Am advertised under the slogan, the "World's Most Experienced Airline". It carried million passengers in , and by , its jets flew to 86 countries on every continent except for Antarctica over a scheduled route network of 81, unduplicated miles (,&#;km). During that period the airline was profitable and its cash reserves totaled $1 billion.[69] Most routes were between New York, Europe, and South America, and between Miami and the Caribbean. In Pan Am began a helicopter shuttle between New York's John F. Kennedy, LaGuardia and Newark airports and Lower Manhattan, operated by New York Airways. Aside from the DC-8, the Boeing and , the Pan Am jet fleet included Boeing Bs and s (the first aircraft to sport Pan Am – rather than Pan American – titles[69]). (The airline later had Boeing s and SPs (which could fly nonstop New York to Tokyo), Lockheed L Tristars, McDonnell-Douglas DCs, and Airbus As and As.) Pan Am owned the InterContinental Hotel chain and had a financial interest in the Falcon Jet Corporation, which held marketing rights to the Dassault Falcon 20business jet in North America. The airline was involved in creating a missile-tracking range in the South Atlantic and operating a nuclear-engine testing laboratory in Nevada. In addition, Pan Am participated in several notable humanitarian flights.

At its height Pan Am was well regarded for its modern fleet and experienced crews: cabin staff were multilingual and usually college graduates, hired from around the world, frequently with nursing training. Pan Am's onboard service and cuisine, inspired by Maxim's de Paris, were delivered "with a personal flair that has rarely been equaled."[83]

Internal German Services (IGS) and other operations[edit]

From until Pan Am operated a comprehensive network of high-frequency, short-haul scheduled services between West Germany and West Berlin, first with Douglas DC-4s, then with DC-6Bs (from ) and Boeing s (from ).[63][64][65][84][85][86][87][88][89] This had come about as a result of an agreement among the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union at the end of World War II which prohibited Germany from having its own airlines and restricted the provision of commercial air services from and to Berlin to air transport providers headquartered in these four countries. Rising Cold War tensions between the Soviet Union and the three Western powers resulted in unilateral Soviet withdrawal from the quadripartiteAllied Control Commission in , culminating in the division of Germany the following year. These events, together with Soviet insistence on a very narrow interpretation of the post-war agreement on the Western powers' access rights to Berlin, meant that until the end of the Cold War air transport in West Berlin continued to be confined to the carriers of the remaining Allied Control Commission powers, with aircraft required to fly across hostile East German territory through three 20&#;mi (32&#;km) wide air corridors at a maximum altitude of 10,&#;ft (3,&#;m).[nb 2][69][90] The airline's West Berlin operation consistently accounted for more than half of the city's entire commercial air traffic during that period.[91][92][93]

For years, more passengers boarded Pan Am flights at Berlin Tempelhof than at any other airport.[94] Pan Am operated a Berlin crew base of mainly German flight attendants and American pilots to staff its IGS flights. The German National flight attendants were later taken over by Lufthansa when it acquired Pan Am's Berlin route authorities. Over the years other local flight attendant bases outside the US included London for intra-Europe and transatlantic flying, Warsaw, Istanbul and Belgrade for intra-Europe flights, a Tel Aviv base solely staffing the daily Tel Aviv-Paris-Tel Aviv service, a Nairobi base solely staffing the Nairobi-Frankfurt-Nairobi service as well as Delhi and Bombay bases for India-Frankfurt flights.

Pan Am also operated Rest and Recreation (R&R) flights during the Vietnam War. These flights carried American service personnel for R&R leaves in Hong Kong, Tokyo, and other Asian cities.[95]

Passenger traffic (–)[edit]

Year Pan American National Airlines (NA)
1,
2,
4, 1,
8, 2,
16, 2,
14, 3,
22, 8,
28, (merged )
27,
29,

In August PAA scheduled passenger flights to airports; in May to airports; in November to 65 airports (plus a few freight-only airports); in November to 98 airports; in November to 46 airports (plus 14 more with only "Pan Am Express" prop flights).

Downturn[edit]

Fallout from oil crisis[edit]

Pan Am had invested in a large fleet of Boeing s expecting that air travel would continue to increase. It did not, as the introduction of many wide-bodies by Pan Am and its competitors coincided with an economic slowdown. Reduced air travel after the oil crisis made the overcapacity problem worse. Pan Am was vulnerable, with its high overheads as a result of a large decentralized infrastructure. High fuel prices and its many older, less fuel-efficient narrow-bodied airplanes increased the airline's operating costs. Federal route awards to other airlines, such as the Transpacific Route Case, further reduced the number of passengers Pan Am carried and its profit margins.[22][71]

A Pan Am flight attendant in s uniform

On September 23, , a group of Pan Am employees published an advertisement in The New York Times to register their disagreement over federal policies which they felt were harming the financial viability of their employer. The ad cited discrepancies in airport landing fees, such as Pan Am paying $4, to land a plane in Sydney, while the Australian carrier, Qantas, paid only $ to land a jet in Los Angeles. The ad also contended that the United States Postal Service was paying foreign airlines five times as much to carry US mail in comparison to Pan Am. Finally, the ad questioned why the Export-Import Bank of the United States loaned money to Japan, France, and Saudi Arabia at 6% interest while Pan Am paid 12%.[98]

By the mids Pan Am had racked up $&#;million of accumulated losses over a year period, and its debts approached $1&#;billion. This threatened the airline with bankruptcy. Former American Airlines vice president of operations, William T. Seawell, who had replaced Najeeb Halaby as Pan Am president in , began implementing a turnaround strategy: trimming the network by 25%, slashing the 40,strong workforce by 30% and cutting wages, introducing stringent economies and rescheduling debt, and reducing the size of the fleet. These measures aided by the use of tax-loss credits enabled Pan Am to avert financial collapse and return to profitability in [71]

Attempts to build a US domestic network[edit]

Since the s Juan Trippe had coveted domestic routes for Pan Am. Through the late s and early s, and in the mids, there were talks of merging the airline with a domestic operator such as American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines, Trans World Airlines or United Airlines.[55] As rival airlines convinced Congress that Pan Am would use its political clout to monopolize US air routes, the CAB repeatedly denied the airline permission to operate in the US, by growth or by a merger with another airline. Pan Am remained an American carrier operating international routes only (aside from Hawaii and Alaska). The last time Pan Am was permitted to merge with another airline prior to the deregulation of the US airline industry was in , when it took over American Overseas Airlines from American Airlines.[55] After deregulation in , more US domestic airlines began competing with Pan Am internationally.

National Airlines takeover[edit]

To acquire domestic routes, Pan Am, under president Seawell, set its eyes on National Airlines. Pan Am wound up in a bidding war with Frank Lorenzo's Texas International that boosted National's stock price, but Pan Am was granted permission to buy National in in what was described as the "Coup of the Decade." The acquisition of National Airlines for $&#;million further burdened Pan Am's balance sheet, already under strain after financing the Boeing s ordered in the mids. This acquisition did little to improve Pan Am's competitive position in relation to nimbler, lower-cost competitors in a deregulated industry, as National's north–south route structure provided insufficient feed at Pan Am's transatlantic and transpacific gateways in New York and Los Angeles. The airlines had incompatible fleets (apart from the Boeing ) and corporate cultures (partly as a result of National being perceived by some Pan Am employees as mainly a regional "backwoods" carrier with few trunk routes), and the integration was poorly handled by Pan Am management who presided over an increase in labor costs as a result of harmonizing National's pay scales with Pan Am's.[] Although revenues increased by 62% from to , fuel costs from the merger increased by % during a weak economic climate. Further "miscellaneous expenses" increased by 74%.[]

Disposal of non-core assets and operational cutbacks[edit]

As progressed and the airline's financial situation worsened, Seawell began selling Pan Am's non-core assets. The first asset to be sold off was the airline's 50% interest in Falcon Jet Corporation in August. Later in November, Pan Am sold the Pan Am Building to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company for $&#;million. In September Pan Am sold off its InterContinental hotels chain. Before this transaction closed, Seawell was replaced by C. Edward Acker, Air Florida's founder and ex-president as well as a former Braniff Internationalexecutive. The combined sale value of the InterContinental chain and the Falcon Jet Corp stake was $&#;million.[][]

Acker followed up the asset disposal program he had inherited from his predecessor with operational cutbacks. Most prominent among these was the discontinuation of the round-the world service from October 31, , when Pan Am ceased flying between Delhi, Bangkok and Hong Kong due to the sector's unprofitability.[] To provide additional seating capacity for its spring/summer season, the airline also acquired three passenger Boeing Bs from Flying Tigers, who took four Pan Am's freighters in return.[]

Fleet restructuring[edit]

Despite Pan Am's precarious financial situation, in summer Acker went ahead with an order for new Airbus models in wide body and narrow-bodied aircraft, becoming the second American company to order Airbus aircraft, after Eastern Air Lines.[] These advanced aircraft, economically and operationally superior to the s and s Pan Am operated at the time, were intended to make the airline more competitive. In new As began replacing s on the Internal German Services (IGS) and As flew in the Caribbean networks later the same year while from early additional new longer range As replaced some of the s on the slimmed-down transatlantic network following ETOPS certification (approval by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of transoceanic flying with twin-engined aircraft). The first A ETOPS transatlantic route was New York to Hamburg, Detroit to London followed shortly after that. Pan Am's decision not to take delivery of the As and to sell its delivery positions to Braniff meant that the majority of its short-haul US domestic and European feeder routes, and most of its IGS services, continued to be flown with obsolete s until the airline's demise. This put it at a disadvantage against rivals operating state-of-the-art aircraft with greater passenger appeal.[] In September Pan American World Airways created a holding company called Pan Am Corporation to assume ownership and control of the airline and the services division.

The Boeing SP "Clipper Constitution" on July 1, at Los Angeles International Airport.

A Boeing SP Landing at Los Angeles International Airport in

The L "Clipper Golden Eagle" in

A Lockheed L of United Airlines after the sale of the Pan Am Pacific Division in

Sale of Pacific division[edit]

Given the airline's dire state, in April , Acker sold Pan Am's entire Pacific Division, which consisted of 25% of its entire route system and their major hub at Tokyo Narita International Airport to United Airlines for $&#;million. This sale also enabled Pan Am to address fleet incompatibility issues related to the earlier acquisition of National Airlines as it included Pan Am's Pratt & Whitney JT9D-powered SPs, its Rolls-Royce RBpowered Ls and the General Electric CF6-powered DCs inherited from National, which were transferred to United along with the Pacific routes.[71][] The sale came the same year as a month-long strike held by the Transport Workers Union of America.

Establishment of local feeder networks[edit]

In the early s, Pan Am contracted several regional airlines (Air Atlanta, Emerald Air, Empire Airlines, Presidential Airways and Republic Airlines) to operate feeder flights under the Pan Am Express branding.[][]

The acquisition of Pennsylvania-based commuter airline Ransome Airlines for $65&#;million (which was finalized in ) was meant to address the issue of providing additional feed for Pan Am's mainline services at its hubs in New York, Los Angeles and Miami in the United States, and Berlin in Germany.[][][][] The renamed Pan Am Express operated routes mostly from New York, as well as Berlin, Germany. Miami services were added in [] However, the regional Pan Am Express operation provided only an incremental feed to Pan Am's international route system, which was now focused on the Atlantic Division.

US East coast shuttle[edit]

In an attempt to gain a presence on the busy Washington–New York–Boston commuter air corridor, the Ransome acquisition was accompanied by the $&#;million purchase of New York Air's shuttle service between Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. This parallel move was intended to enable Pan Am to provide a high-frequency service for high-yield business travelers in direct competition with the long-established, successful Eastern Air Lines Shuttle operation. The renamed Pan Am Shuttle began operating out of LaGuardia Airport's refurbished historic Marine Air Terminal in October However, it did not address the pressing issue of Pan Am's continuing lack of a strong domestic feeder network.[]

Financial, operational and reputational setbacks[edit]

In , Towers Financial Corporation, led by its CEO Steven Hoffenberg and his consultant Jeffrey Epstein, unsuccessfully tried to take over Pan Am in a corporate raid with Towers Financial as their raiding vessel. Their bid failed.[]

Thomas G. Plaskett, a former American Airlines and Continental executive, replaced Acker as president in January (joining Pan Am from the latter).[] While a program to refurbish Pan Am aircraft and improve the company's on-time performance began showing positive results (in fact, Pan Am's most profitable quarter ever was the third quarter of ), on December 21, , the bombing of Pan Am flight above Lockerbie, Scotland, resulted in fatalities.[] Faced with a $&#;million lawsuit filed by more than families of the victims, the airline subpoenaed records of six US government agencies, including the CIA, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the State Department. Though the records suggested that the US government was aware of warnings of a bombing and failed to pass the information to the airline, the families claimed Pan Am was attempting to shift the blame.[]

Also, in December the FAA fined Pan Am for 19 security failures, out of the that were detected amongst 29 airlines.

Failed bid for Northwest Airlines[edit]

In June Plaskett presented Northwest Airlines with a $&#;billion takeover bid that was backed by Bankers Trust, Morgan Guaranty Trust, Citicorp and Prudential-Bache. The proposed merger was Pan Am's final attempt to create a strong domestic network to provide sufficient feed for the two remaining mainline hubs at New York JFK and Miami. It was also intended to help the airline regain its status as a global airline by re-establishing a sizable transpacific presence. The merger was expected to result in annual savings of $&#;million.[][] However, billionaire financier Al Checchi outbid Pan Am by presenting Northwest's directors with a superior proposal.

Fallout from –91 Persian Gulf War[edit]

The first Gulf War triggered by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, , caused fuel prices to rise, which severely depressed global economic activity. This in turn caused a sharp contraction of worldwide air travel demand, plunging once profitable operations, including Pan Am's prime transatlantic routes, into steep losses. These unforeseen events constituted a further major blow to Pan Am, which was still reeling from the Lockerbie disaster. To shore up its finances, Pan Am sold most of its routes serving London Heathrow – arguably Pan Am's most important international destination – to United Airlines. This left Pan Am with only two daily London flights, serving Detroit and Miami, which used Gatwick as their London terminal from the start of the /91 winter timetable. Further asset disposals included Pan Am's sale of its IGS routes to Berlin to Lufthansa for $&#;million, which became effective at the same time and brought the total value of asset disposals to $&#;billion.[][] These measures were accompanied by the elimination of 2, jobs (% of its work force). These cutbacks were announced by the airline in September []

Bankruptcy[edit]

Clipper Miles Standish(NPA), an Airbus A

Pan Am was forced to file for bankruptcy protection on January&#;8,&#;[]Delta Air Lines purchased the remaining profitable assets of Pan Am, including its remaining European routes (except one from Miami to Paris), and Frankfurt mini hub, the Shuttle operation, 45 jets, and the Pan Am Worldport at John F. Kennedy Airport, for $&#;million. Delta also injected $&#;million becoming a 45 percent owner of a reorganized but smaller Pan Am serving the Caribbean, Central and South America from a main hub in Miami. The airline's creditors would hold the other 55 percent.[][][][]

The Boston–New York LaGuardia–Washington NationalPan Am Shuttle service was taken over by Delta in September [] Two months later Delta assumed all of Pan Am's remaining transatlantic traffic rights, except Miami to Paris and London.[]

In October , former Douglas Aircraft executive Russell Ray, Jr. was hired as Pan Am's new president and CEO.[] As part of this restructuring, Pan Am relocated its headquarters from the Pan Am Building in New York City to new offices in the Miami area in preparation for the airline's relaunch from both Miami and New York on November&#;1.[] The new airline would have operated approximately 60 aircraft and generated about $&#;billion in annual revenues with 7, employees. Following the relaunch, Pan Am continued to sustain heavy losses. Revenue throughout October and November fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with Delta claiming that Pan Am was losing $3&#;million a day. This undermined Delta's, Wall Street's and the traveling public's confidence in the viability of the reorganized Pan Am.[][]

Clipper Sparking Wave(NPA), a Boeing on short final into Berlin Tempelhof Airport, wearing Pan Am's final "billboard" style livery

Pan Am's senior executives outlined a projected shortfall of between $ million and possibly $&#;million, with the airline requiring a $25&#;million installment just to fly through the following week. On the evening of December 3, Pan Am's Creditors Committee advised US Bankruptcy Judge Cornelius Blackshear that it was close to convincing an airline (TWA) to invest $15&#;million to keep Pan Am operating. A deal with TWA owner Carl Icahn could not be struck. Pan Am opened for business at &#;am and within the hour, Ray was forced to withdraw Pan Am's plan of reorganization and execute an immediate shutdown plan for Pan Am.

Pan Am ceased operations on December&#;4,&#;,[][] following a decision by Delta CEO Ron Allen and other senior executives not to go ahead with the final $25&#;million payment Pan Am was scheduled to receive the weekend after Thanksgiving.[][] As a result, some 7, Pan Am employees lost their jobs, thousands of whom had worked in the New York City area and were preparing to move to the Miami area to work at Pan Am's new headquarters near Miami International Airport. Economists predicted that 9, jobs in the Miami area, including jobs at companies not connected to Pan Am that were dependent on the airline's presence, would be lost after it folded.[] The carrier's last flown scheduled operation was Pan Am flight which departed that day from Bridgetown, Barbados at 2&#;pm (EST) for Miami under the command of Captain Mark Pyle flying Clipper Goodwill, a Boeing (NPA).[][][]

Delta was sued for more than $&#;billion on December 9, , by the Pan Am Creditors Committee.[] Shortly thereafter, a large group of former Pan Am employees sued Delta.[] In December , a federal judge ruled in favor of Delta, concluding that it was not liable for Pan Am's demise.[]

Pan Am was the third American major airline to shut down in , after Eastern Air Lines and Midway Airlines.[]

After serving only two months as Pan Am's CEO, Ray was replaced by Peter McHugh to supervise the sale of Pan Am's remaining assets by Pan Am's Creditor's Committee.[] Pan Am's last remaining hub (at Miami International Airport) was split during the following years between United Airlines and American Airlines. TWA's Carl Icahn purchased Pan Am Express at a court ordered bankruptcy auction for $13&#;million, renaming it Trans World Express.[] The Pan Am brand was sold to Charles Cobb, CEO of Cobb Partners and former United States Ambassador to the Republic of Iceland under President George H.W. Bush and Under Secretary of the US Department of Commerce under President Reagan. Cobb, along with Hanna-Frost partners invested in a new Pan American World Airways headed by veteran airline executive Martin R. Shugrue, Jr, a former Pan Am executive with 20 years of experience at the original carrier.[]

In his book, Pan Am: An Aviation Legend, Barnaby Conrad III contends that the collapse of the original Pan Am was a combination of corporate mismanagement, government indifference to protecting its prime international carrier, and flawed regulatory policy. He cites an observation made by former Pan Am Vice President for External Affairs, Stanley Gewirtz:

What could go wrong did. No one who followed Juan Trippe had the foresight to do something strongly positive … it was the most astonishing example of Murphy's law in extremis. The sale of Pan Am's profitable parts was inevitable to the company's destruction. There were not enough pieces to build on.

—&#;Stanley Gewirtz

Under the terms of bankruptcy, the airline's International Flight Academy in Miami was permitted to remain open. It was established as an independent training organization beginning in under its current name, Pan Am International Flight Academy. The company began operating by using the flight simulation and type rating training center of the defunct Pan Am. In , American Capital Strategies invested $58 million into the academy.[] Owned by the parent of Japanese airline All Nippon Airways as of October , Pan Am International Flight Academy is the only surviving division of Pan American World Airways.

Reuse of name[edit]

Aside from the aforementioned flight academy, the Pan Am brand has been resurrected six times since , but the reincarnations were related to the original Pan Am in name only.

Airlines[edit]

Pan American World Airways trademarks and some assets were purchased by Eclipse Holdings, Inc. at an auction by the US Bankruptcy Court on December 2–3, The scheduled airline rights were sold to Pan American Airways on December 20–29, by Eclipse Holdings, which was to retain the Pan Am charter rights and operate through its subsidiary, Pan Am Charters, Inc., now Airways Corporation.[]

The first reincarnation of the original Pan Am operated from to , with a focus on low-cost, long-distance flights between the United States and the Caribbean with the IATA airline designatorPN.[] Eclipse Holdings (Pan Am II) later rescinded the Asset Purchase Agreement for cause and issued a cease and desist in January , affecting all downstream transactions thereafter (as noted in US DOT proceeding OST, and SEC Q dated August 24, , Plan of Reorganization (S.D. FL), and others).[]

The second was unrelated to the first and was a small regional carrier based in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, that operated between and It found its niche in operating usually at smaller airports near major ones, such as Pease International (Portsmouth), and Gary Municipal Airport in Indiana. It used the IATA code PA, and the ICAO code PAA.[]

Boston-Maine Airways, a sister company of the second reincarnation, operated the "Pan Am Clipper Connection" brand from to February A domestic airline in the Dominican Republic, descended from the company's first reincarnation, traded until March 23, , as Pan Am Dominicana.[]

In November Pan American Airways, Incorporated, was resurrected for the fifth time by World-Wide Consolidated Logistics, Inc. The reincarnated operator is based at Brownsville/South Padre Island International Airport in Brownsville, Texas. The airline's inaugural flight was to Monterrey, Mexico, on November 12, [] The airline had said it would carry cargo only at first but intended to announce passenger service by [] Due to serious legal charges that were laid against the company's CEO Robert L. Hedrick in , including child pornography charges for which he was eventually convicted, the company lost its bid with the FAA to pursue passenger or cargo flights of any kind.[]

Railways[edit]

In Guilford Transportation Industries purchased Pan American World Airways and all related naming rights and intellectual properties.[][] The railway is now operated as Pan Am Railways.[]

Record-setting flights[edit]

At the outbreak of the war in the Pacific in December , the Pacific Clipper was en route to New Zealand from San Francisco. Rather than risk flying back to Honolulu and being shot down by Japanese fighters, it was directed to fly west to New York. Starting on December 8, , at Auckland, New Zealand, the Pacific Clipper covered over 31, miles (50,&#;km) via such exotic locales as Surabaya, Karachi, Bahrain, Khartoum and Leopoldville. The Pacific Clipper landed at Pan American's LaGuardia Field seaplane base at on the morning of January 6, , completing the first commercial plane flight to circumnavigate the world.[]

During the mids, Pan Am set two round-the-world records. Liberty Bell Express, a Boeing SP named Clipper Liberty Bell, broke the commercial round-the-world record set by a Flying Tiger Line Boeing with a new record of 46 hours, 50 seconds. The flight left New York-JFK on May 1, , and returned on May 3. The flight stopped only in New Delhi and Tokyo, where a strike among the airport workers delayed it two hours. The flight beat the Flying Tiger Line's record by 16 hours 24 minutes.

In , to commemorate its 50th birthday, Pan Am organized Flight 50, a round-the-world flight from San Francisco to San Francisco, this time over the North Pole and the South Pole with stops in London Heathrow, Cape Town Airport and Auckland Airport. SP Clipper New Horizons was the former Liberty Bell, making the plane the only one to go around the globe over the Equator and the poles. The flight made it in 54 hours, 7 minutes, and 12 seconds, creating seven new world records certified by the FAI. Captain Walter H. Mullikin, who commanded this flight, also commanded the Liberty Bell Express flight.

Corporate affairs[edit]

For much of its history the corporate headquarters were the Pan Am Building in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

When Juan Trippe had the company offices relocated to New York City, he rented space in a building on 42nd Street. This facility was across from the Grand Central Terminal. From a period in the s until , the airline headquarters were in the Chrysler Building,[] on East 42nd Street, also in Midtown Manhattan.[]

In September Trippe and developer Erwin Wolfson signed a $,, lease agreement for the airline to occupy ,square-foot (56,&#;m2) worth of space for the headquarters, totaling about 15 floors, and a new main ticket office at the intersection of 45th Street and Vanderbilt Avenue. At the time, the year lease in the Chrysler Building was nearing the end of its life. The new lease was scheduled for 25 years.[]

In popular culture[edit]

Pan Am held a lofty position in the popular culture of the Cold War era. One of the most famous images in which a Pan Am plane formed a backdrop was the Beatles' February 7, arrival at John F. Kennedy Airport aboard a Pan Am Boeing , Clipper Defiance.[]

From to con artistFrank Abagnale, Jr., claims to have masqueraded as a Pan Am pilot while still a minor, dead-heading to many destinations in the cockpit jump seat. He also claims to have used Pan Am's preferred hotels, paid the bills with bogus checks, and later cashed fake payroll checks in Pan Am's name. Abagnale and his co-author Stan Redding documented this era in the memoir Catch Me if You Can, which became a film in Abagnale called Pan Am the "Ritz-Carlton of airlines," and noted that the days of luxury in airline travel were over.[] In however, research by journalist Alan C. Logan proved that Frank Abagnale's claims were for the most part fabrications. He had in reality spent most of his late teenage years in prison, and had only written a handful of false Pan Am checks that were rapidly detected as false, and landed him back in prison.[][]

In August Pan Am accepted the reservation of Gerhard Pistor, a journalist from Vienna, Austria, as the first passenger for future flights to the Moon. He paid a deposit of Austrian Schillings (roughly US$20 at the time).[] About 93, people followed on the Pan Am waiting list, called "First Moon Flights Club". Pan Am expected the flight to depart about []

A fictional Pan Am "Space Clipper,"[] a commercial spaceplane called the Orion III, had a prominent role in Stanley Kubrick's film A Space Odyssey and was featured prominently in one of the movie's posters. Plastic models of the Pan Am Space Clipper were sold by both the Aurora Company and Airfix at the time of the film's release in A satire of the movie by Mad magazine in showed Pan Am female flight attendants in "Actionwear by Monsanto" outfits as they joked about the problems their passengers faced while vomiting in zero gravity. The film's sequel, , also featured Pan Am in a background television commercial in the home of David Bowman's widow with the slogan, "At Pan Am, the sky is no longer the limit."[]

The airline appeared in other movies, notably in several James Bond films. The company's Boeing s were featured in Dr. No () and From Russia with Love (), while a Pan Am and the Worldport appeared in the film Live and Let Die.[]

A term used in popular psychology is "Pan American (or Pan Am) Smile." Named after the smilestewardesses gave to passengers in the airline's television commercials. It consists of a perfunctory mouth movement without the activity of facial muscles around the eyes that characterizes a genuine smile.[]

The film Blade Runner contains several prominent shots of advertisements for Pan Am. The sequel, Blade Runner also shows a Pan Am sign in an establishing shot.[]

Cap

In , ABC announced a new television series based on the lives of a s Pan Am flight crew. The series, titled Pan Am, began airing in September [] It was canceled in May

In , Funko Games released a Pan Am board game, in which players play as airlines in competition with Pan Am.[]

Flight crews[edit]

Critical to Pan Am's success as an airline was the proficiency of its flight crews, who were rigorously trained in long-distance flight, seaplane anchorage and berthing operations, over-water navigation, radio procedure, aircraft repair, and marine tides.[] During the day, use of the compass while judging drift from sea currents was normal procedure; at night, all flight crews were trained to use celestial navigation. In bad weather, pilots used dead reckoning and timed turns, making successful landings at fogged-in harbors by landing out to sea, then taxiing the plane into port. Many pilots had merchant marine certifications and radio licenses as well as pilot certificates.[][]

A Pan Am flight captain would normally begin his career years earlier as a radio operator or even mechanic, steadily gaining his licenses and working his way up the flight crew roster to navigator, second officer, and first officer. Before World War II it was not unusual for a captain to make engine repairs at remote locations.[]

Pan Am's mechanics and support staff were similarly trained. Newly hired applicants were frequently paired with experienced flight mechanics in several areas of the company until they had achieved proficiency in all aircraft types.[] Emphasis was placed on learning to maintain and overhaul aircraft in harsh seaborne environments when faced with logistical difficulties, as might be expected in a small foreign port without an aviation infrastructure or even an adequate road network. Many crews supported repair operations by flying in spare parts to planes stranded overseas, in some cases performing repairs themselves.[]

Acquisitions and divestments[edit]

  • Pan American Airways, Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean Airways, and Aviation Corporation of the Americas founded.
  • All three precursor firms merge into Aviation Corporation of the Americas, with Pan American Airways as its brand.
  • 50% interest of Peruvian Airways acquired by Pan American.
  • Mexicana of Mexico acquired by Pan Am.
  • Pan American-Grace Airways (PANAGRA), operating on the west coast of South America, formed as a 50–50 joint venture with W. R. Grace and Company.
  • New York, Rio, and Buenos Aires Line (NYRBA) acquired, allowing Pan Am to operate along the east coast of South America. NYRBA's Brazilian subsidiary is renamed Panair do Brasil.
  • Majority control of SCADTA of Colombia acquired in secret.
  • Pacific Alaska Airways formed.
  • Boston-Maine Airways begins contract operations.
  • Aerovias Centrales, S.A. formed.
  • Cubana of Cuba acquired.
  • Uraba, Medellin and Central Airways acquired.
  • China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC) acquired.
  • Servicios Aviacion de Guatemala acquired.
  • Panama Airways acquired.
  • CNAC merged with China Airways.
  • Minority holders of SCADTA bought-out.
  • Aerovías de Guatemala formed.
  • 40% of Aeronaves de Mexico acquired.
  • SCADTA merged into SACO to form Avianca, owned by the Colombian government.
  • Aerovías Venezolanas, S.A. (AVENSA) of Venezuela founded as a joint venture.
  • 45% interest of Bahamas Airways acquired.
  • Cuban investors acquire 56% of Cubana through a stock float.
  • SAHSA was founded, being owned 40% of Pan Am, 40% of the Honduran Government, and 20% from private carriers.
  • InterContinental, a chain of hotels, founded.
  • Brazilian investors bought 4% of Panair do Brasil, with Pan Am's share decreased to 48%.
  • Pan Am acquires a stake in Middle East Airlines (MEA), as well as a management contract.
  • Pan Am's 20% stake in CNAC acquired by Chinese Nationalists, with assets split variously between the Nationalists and the People's Republic of China.
  • American Overseas Airlines (AOA) acquired from American Airlines.
  • Pan Am receives a contract to operate Patrick Air Force Base.
  • Cuban government acquires Pan Am's remaining stake in Cubana.
  • Pan Am's 49% stake in MEA is sold to British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC).
  • Mexican government acquires Pan Am's stake in Mexicana and Aeronaves de México (later renamed Aeroméxico).
  • Brazilian investors acquires all the Pan Am's share in Panair do Brasil.
  • PANAGRA sold to Braniff International Airways.
  • Pan Am's 40% stake in SAHSA acquired by Transportes Aéreos Nacionales (TAN).
  • AVENSA stake divested to Venezuelan government.
  • National Airlines acquired.
  • Pan Am Building sold to MetLife.[]
  • InterContinental sold to Grand Metropolitan.[]
  • Pacific Division sold to United Airlines.[]
  • Pan Am's queue for 50 A sold to Braniff Inc..[]
  • Pan Am World Services (PAWS) sold to Johnson Controls.[]
  • London–Heathrow-based routes sold to United Airlines.[]
  • Internal German Services Division sold to Lufthansa.[]
  • Atlantic Division, Pan Am Shuttle, and New York City Worldport sold to Delta Air Lines.[]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Main article: List of Pan American World Airways accidents and incidents

Fleet[edit]

Fleet in [edit]

The following were aircraft operated Pan Am and Pan Am Express in March , a year and a half before the airline's collapse:

Fleet history[edit]

All the aircraft ever operated by Pan Am:

Источник: mynewextsetup.us
Date/timeContributorUpdatesFeb GenoAdded Feb Iceman 29Updated [Source, Embed code]Feb Iceman 29Updated [Time, Aircraft type, Registration, Cn, Source, Embed code]Feb Iceman 29Updated [Time, Country, Embed code, Photo, ]Feb harroUpdated [Source, Narrative]Feb harroUpdated [Registration, Cn, Nature, Narrative]Feb harroUpdated [Cn, Operator, Departure airport, Narrative]Feb Iceman 29Updated [Embed code]Mar harroUpdated [Time, Total occupants, Source, Embed code, Narrative]Mar Iceman 29Updated [Source, Embed code, Narrative]Jul AerossuranceUpdated [Destination airport, Source, Narrative]Jul AerossuranceUpdated [Embed code]Feb harroUpdated [Embed code, Narrative, Accident report, Photo]Feb harroUpdated [Embed code, Photo]Mar AerossuranceUpdated [Embed code]
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United Airlines flight suffers engine failure, sending debris falling on neighborhoods outside Denver

United Flight returned to the airport around p.m. after suffering an engine issue, an airport spokesperson told CNN. The flight had been bound for Honolulu.
The Federal Aviation Administration confirmed in a statement that the Boeing safely returned to the Denver International Airport after "experiencing a right-engine failure shortly after takeoff."
"The FAA is aware of reports of debris in the vicinity of the airplane's flight path," the statement said.
The flight returned about 20 minutes after the police department in Broomfield, Colorado, said via Twitter that it had received reports that an airplane flying over the Denver suburb had engine trouble and had "dropped debris in several neighborhoods around p.m."
"No injuries reported at this time," according to the tweet.
Debris from the aircraft landed outside a home in Broomfield, Colorado, on Saturday, February
Additional tweets from police said debris landed in Commons Park and the Northmoor and Red Leaf neighborhoods of Broomfield. The city is about 25 miles north of Denver and 30 miles west of Denver International Airport.
Images from the scene showed large pieces of debris lying in the front yards of homes and a soccer field at the local park. CNN affiliate KCNC shared photos showing the smashed cabin of a resident's pickup truck. Another CNN affiliate, KMGH, shared photos of a hole in the roof of a local home.
United Airlines told CNN there were people, including 10 crew members, aboard Flight All passengers have safely deplaned and are at a terminal in Denver, where the airline is working to get them on a new flight.
"United Flight experienced an engine failure and safely returned to Denver. We are in contact with the FAA, NTSB and local law enforcement," United Airlines said in a statement. "The NTSB is investigating and has directed that any persons with debris from this event contact their local law enforcement agency."
The union representing United pilots commended the crew of Flight and said Saturday "there is no substitute for experience."
"We are thankful for the tremendous teamwork shown by the entire flight and cabin crew, and that there were no injuries on the ground or in the air," the United Master Executive Council of the Air Line Pilots Association, International told CNN in a statement.

Pilots report 'engine failure' in mayday call

Pilots are heard issuing a mayday call, telling air traffic controllers "we've experienced engine failure," according to air traffic control communications with Flight obtained by CNN.
Police received calls from residents who said they'd heard a loud explosion, said Rachel Welte of the Broomfield Police Department at a Saturday news conference.
"Then they just started seeing basically what they thought was a plane falling from the sky. What it was was debris," Welte said, describing the debris as "possibly some exterior pieces of the plane."
Welte, speaking at the local park, stressed how much worse things could have been.
"We could have hundreds of people here and the fact that we're not getting reports of any injuries is absolutely shocking at this point," she said. "It's amazing."
Aircraft debris from a United Airlines flight on a soccer field in Broomfield, Colorado, on Saturday, February
Police are working to contain the secure the large debris field for the National Transportation Safety Board, which will be in charge of the investigation, according to the FAA. Broomfield police said the debris field is a mile long.
"NTSB has opened an investigation into the Feb. 20, , engine event on a United Denver-based NTSB investigators are responding," NTSB public affairs officerPeter Knudson told CNN.
Some of the jetliner debris is now in the custody of the NTSB, according to local police.
"@NTSB on scene. Starting to remove debris," the Broomfield Police Department tweeted Saturday night. The department says the debris will be taken to a hangar at Denver International Airport.
In the meantime, Broomfield police cautioned residents to not touch or move plane debris if they see it in their yard as the NTSB "wants all debris to remain in place for investigation."
United Airlines says the flight did not dump fuel, such as after engine failures on other commercial airliners. This is often necessary when an emergency landing is needed soon after takeoff because the plane may be too heavy to safely land. It's not clear why the crew elected to not dump fuel. According to radar tracking data, the flight made it to a relatively low 13, feet.
Travis Loock, a passenger on United Flight , told CNN it was about 20 minutes into the flight to Honolulu when he heard a boom.
"There was a big boom and the kind of sound you don't want to hear when you're on the airplane," Loock, who was flying with his wife, said via phone. "And I instantly put my shade up, and I was pretty frightened to see that the, the engine on my side was missing."
"We were just glad we weren't over the ocean, because that's where we were heading," he said.
A photo of the damaged engine of United Flight taken by passenger Travis Loock.
The plane had just reached 10, feet when it happened, Loock said, adding that he could sense the fear on the plane, but everyone was "very calm."
"A lot of people couldn't see the engine on that side, right, so I was a little more freaked out because I could see it, and I knew that was not right," he said.
When the plane landed safely, people cheered before exiting.
"We're having a cocktail," Loock said. "And, yeah, we're going to try it again. We're going to try it again. The odds are with us this time."
United said in a statement a majority of the passengers have taken another United flight to Honolulu while "those who did not wish to travel with us this evening were provided hotel accommodations."

NTSB will 'figure out what happened'

CNN aviation and transportation analysts described the incident as an uncontained engine failure.
"Literally the engine exploding," said CNN transportation analyst Mary Schiavo, a former inspector general at the federal Department of Transportation.
Such an engine failure is more likely to occur at takeoff, she said, because "you have to request so much power from your engines to get them up there."
CNN aviation analyst Miles O'Brien echoed that statement, saying, "Generally speaking, you're stressing the system on departure. That's when the system is doing the most work."
"If there's a flaw hidden inside -- between all those fans and turbines that are spinning around with such tremendous force and under such tremendous pressure and heat differentials -- if there's a flaw inside there, that's when you're going to find out about it."
Boeing said in a statement to CNN Saturday night that company technical advisers are supporting the NTSB with its investigation.
Peter Goelz, a former managing director of the NTSB, told CNN the agency will "absolutely" be able to discover what happened. But he, like police, stressed that bystanders shouldn't touch the debris in their yards.
"There's an old saying that the first piece off the aircraft indicates where the accident occurred," Goelz said. "So they're going to be looking at the beginning of the debris field to see what pieces came off this engine first and what they look like."
"The NTSB will find the wreckage, they will analyze it, and this one, they'll figure out what happened."
Kieran Cain told CNN he was playing with his children at a local elementary school when a plane flew over and they heard a loud boom.
"We saw it go over, we heard the big explosion, we looked up, there was black smoke in the sky," Cain told CNN.
"Debris started raining down, which you know, sort of looked like it was floating down and not very heavy, but actually now looking at it, it's giant metal pieces all over the place," he said.
"I was surprised that the plane sort of continued on uninterrupted, without really altering its trajectory or doing anything," he said. "It just kind of kept going the way it was going as if nothing happened."
Cain said he and his children took shelter under an overhang as the debris came down.
Correction: An earlier version of this story incorrectly described Broomfield's location. The city is about 30 miles west of Denver International Airport.

CNN's Pete Muntean, Aaron Pellish, Andy Rose and Greg Wallace contributed to this report.

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United Airlines - Honolulu Airport (HNL)

Terminal

Arrivals Terminal:

United Airlines uses Terminal 2 at Honolulu Airport (HNL).

Some flights labeled as United Airlines are codeshare flights operated by other Airlines. As a result, the following terminals are used for codeshare flights labeled as United Airlines: Terminal 1.

In some cases this terminal can change, check the terminal with your airline.
Check your arriving flight here

Departures Terminal:

United Airlines uses Terminal 2 at Honolulu Airport (HNL).

Some flights labeled as United Airlines are codeshare flights operated by other Airlines. As a result, the following terminals are used for codeshare flights labeled as United Airlines: Terminal 1.

In some cases this terminal can change, check the terminal with your airline.
Check your departing flight here

Flights

Follow the links below in order to see all the flights scheduled for United Airlines

- Arrivals
- Departures

Check-in

In order to check in for your flight at Honolulu Airport (HNL), go to the terminal where your flight departs from, or follow the instructions provided in your ticket.

General Information

- IATA Code: UA
- Website:mynewextsetup.us

Codeshare

This airline operate some flights, but other flights are codeshare flights operated by the following airlines

- Hawaiian Airlines
- All Nippon Airways - ANA

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Check Wait Times

Both the Transportation Security Agency (TSA) and Customs and Border Protection (CBP) provide information on wait times at airports and border crossings.

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) wants to keep travelers safe when flying. Security screening must be thorough and sometimes these detailed checks cause lines. TSA provides data online to check airport security wait times through the TSA mobile My TSA application.

Download My TSA application to check and post airport delays reported by fellow travelers in real time, confirm what items can be brought through security, and review other tips for travelers from TSA.

The Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has estimated wait times for border crossings between Canada and the U.S., Mexico and the U.S. and other land borders.  The wait times are updated hourly and listed for commercial vehicles, passenger vehicles and pedestrians. Travelers crossing land boarders can download the Border Wait Time application to access wait times.

Download the Border Wait Time application, which is available for mobile phones and also features RSS feeds.

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The airlines are no longer desperate. Gone are the pandemic-era flight deals, flexible booking policies, and open middle seats. Millions of Americans are traveling again, as the weather warms (in some parts of the US) and vaccination rates rise. This is cause for optimism. The joys of normal life — summer vacations and guilt-free social gatherings — are on the horizon. But first, the airport.

Travel is back, and so are its all-too-many inconveniences: long security lines, pissed-off passengers, boarding mishaps, and random airline fees. It’s not good news for summer travelers, especially those with trips booked around Independence Day, so plan accordingly for all of the above. And it isn’t just that rowdy travelers might be acting up. From a logistical standpoint, things have actually gotten worse.

The number of flyers daily in the US is nearly back to pre-pandemic levels, even though business and international travel have been slow to resume. Airlines and airports have struggled to accommodate this influx, which has resulted in longer customer service wait times, significant flight delays, and sudden cancellations. In some cities, airport concession stands and restaurants aren’t fully staffed or open, leaving stranded travelers with fewer options for food and beverages.

Industry executives have attributed such inconveniences to bad weather and, perhaps more vaguely, “labor shortages.” A May memo from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to its employees warned that over of America’s largest airports will struggle with staffing shortages and asked office workers to assist with airport security on a volunteer basis. Delta’s CEO was concerned about staffing enough contracted workers for the summer. American Airlines recently announced plans to cancel hundreds of flights in July, citing “unprecedented weather,” a spike in travel demand, and a dearth of workers. Skift, a news site on the travel industry, predicted a summer full of subpar domestic travel experiences — from elbow-to-elbow seating on flights to sold-out destinations — as a result of the labor shortage.

Republican lawmakers and business leaders have used similar language to describe America’s slow job recovery. They’ve blamed the worker shortage on generous unemployment benefits and stimulus checks, claiming that people would rather stay at home and receive government aid than apply for jobs, a theory rejected by economists. According to the Washington Post’s Heather Long, America is undergoing a “great reassessment of work,” as people consider changing their industry or seek out higher-paying, stable jobs that are less public-facing. Regardless of the reason, America’s labor market is still far from normal, and certain sectors are recovering at different rates.

After a year spent slashing jobs, airlines and aviation subcontractors are now back on the hiring train. It’s not enough to hire back workers; those workers need to undergo training and security clearances. “For airlines, you just don’t go out and hire somebody,” Mike Boyd, an aviation consultant, told Yahoo Finance. “If you’re going to have them work at a ticket counter, they have to have training in hazardous materials and security. You just don’t bring people on real quick. The real issue is [the airlines] had to let somebody go.”

United’s CEO recently warned of a pending pilot shortage as older crew members retire, but it’s not just pilots that are in demand. Airlines and airports are looking to staff a variety of positions, from flight crew and food service workers to customer call staff and gate agents.

The airlines’ response has been akin to a corporate shoulder shrug that sidesteps the industry’s role in fragmenting its workforce, argued Laura Moran, a spokesperson for the Service Employees International Union. “There was a time when most folks — the customer service and wheelchair agents, security officers, cabin cleaners, and baggage handlers — were directly employed by the airlines,” Moran said. “Now, we have a real patchwork of subcontracted workers who perform crucial labor for the airlines.”

Some of these positions were first on the chopping block when travel halted. Thousands of jobs were nixed to stem immediate revenue loss — by airlines, airports, or the vendors they contracted out work. The travel and leisure industry accounted for a staggering 39 percent of all US job losses from Covid Airlines cut about 90, full-time, in-house positions by the end of , including the 30, workers they’ve placed on furlough.

Workers employed directly by the airlines were promised some job security; domestic carriers received billions of dollars in federal aid — $25 billion in April and $15 billion in December — predicated on the condition that they would bring back employees or keep them on payroll for a set period of time. But thousands of others in contracted positions, like cabin cleaners and wheelchair attendants, weren’t offered the same protections. A House investigation revealed that aviation contractors axed tens of thousands of jobs — roughly 15 percent of their workforce — even after receiving CARES Act funding for payroll assistance.

Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis via Getty Images

Thus, it’s inaccurate to chalk up a diminished passenger experience to a “labor shortage” without contextualizing the airline industry’s working conditions and standards — and why it’s seemingly unable to summon back tens of thousands of crucial workers. A shortage does little to acknowledge the fluctuations in work consistency and lack of financial security that many have contended with. The industry has long relied on an understaffed and underpaid workforce, with many clocking in on the front lines (which, again, are unusually stressful these days). Yet, airlines have consistently deflected blame toward the vendors and contractors that employ some of these missing workers. It’s a tactic used by major corporations (and the airlines themselves) to shirk responsibility for low wages and the lack of worker benefits and protections.

Airlines work with different vendors to outsource different types of labor, from cleaning to food services to baggage handling. These vendors independently negotiate subcontracting agreements with the airline, Moran explained, which determines workers’ wages and benefits: “The result is a disconnected system of work with no standard wages, and it’s a situation the airlines have created to keep costs down and profits up. It’s unreasonable that low-wage Black and brown workers on the front lines are expected to bear the brunt of these problems when airlines are trying to reach profitability.”

Now, across the country, it seems there are fewer workers willing to return to an underpaid, unstable job, whether in retail, food service, or travel. The work of airport unions and organized labor in recent years have helped secure better wages for subcontracted employees, but inequities still persist in many cities.

“There isn’t a shortage of workers. There is a shortage of workers wanting to come back to work for poverty wages,” said Elsa Caballero, president of SEIU Texas, whose union represents janitorial, security, and building staff in airports. “Airlines, which are a major employer in Houston, are still paying way below $12 an hour.”

United, for example, has previously downplayed its relationship to subcontracted airport workers, dismissing its influence over vendors’ pay. In response to a “Fight for $15” protest in , a spokesperson emphasized how United does “not have a direct employer-employee relationship with [its] vendors’ employees,” as if that alone absolves the airline of any responsibility.

However, airlines do have leverage to raise wages, if they choose to intervene and place pressure on contractors. Workers at Philadelphia International Airport, for example, qualified for a $12 minimum wage after the city passed a “living wage” ordinance in , but subcontracting companies refused to increase their pay rate until American Airlines upped its contract to pay for the discrepancy. American interjected again in , the Philadelphia Inquirer reported, when contractors refused to bargain with the workers’ union.

“In Houston, we’ve had to work with the mayor and city officials to create an executive order to ensure that an airline like United will pay workers a living wage,” Caballero said. “We know airlines can pay more, but they are lowballing the contracts they offer vendors.”

Substantial federal aid has done little to assuage workers’ and union leaders’ fears of further layoffs. Airlines are still searching for ways to keep costs low. United Airlines, for example, told its in-house catering workers earlier this year that it was “exploring the option” of working with a third-party contractor for its kitchen services, igniting a series of worker protests in April.

Running an airline is a high-cost operation. Slate’s Henry Grabar previously described the industry as “low-margin, capital-intensive businesses,” which means a company’s cash savings won’t be very helpful during an extensive crisis. ”Capital-intensive means it’s hard to tighten your belt,” Grabar wrote. “You can save some money on fuel and food, but not on labor or rent. You still have to pay banks or leasing companies for your planes. You can’t save those seats for later, or fly twice as many flights when business picks up again. There is no factory to shut down. Even if you ground flights, many costs are fixed.” Customers have been expected to pay additional fees on top of ticket costs for additional luggage, seat selection, and priority boarding. (Fees are also another stream of revenue for airlines, one that is exempt from the 7 percent excise tax on domestic airfare.)

Yet the aviation industry has a long history of generously padding the wallets of its executives, investors, and other shareholders through stock buybacks and hefty compensation packages. All this, despite being a fundamentally expensive business. So far, they’ve squared that tricky circle by passing on costs to the consumer and neglecting the needs of workers who are central to airline operations.

While customer service and labor issues can seem at odds with one another, Caballero argues that improved working conditions can directly affect the passenger experience. Travelers and workers could find solidarity in the fact that they both expect more from airlines. If travelers are being nickel-and-dimed for every expense, where does the additional money go? Research shows that higher pay boosts employee performance and retention; in a place like the airport, in which so many workers are public-facing employees (sometimes dealing with unruly passengers), fair compensation and benefits should be prerequisites.

“This is a consumer issue,” said Caballero. “It affects passengers when airport workers are paid poorly and don’t want to show up, when there’s no one to push a wheelchair or answer questions at the gate. Their work is undervalued, yet it’s incredibly important to passengers.”

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

The kalitta difference

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We deliver on time, anytime, anywhere

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Kalitta Air is an FAR Air Carrier and a leading provider of air cargo transportation, offering both scheduled and chartered transportation services worldwide.

The airline began with a small group of very dedicated employees with vision who worked uncompromisingly towards success of the company. Now, the company is benefiting from the efforts of those dedicated people and all of those that followed. Today the Kalitta Companies consist of Kalitta Air, Kalitta Maintenance, Kalitta Tire and Brake, Kalitta Turbine Leasing and Kalitta International Flight Academy. We can handle virtually anything – flying freight, pilot training, providing MRO maintenance, and everything in between.

Kalitta uses high end technology such as cutting edge CNC lathes, Danobat Grinders, full motion flight simulators, and 3D Engineering Computer software to name a few. Utilizing our new efficient hangars, we equip our aircraft with top of the line aircraft avionics.

Kalitta is a small organization with a huge heart and a well-disciplined work force, who deliver a top-shelf, quality product day in and day out. The Kalitta team has the desire, willingness, and ability to accomplish just about any task. We do it on time, safely, and with the highest quality performance that exceeds all national standards.

Kalitta Air makes it happen – on time, anytime, anywhere.

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TEN TANKER AIR CARRIER
VICTORVILLE, CALIFORNIA

"Throughout my years of working with MRO facilities, I have never experienced such a close knit group of individuals working as a team in such a cohesive manner. Foresight, attitude, responsibility, preparedness, and depth of experience means a lot and (Kalitta has) it all.”

Director of Maintenance
Crestwind Aviation

“We previously used another MRO and had nothing but problems but I found that my job with Kalitta was one of just being there to answer questions and help the project along. I can’t say how pleased and relieved to have had the experience with your organization..”

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UNITED STATES & Kalitta Air DELIVER A SECOND SHIPMENT OF EMERGENCY MEDICAL SUPPLIES TO BANGLADESH TO COMBAT COVID

Kalitta Air is proud to work with the US government to deliver life saving cargo to Bangladesh. Read more about our efforts in the article below!

Read the full article HERE

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GECAS Is Halfway Through Development Of A Freighter Conversion

GECAS, the leasing arm of General Electric, has today confirmed it is ahead of schedule on its Big Twin program. The company says it has reached the halfway point six months earlier than planned. Working with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), the leasing company is converting a Boeing ER passenger aircraft into a freighter.

In October , the Big Twin program announced a launch customer for the freighter. US cargo airline Kalitta Air will be the launch customer for the new aircraft as soon as However, with the program ahead of schedule by at least six months and the demand for cargo remaining high, we could see the freighter in the sky earlier than expected.

Read the full article HERE

Charitable Collaboration between Kalitta air and the yankee air museum

In December , Kalitta painted and restored a BD Mitchell Bomber, formally known as “Yankee Warrior”, to match the livery and markings it wore in when it left the North American Aviation plant in the Fairfax Industrial District of Kansas City, Kansas. This plane honors the men and women who built it and the 57th Bomb Wing, th Bomb Group, th Bomb Squadron in which it served. As stated by the Air Museum, “Our B is now named "Rosie's Reply" and adorned with nose art of Rosie the Riveter which honors the women of the Greatest Generation and hopefully will inspire confidence in women of all generations.” Learn more about our collaboration and this piece of history by watching the video above!

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defense transportation journal

Read about Kalitta's part in the Covid pandemic in the most recent Defense Transportation Journal, featuring our very own Heath Nicholl and Pete Sanderlin HERE

Kalitta Pilot Group Receives Recognition for Pandemic Response

Congresswoman Debbie Dingell thanks our crew members for their hard work and dedication during this pandemic. From the first mission to rescue American citizens overseas in Wuhan, China to transporting masks and supplies, now the vaccine on behalf of #dhlexpress ; we are proud of all of our crew members and employees who make Kalitta a success every day.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

Order: Requirement for Airlines and Operators to Collect Contact Information for All Passengers Arriving into the United States

Airlines and passenger-carrying operators are required to collect each passenger’s full name, address while in the United States, primary contact phone number, secondary or emergency contact phone number, and email address, to the extent this information exists, within 72 hours before the flight’s departure. Airlines and operators must maintain these data elements for crew members. Airlines and operators must also maintain, to the extent the data are already available and maintained by the airline, the following information for each passenger and crewmember:

  • date of birth
  • airline name
  • flight number
  • city of depature to the United States
  • depature date and time
  • city of arrival in the United States
  • arrival data and time
  • seat number

The airline or operator needs to retain this information for 30 days after the flight’s departure unless the airline or operator has chosen to transmit the information securely to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) via their established data systems. Data that has not already been transmitted to DHS must be transmitted to CDC within 24 hours upon request.

Airlines and operators must also notify passengers of the intent and purpose of the information collection and obtain from each passenger an acknowledgement that the obligation to provide complete and accurate information is a U.S. Government requirement, that failure to provide complete and accurate information may result in criminal penalties, and confirmation that the information provided is complete and accurate.

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Pan Am

– airline of the United States, former primary international carrier

Not to be confused with Pan American Airways (–) or Pan American Airways (–).

For other uses, see Pan Am (disambiguation).

Pan Am mynewextsetup.us
FoundedMarch 14, ; 94 years ago&#;(March 14, )
(as Pan American Airways [PAA])
Commenced operationsOctober 19, ; 94 years ago&#;(October 19, )
Ceased operationsDecember 4, ; 29 years ago&#;(December 4, )
Hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer programWorldPass
SubsidiariesSahsa (40%) (–)
Pan Am Express (–)
Panagra (50%) (–)
Fleet size
Destinations86 countries on all six major continents at its peak in
Parent companyPan Am Corporation
HeadquartersNew York City
Miami, Florida
Key peopleJuan T. Trippe
(CEO, –)
Harold E. Gray
(CEO, –)
Najeeb E. Halaby Jr
(CEO, –)
William T. Seawell
(CEO, –)
C. Edward Acker
(CEO, –)
Thomas G. Plaskett
(CEO, –)
Russell L. Ray Jr.
(CEO, )

Pan American World Airways, originally founded as Pan American Airways[1] and commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States for much of the 20th century. It was the first airline to fly worldwide and pioneered numerous innovations of the modern airline industry, such as jet aircraft, jumbo jets, and computerized reservation systems.[2][3] Until its dissolution inPan Am account wells fargo bank the luxury and glamour of intercontinental travel",[4] and it remains a cultural icon of the 20th century, identified by its blue globe logo ("The Blue Meatball"),[5] the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, and the white uniform caps of its pilots.

Founded in by two former U.S. Army Air Corps majors, Pan Am began as a scheduled airmail and passenger service flying between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba. Under the leadership of American entrepreneur Juan Trippe, in the s the airline purchased a fleet of flying boats and focused its route network on Central and South America, gradually adding transatlantic and transpacific destinations.[6] By the midth century, Pan Am enjoyed a near monopoly on international routes.[7] It led the aircraft industry into the Jet Age by acquiring new jetliners such as the Boeing and Boeing Pan Am's modern fleet allowed it to fly larger numbers of passengers, at a longer range, and with fewer stops than rivals.[8] Its primary hub and flagship terminal was the Worldport at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.[3]

During its peak between the late s and early s, Pan Am was world renowned for its advanced fleet, experienced and highly trained staff, and numerous amenities.[9] In alone, it flew 11 million passengers to 86 countries, with destinations in every continent save Antarctica. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority-owned by governments, it became the unofficial national carrier of the U.S. Pan Am was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the global airline industry association,[10] and helped shape the industry standard in hospitality and customer service.

Beginning in the mids, Pan Am began facing a series of challenges both internal and external, along with rising competition from the deregulation of the airline industry in After several attempts at financial restructuring and rebranding throughout the s, Pan Am gradually sold off its assets before declaring bankruptcy in By the time it ceased operations, the airline's trademark was the second most recognized worldwide,[11] and its loss was felt among travelers and many Americans as signifying the end of the golden age of air travel.[12] Its brand, iconography, and contributions to the industry remain well known in the 21st century.[13]

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

Flown cover autographed by pilot Cy Caldwell and carried from Key West, Florida, to Havana, Cuba, on the first contract airmail flight operated by Pan American Airways, October 19,
"Birthplace of Pan American World Airways", Key West, Turn gift cards into cash American Airways, Incorporated (PAA) was founded as a shell company on March 14,by United States Army Air Corps officers Henry "Hap" Arnold, Carl Spaatz and John Jouett out of concern for the growing influence of the German-owned Colombian air carrier SCADTA, in Central America. Operating in Colombia sinceSCADTA lobbied hard for landing rights in the Panama Canal Zone, ostensibly to survey air routes for a connection to the United States, which the Air Corps viewed as a precursor to a possible German aerial threat to the canal.[15] In the spring ofthe United States Post Office requested bids on a contract to deliver mail from Key West, Florida to Havana, Cuba before 19 October [16] Arnold and Spaatz drew up the prospectus for Pan American after they learned that SCADTA hired a company in Delaware to obtain air mail contracts from the US government.

Also competing for the contract, Juan Trippe formed the Aviation Corporation of the Americas (ACA) on June 2,with $, in startup capital and the backing of powerful and politically connected financiers including Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and W. Averell Harriman.[17] Their operation had the all-important landing rights for Havana, having acquired American International Airways, a small airline established in by John K. Montgomery and Richard B. Bevier as a seaplane service from Key West to Havana. A third company, Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean Airways, was established on October 11,by New York City investment banker Richard Hoyt to bid for the contract.[18]

The Postal Service awarded Pan American Airways the US mail delivery contract to Cuba, at the end of the bidding process, but Pan American lacked any aircraft to perform the job and did not have landing rights in Cuba.[19] Just days before the 19 October deadline, the three companies decided to form a partnership. ACA chartered a Fairchild FC-2floatplane from a small Dominican Republic carrier, West Indian Aerial Express, allowing Pan Am to operate the first flight to Havana on 19 October [20] The three companies formally merged on June 23, Richard Hoyt was named as president of the new Aviation Corporation of the Americas, but Trippe and his partners held 40% of the equity and Whitney was made president. Trippe became operational head of Pan American Airways, the new company's principal operating subsidiary.[18]

The US government approved the original Pan Am's mail delivery contract with little objection, out of fears that SCADTA would have no competition in bidding for routes between Latin America and the United States. The government further helped Pan Am by insulating it from its US competitors, seeing the airline as the "chosen instrument" for US-based international air routes. The airline expanded internationally, benefiting from a virtual monopoly on foreign routes.[22]

Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Am's network through all of Central and South America. During the late s and early s, Pan Am purchased a number of ailing or defunct airlines in Central and South America and negotiated with postal officials to win most of the government's airmail contracts to the region. In September Trippe toured Latin America with Charles Lindbergh to negotiate landing rights in a number of countries, including Barranquilla on SCADTA's home turf of Colombia, as well as Maracaibo and Caracas in Venezuela. By the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru. Following government favors for the denial of mail contracts to their competition, a forced merger was created with New York, Rio, and Buenos Aires Line, giving a seaplane route along the east coast of South America to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and westbound to Santiago, Chile.[23][24][25] Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was later renamed as Panair do Brasil. Pan Am also partnered with the Grace Shipping Company in to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America.[18] In the same year, Pan Am acquired a controlling stake in Mexicana de Aviación and took over Mexicana's Ford Trimotor route between Brownsville, Texas and Mexico City, extending this service to the Yucatan Peninsula to connect with Pan Am's Caribbean route network.[27]

Pan Am's holding company, the Aviation Corporation of the Americas, was one of the most sought after stocks on the New York Curb Exchange inand flurries of speculation surrounded each of its new route awards. In April Trippe and his associates reached an agreement with United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (UATC) to segregate Pan Am operations to the south of the Mexico – United States border, in exchange for UATC taking a large shareholder stake (UATC was the parent company of what are now Boeing, Pratt & Whitney, and United Airlines).[28][29] The Aviation Corporation of the Americas changed its name to Pan American Airways Corporation in

Clipper era[edit]

advertising mailer for Pan Am's "Flying Clipper Cruises" to South America
PAA's China Clipper[30]service cut the time of a transpacific crossing from as much as six weeks by sea to just six days by air.

Pan Am started its South American routes with Consolidated Commodore and Sikorsky Sflying boats. The S, larger than the eight-passenger S, began flying for Pan Am in Carrying the nicknames American Clipper, Southern Clipper, and Caribbean Clipper, they were the first of the series of 28 Clippers that symbolized Pan Am between and During this time, Pan Am operated Clipper services to Latin America from the International Pan American Airport at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida.

In Pan Am turned to Britain and France to begin seaplane service between the United States and Europe. Pan Am reached an agreement with both countries to offer service from Norfolk, Virginia, to Europe via Bermuda and the Azores using the Ss. A joint service from Port Washington, New York, to Bermuda began in Junewith Pan Am using Sikorskys and Imperial Airways using the C class flying boat RMA Cavalier.[31]

On July 5,survey flights across the North Atlantic began. Pan Am Clipper III, a Sikorsky S, landed at Botwood in the Bay of Exploits in Newfoundland from Port Washington, via Shediac, New Brunswick. The next day Pan Am Clipper III left Botwood for Foynes in County Limerick, Ireland. The same day, a Short Empire C-Class flying boat, the Caledonia, left Foynes for Botwood, and landed July 6,reaching Montreal on July 8 and New York on July 9.

Trippe decided to start a service from San Francisco to Honolulu and on to Hong Kong and Auckland following steamship routes. After negotiating traffic rights in to land at Pearl Harbor, Midway Island, Wake Island, Guam, and Subic Bay (Manila),[33] Pan Am shipped $, worth of aeronautical equipment and construction crews westward in March using the S.S. North Haven, a 15,ton merchant ship chartered for the purpose of provisioning each island that the clippers would stop at on their 4- to 5-day flight.[34] Pan Am ran its first survey flight to Honolulu in April with a Sikorsky S flying boat.[35] Construction crews, including Bill Mullahey who would later oversee Pan Am's Pacific operations, cleared coral from lagoons, constructed hotels, and installed the radio navigation equipment necessary for the clippers to island hop from Hawaii to Asia.[36] The airline won the contract for a San Francisco–Canton mail route later that year and operated its first commercial flight carrying mail and express (no passengers) in a Martin M from Alameda to Manila amid media fanfare on November 22, The five-leg, 8,mile (13,&#;km) flight arrived in Manila on November 29 and returned to San Francisco on December 6, cutting the time between the two cities by the fastest scheduled steamship by over two weeks.[37] (Both the United States and Philippine Islands issued special stamps for the two flights.) The first passenger flight left Alameda on October 21, [6] The fare from San Francisco to Manila or Hong Kong in was US$ one way (about $ in ) and US$1, round trip.[38]

Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Am's network through all of Central and South America. During the late s and early s, Pan Am purchased a number of ailing or defunct airlines in Central and South America and negotiated with postal officials to win most of the government's airmail contracts to the region. In September Trippe toured Latin America with Charles Lindbergh to negotiate landing rights in a number of countries, including Barranquilla on SCADTA's home turf of Colombia, as well as Maracaibo and Caracas in Venezuela. By the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru. Following government favors for the denial of mail contracts to their competition, a forced merger was created with New York, Rio, and Buenos Aires Line, giving a seaplane route along the east coast of South America to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and westbound to Santiago, Chile.[23][39] Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was later renamed as Panair do Brasil. Pan Am also partnered with Grace Shipping Company in to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America.[18] In the same year, Pan Am acquired a controlling stake in Mexicana de Aviación and took over Mexicana's Ford Trimotor united airlines honolulu airport phone number between Brownsville, Texas and Mexico City, extending this service to the Yucatan Peninsula to connect with Pan Am's Caribbean route network.[27]

On August 6,Juan Trippe accepted United States aviation's highest annual prize, the Collier Trophy, on behalf of PAA from President Franklin D. Roosevelt for the company's "establishment of the transpacific airline and the successful execution of extended overwater navigation and the regular operations thereof."[40]

Stamps issued by the United States and Philippine Islands for Air Mail carried on the first flights in each direction of PAA's Transpacific "China Clipper"service between San Francisco, California, and Manila, Philippines. (November 22 – December 6, )
Flown cover carried around the world on PAA Boeing Clippersand by Imperial Airways, June 24 – July 28,
Pan Am's flying boat terminal at Dinner Keyin Miami, Florida, was a hubof inter-American travel during the s and s.

Pan Am also used Boeing flying boats for the Pacific route: in China, passengers could connect to domestic flights on the Pan Am-operated China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC) network, co-owned with the Chinese government. Pan Am flew to Singapore for the first time instarting a semi-monthly service which reduced San Francisco–Singapore travel times from 25 days to six days.[41]

Six large, long-range Boeing flying boats were delivered to Pan Am in early On March 30,the Yankee Clipper, piloted by Harold E. Gray, made the first-ever trans-Atlantic passenger flight. The first leg of the flight, Baltimore to Horta, took 17 hours and 32 minutes and covered 2, miles (3,&#;km). The second leg from Horta to Pan Am's newly built airport in Lisbon took 7 hours and 7 minutes and covered 1, miles (1,&#;km).[42] The Boeing also enabled the start of scheduled weekly contract Foreign Air Mail (F.A.M. 18) service and later passenger flights from New York (Port Washington, L.I.) to both France and Britain. The Southern route to France was inaugurated for airmail on May 20,by the Yankee Clipper piloted by Arthur E. LaPorte flying via Horta, Azores, and Lisbon, Portugal to Marseilles.[43] Passenger service over the route was added on June 28,by the Dixie Clipper piloted by R.O.D. Sullivan.[44] The Eastbound trip departed every Wednesday at Noon and arrived at Marseilles on Friday at 3 pm GCT with return service leaving Marseilles on Sunday at 8 am and arriving at Port Washington on Tuesday at 7 am. The Northern transatlantic route to Britain was inaugurated for Air Mail service on June 24,by the Yankee Clipper piloted by Harold Gray flying via Shediac (New Brunswick), Botwood (Newfoundland), and Foynes (Ireland) to Southampton.[45][46] Passenger service was added on the Northern route on July workday login carmax,by the Yankee Clipper.[47] Eastbound flights left on Saturday at am and arrived at Southampton on Sunday at 1 pm GCT. Westbound service departed Southampton on Wednesday at Noon and arrived at Port Washington on Thursday at 3 pm. After the outbreak of World War II in Europe on September 1,the terminus became Foynes until the service ceased for the winter on October 5 while transatlantic service to Lisbon via the Azores continued into During World War II, Pan Am flew over 90&#;million&#;mi (&#;million&#;km) worldwide in support of military operations.[22]

The "Clippers" — the name hearkened back to the 19th century fast-sailing clippers — were the only American passenger aircraft of the time capable of intercontinental travel. To compete with ocean liners, the airline offered first-class seats on such flights, and the style of flight crews became more formal. Instead of being leather-jacketed, silk-scarved airmail pilots, the crews of the "Clippers" wore naval-style uniforms and adopted a set procession when boarding the aircraft.[48] In Pan Am and TWA both received and began using Boeing Stratoliner, the first pressurized airliner in service and the first with a flight engineer in the crew. The Boeing 's airline service was short-lived, as all were commandeered for military service when the United States entered World War II.

During World War II most Clippers were pressed into military service. A new Pan Am subsidiary pioneered a new air military-supply route across the Atlantic from Brazil to West Africa. The onward flight to Sudan and Egypt tracked an existing British civil air route.[50] In Januarythe Pacific Clipper completed the first circumnavigation of the globe by a commercial airliner. Another first occurred in Januarywhen Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first US president to fly abroad, in the Dixie Clipper. During this period Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry was a Clipper pilot; he was aboard the Clipper Eclipse when it crashed in Syria on June 19, [52][53]

While waiting at Foynes, Ireland, for a Pan Am Clipper flight to New York inpassengers were served a drink today known as Irish coffee by Chef Joe Sheridan.[54]

Post-war expansion and modernization[edit]

The growing importance of air transport in the post-war era meant that Pan Am would no longer enjoy the official patronage it had been afforded in pre-war days to prevent the emergence of any meaningful competition, both at home and abroad.[55]

Although Pan Am continued to use its political influence to lobby for protection of its position as America's primary international airline, it encountered increasing competition – first from American Export Airlines across the Atlantic to Europe, and subsequently from others including TWA to Europe, Braniff to South America, United to Hawaii and Northwest Orient to East Asia, as well as five potential rivals to Mexico. This changed situation resulted from the new post-war approach the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) took toward the promotion of competition between major US carriers on key domestic and international scheduled routes compared with pre-war US aviation policy.[55][57]

American Overseas Airlines (AOA) was the first airline to begin regular landplane flights across the Atlantic, on October 24, In January Pan Am scheduled seven DC-4s a week east from LaGuardia Airport, five to London (Hurn Airport) and two to Lisbon. Time to Hurn was 17 hours 40 minutes including stops or 20 hours 45 minutes to Lisbon. A Boeing flying boat flew LaGuardia to Lisbon once every two weeks in 29 hours 30 minutes; flying boat flights ended shortly thereafter.[nb 1]

TWA's transatlantic challenge – the impending introduction of its faster, pressurized Lockheed Constellations – resulted in Pan Am ordering its own Constellation fleet at $, apiece. Pan Am began transatlantic Constellation flights on January 14,beating TWA by three weeks.[55]

In Januarya flight from Miami to Buenos Aires took 71 hours and 15 minutes in a Pan Am DC-3, but the following summer DC-4s flew Idlewild to Buenos Aires in 38 hr 30 min. In January Pan Am's DC-7Bs flew New York to Buenos Aires in 25 hours 20 minutes, while the National – Pan Am – Panagra DC-7B via Panama and Lima took 22 hours 45 minutes.[58]Convair s replaced DC-3s and other pre-war types on Pan Am's shorter flights in the Caribbean and South America. Pan Am also acquired a few Curtiss Cs for a freight network that eventually extended to Buenos Aires.[57]

In January Pan Am had no transpacific flights beyond Hawaii, but they soon resumed with DC-4s. In January the California to Tokyo flight was a daily Stratocruiser that took 31 hours 45 minutes from San Francisco or 32 hours 15 minutes from Los Angeles. (A flight to Seattle and a connection to Northwest's DC-7C totaled 24 hours 13 minutes from San Francisco, but Pan Am was not allowed to fly that route.)[58] The Stratocruisers' double-deck fuselage with sleeping berths and a lower-deck lounge helped it compete with its rival. "Super Stratocruisers" with more fuel appeared on Pan Am's transatlantic routes in Novembermaking nonstop eastward and one-stop westward schedules more reliably.

In June Pan Am started the first scheduled round-the-world airline flight. In September the weekly DC-4 was scheduled to leave San Francisco at Thursday as Flight 1, stopping at Honolulu, Midway, Wake, Guam, Manila, Bangkok and arriving in Calcutta on Monday atwhere it met Flight 2, a Constellation that had left New York at Friday. The DC-4 returned to San Francisco as Flight 2; the Constellation left Calcutta Tuesday, stopped at Karachi, Istanbul, London, Shannon, Gander, and arrived LaGuardia Thursday at A few months later PA 3 took over the Manila route while PA 1 shifted to Tokyo and Shanghai. All Pan Am round-the-world flights included at least one change of plane until Boeing s took over in PA 1 became daily in –63, making different en-route stops on different days of the week; in January it left San Francisco at daily and was scheduled into New York 56 hr 10 min later. Los Angeles replaced San Francisco in ; when Boeing s finished replacing s in all stops except Tehran and Karachi were served daily in each direction. For a year or so in –76 Pan Am finally completed the round-the-world trip, New York to New York.[59]

In January Pan American Airways Corporation officially became Pan American World Airways, Inc. (The airline had begun calling itself Pan American World Airways in )[60][61] In September Pan Am completed the $&#;million purchase of American Overseas Airlines from American Airlines.[55] That month Pan Am ordered 45 Douglas DC-6Bs. The first, Clipper Liberty Bell (NC),[62] inaugurated Pan Am's all-tourist class Rainbow service between New York and London on May 1,to complement the all-firstPresident Stratocruiser service.[61] From JuneDC-6Bs began replacing DC-4s on Pan Am's internal German routes.[63][64][65]

Pan Am introduced the Douglas DC-7C "Seven Seas" on transatlantic routes in summer In January the DC-7C nonstop took 10 hours 45 minutes Idlewild to London, enabling Pan Am to hold its own against TWA's Super Constellations and Starliners. In Pan Am started DC-7C flights union savings bank mt washington from the West Coast of the United States to London and Paris with a fuel stop in Canada or Greenland. The introduction of the faster Bristol Britanniaturboprop by British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) between New York and London from December 19,ended Pan Am's competitive leadership there.[66][61]

In January Pan Am scheduled 47 flights a week east from Idlewild to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and beyond; the following August there were [58]

Jet age[edit]

Although Pan Am contemplated purchasing the United Kingdom's De Havilland Comets (having been the first jetliner in the world), they ultimately waited for United airlines honolulu airport phone number to release their first jetliner, and thus was the launch customer of the Boeingplacing an order for 20 in October It also ordered 25 of Douglas's DC-8, which could seat six across (the originally was to be inches ( m) wide with five-abreast seating; Boeing widened it to match the DC-8). The combined order value was $&#;million. Pan Am's first scheduled jet flight was from New York Idlewild to Paris Le Bourget (stopping at Gander to refuel) on October 26,with Boeing Clipper America (NPA) with passengers.[69] The "Intercontinental" series in –60, and the Douglas DC-8 in Marchenabled non-stop transatlantic crossings with a viable payload in both directions.[citation needed]

Widebody era[edit]

Pan Am was the launch customer of the Boeingplacing a $&#;million order for 25 in April [70][71] On January 15, First LadyPat Nixon christened a Pan Am Boeing Clipper Young America at Washington Dulles in the presence of Pan Am president Najeeb Halaby. During the next few days, Pan Am flew several s to major airports in the United States as a public relations effort, allowing the public to tour the airplanes. Pan Am began its final preparations for the first service on the evening of January 21,when Clipper Young America was scheduled to fly from New York John F. Kennedy to London Heathrow. An engine failure delayed the inaugural flight's departure by several hours, necessitating the substitution of anotherClipper Victor, which eventually flew to London Heathrow.[72] Passengers cheered and drank champagne as the jet finally lifted off from the runway at John F. Kennedy Airport.

Pan Am carried 11 million passengers over 20 billion miles (32 billion km) inthe year it revolutionized air travel with the first widebodied airliner.[73]

Supersonic plans[edit]

Pan Am was one of the first three airlines to sign options for the Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde, but like other airlines that took out options – with the exception of BOAC and Air France – it did not purchase the supersonic jet. Pan Am was the first US airline to sign for the Boeingthe American supersonic transport (SST) project, with 15 delivery positions reserved;[74] these aircraft never saw service after Congress voted against additional funding in [75]

Computerized reservations, Pan Am Building and Worldport[edit]

Pan Am Building from Park Avenue,

Pan Am commissioned IBM to build PANAMAC, a large computer that booked airline and hotel reservations, which was installed in It also held large amounts of information about cities, countries, airports, aircraft, hotels, and restaurants.[76]

The computer occupied the fourth floor of the Pan Am Building, which was the largest commercial office building in the world for some time.[77]

The airline also built Worldport, a terminal building at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York. It was distinguished by its elliptical, four-acre (16,&#;m2) roof, suspended far from the outside columns of the terminal below by 32 sets of steel posts and cables. The terminal was designed to allow passengers to board and disembark via stairs without getting wet by parking the nose of the aircraft under the overhang. The introduction of the jetbridge made this feature obsolete. Pan Am built a gilded training building in the style of Edward Durell Stone designed by Steward-Skinner Architects in Miami.

Pan Am Holiday pamphlet for destination New Zealand()

Peak[edit]

At its peak in the late s and early s, Pan Am advertised under the slogan, the "World's Most Experienced Airline". It carried million passengers inand byits jets flew to 86 countries on every continent except for Antarctica over a scheduled route network of 81, unduplicated miles (,&#;km). During that period the airline was profitable and its cash reserves totaled $1 billion.[69] Most routes united airlines honolulu airport phone number between New York, Europe, and South America, and between Miami and the Caribbean. In Pan Am began a helicopter shuttle between New York's John F. Kennedy, LaGuardia and Newark airports and Lower Manhattan, operated by New York Airways. Aside from the DC-8, the Boeing andthe Pan Am jet fleet included Boeing Bs and s (the first aircraft to sport Pan Am – rather than Pan American – titles[69]). (The airline later had Boeing s and SPs (which could united airlines honolulu airport phone number nonstop New York to Tokyo), Lockheed L Tristars, McDonnell-Douglas DCs, and Airbus As and As.) Pan Am owned the InterContinental Hotel chain and had a financial interest in the Falcon Jet Corporation, which held marketing rights to the Dassault Falcon 20business jet in North America. The airline was involved in creating a missile-tracking range in the South Atlantic and operating a nuclear-engine testing laboratory in Nevada. In addition, Pan Am participated in several notable humanitarian flights.

At its height Pan Am was well regarded for its modern fleet and experienced crews: cabin staff were multilingual and usually college graduates, hired from around the world, frequently with nursing training. Pan Am's onboard service and cuisine, inspired by Maxim's de Paris, were delivered "with a personal flair that has rarely been equaled."[83]

Internal German Services (IGS) and other operations[edit]

From until Pan Am operated a comprehensive network of high-frequency, short-haul scheduled services between West Germany and West Berlin, first with Douglas DC-4s, then with DC-6Bs (from ) and Boeing s (from ).[63][64][65][84][85][86][87][88][89] This had come about as a result of an agreement among the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union at the end of World War II which prohibited Germany from having its own airlines and restricted the provision of commercial air services from and to Berlin to air transport providers headquartered in these four countries. Rising Cold War tensions between the Soviet Union and the three Western powers resulted in unilateral Soviet withdrawal from the quadripartiteAllied Control Commission inculminating in the division of Germany the following year. These events, together with Soviet insistence on a very narrow interpretation of the post-war agreement on the Western powers' access rights to Berlin, meant that until the end of the Cold War air transport in West Berlin continued to be confined to the carriers of the remaining Allied Control Commission powers, with aircraft required to fly across hostile East German territory through three 20&#;mi (32&#;km) wide air corridors at a maximum altitude of 10,&#;ft (3,&#;m).[nb 2][69][90] The airline's West Berlin operation consistently accounted for more than half of the city's entire commercial air traffic during that period.[91][92][93]

For years, more passengers boarded Pan Am flights at Berlin Tempelhof than at any other airport.[94] Pan Am operated a Berlin crew base of mainly German flight attendants and American pilots to staff its IGS flights. The German National flight attendants were later taken over by Lufthansa when it acquired Pan Am's Berlin route authorities. Over the years other local flight attendant bases outside the US included London for intra-Europe and transatlantic flying, Warsaw, Istanbul and Belgrade for intra-Europe flights, a Tel Aviv base solely staffing the daily Tel Aviv-Paris-Tel Aviv service, a Nairobi base solely staffing the Nairobi-Frankfurt-Nairobi service as well as Delhi and Bombay bases for India-Frankfurt flights.

Pan Am also operated Rest and Recreation (R&R) flights during the Vietnam War. These flights carried American service personnel for R&R leaves in Hong Kong, Tokyo, and other Asian cities.[95]

Passenger traffic (–)[edit]

Year Pan American National Airlines (NA)
1,
2,
4, 1,
8, 2,
16, 2,
14, 3,
22, 8,
28, (merged )
27,
29,

In August PAA scheduled passenger flights to airports; in May to airports; in November to 65 airports (plus a few freight-only airports); in November to 98 airports; in November to 46 airports (plus 14 more with only "Pan Am Express" prop flights).

Downturn[edit]

Fallout from oil crisis[edit]

Pan Am had invested in a large fleet of Boeing s expecting that air travel would continue to increase. It did not, as the introduction of many wide-bodies by Pan Am and its competitors coincided with an economic slowdown. Reduced air travel after the oil crisis made the overcapacity problem worse. Pan Am was vulnerable, with its high overheads as a result of a large decentralized infrastructure. High fuel prices and its many older, less fuel-efficient narrow-bodied airplanes increased the airline's operating costs. Federal route awards to other airlines, such as the Transpacific Route Case, further reduced the number of passengers Pan Am carried and its profit margins.[22][71]

A Pan Am flight attendant in s uniform

On September 23,a group of Pan Am employees published an advertisement in The New York Times to register their disagreement over federal policies which they felt were harming the financial viability of their employer. The ad cited discrepancies in airport landing fees, such as Pan Am paying $4, to land a plane in Sydney, while the United airlines honolulu airport phone number carrier, Qantas, paid only $ to land a jet in Los Angeles. The ad also contended that the United States Postal Service was paying foreign airlines five times as much to carry US mail in comparison to Pan Am. Finally, the ad questioned why the Export-Import Bank of the United States loaned money to Japan, France, and Saudi Arabia at 6% interest while Pan Am paid 12%.[98]

By the mids Pan Am had racked up $&#;million of accumulated losses over a year period, and its debts approached $1&#;billion. This threatened the airline with bankruptcy. Former American Airlines vice president of operations, William T. Seawell, who had replaced Najeeb Halaby as Pan Am president inbegan implementing a turnaround strategy: trimming the network by 25%, slashing the 40,strong workforce by 30% and cutting wages, introducing stringent economies and rescheduling debt, and reducing the size of the fleet. These measures aided by the use of tax-loss credits enabled Pan Am to avert financial collapse and return to profitability in [71]

Attempts to build a US domestic network[edit]

Since the s Juan Trippe had coveted domestic routes for Pan Am. Through the late s and early s, and in the mids, there were talks of merging the airline with a domestic operator such as American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines, Trans World Airlines or United Airlines.[55] As rival airlines convinced Congress that Pan Am would use its political clout to monopolize US air routes, the CAB repeatedly denied the airline permission to operate in united airlines honolulu airport phone number US, by growth or by a merger with another airline. Pan Am remained an American carrier operating international routes only (aside from Hawaii and Alaska). The last time Pan Am was permitted to merge with another airline prior to the deregulation of the US airline industry was inwhen it took over American Overseas Airlines from American Airlines.[55] After deregulation inmore US domestic airlines began competing with Pan Am internationally.

National Airlines takeover[edit]

To acquire domestic routes, Pan Am, under president Seawell, set its eyes on National Airlines. Pan Am wound up in a bidding war with Frank Lorenzo's Texas International that boosted National's stock price, but Pan Am was granted permission to buy National in in what was described as the "Coup of the Decade." The acquisition of National Airlines for $&#;million further burdened Pan Am's balance sheet, already under strain after financing the Boeing s ordered in the mids. This acquisition did little to improve Pan Am's competitive position in relation to nimbler, lower-cost competitors in a deregulated industry, as National's north–south route structure provided insufficient feed at Pan Am's transatlantic and transpacific gateways start a google business account New York and Los Angeles. The airlines had incompatible fleets (apart from the Boeing ) and corporate cultures (partly as a result of National being perceived by some Pan Am employees as mainly a regional "backwoods" carrier with few trunk routes), and the integration was poorly handled by Pan Am management who presided over an increase in labor costs as a result of harmonizing National's pay scales with Pan Am's.[] Although revenues increased by 62% from tofuel costs from the merger increased by % during a weak economic climate. Further "miscellaneous expenses" increased by 74%.[]

Disposal of non-core assets and operational cutbacks[edit]

As progressed and the airline's financial situation worsened, Seawell began selling Pan Am's non-core assets. The first asset to be sold off was the airline's 50% interest in Falcon Jet Corporation in August. Later in November, Pan Am sold the Pan Am Building to the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company for $&#;million. In September Pan Am sold off its InterContinental hotels chain. Before this transaction closed, Seawell was replaced by C. Edward Acker, Air Florida's founder and ex-president as well as a former Braniff Internationalexecutive. The combined sale value of the InterContinental chain and the Falcon Jet Corp stake was $&#;million.[][]

Acker followed up the asset disposal program he had inherited from his predecessor with operational cutbacks. Most prominent among these was the discontinuation of the round-the world service from October 31,when Pan Am ceased flying between Delhi, Bangkok and Hong Kong due to the sector's unprofitability.[] To provide additional seating capacity for its spring/summer season, the airline also acquired three passenger Boeing Bs from Flying Tigers, who took four Pan Am's freighters in return.[]

Fleet restructuring[edit]

Despite Pan Am's precarious financial situation, in summer Acker went ahead with an order for new Airbus models in wide body and narrow-bodied aircraft, becoming the second American company to order Airbus aircraft, after Eastern Air Lines.[] These advanced aircraft, economically and operationally superior to the s and s Pan Am operated at the time, were intended to make the airline more competitive. In new As began replacing s on the Internal German Services (IGS) and As flew in the Caribbean networks later the same year while from early additional new longer range As replaced some of the s on the slimmed-down transatlantic network following ETOPS certification (approval by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of transoceanic flying with twin-engined aircraft). The first A ETOPS transatlantic route was New York to Hamburg, Detroit to London followed shortly after that. Pan Am's decision not to take delivery of the As and to sell its delivery positions to Braniff meant that the majority of its short-haul US domestic and European feeder routes, and most of its IGS services, continued to be flown with obsolete s until the airline's demise. This put it at a disadvantage against rivals operating state-of-the-art aircraft with greater passenger appeal.[] In September Pan American World Airways created a holding company called Pan Am Corporation to assume ownership and control of the airline and the services division.

The Boeing SP "Clipper Constitution" on July 1, at Los Angeles International Airport.

A Boeing SP Landing at Los Angeles International Airport in

The L "Clipper Golden Eagle" in

A Lockheed L of United Airlines after the sale of the Pan Am Pacific Division in

Sale of Pacific division[edit]

Given the airline's dire state, in AprilAcker sold Pan Am's entire Pacific Division, which consisted of 25% of its entire route system and their major hub at Tokyo Narita International Airport to United Airlines for $&#;million. This sale also enabled Pan Am to address fleet incompatibility issues related to the earlier acquisition of National Airlines as it included Pan Am's Pratt & Whitney JT9D-powered SPs, its Rolls-Royce RBpowered Ls and the General Electric CF6-powered DCs inherited from National, which were transferred to United along with the Pacific routes.[71][] The sale came the same year as a month-long strike held by the Transport Workers Union of America.

Establishment of local feeder networks[edit]

In the early s, Pan Am contracted several regional airlines (Air Atlanta, Emerald Air, Empire Airlines, Presidential Airways and Republic Airlines) to operate feeder flights under the Pan Am Express branding.[][]

The acquisition of Pennsylvania-based commuter airline Ransome Airlines for $65&#;million (which was finalized in ) was meant to address the issue of providing additional feed for Pan Am's mainline services at its hubs in New York, Los Angeles and Miami in the United States, and Berlin in Germany.[][][][] The renamed Pan Am Express operated routes mostly from New York, as well as Berlin, Germany. Miami services were added in [] However, the regional Pan Am Express operation provided only an incremental feed to Pan Am's international route system, which was now focused on the Atlantic Division.

US East coast shuttle[edit]

In an attempt to gain a presence on the busy Washington–New York–Boston commuter air corridor, the Ransome acquisition was accompanied by the $&#;million purchase of New York Air's shuttle service between Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. This parallel move was intended to enable Pan Am to provide a high-frequency service for high-yield business travelers in direct competition with the long-established, successful Eastern Air Lines Shuttle operation. The renamed Pan Am Shuttle began operating out of LaGuardia Airport's refurbished historic Marine Air Terminal in October However, it did not address the pressing issue of Pan Am's continuing lack of a strong domestic feeder network.[]

Financial, operational and reputational setbacks[edit]

InTowers Financial Corporation, led by its CEO Steven Hoffenberg and his consultant Jeffrey Epstein, unsuccessfully tried to united airlines honolulu airport phone number over Pan Am in a corporate raid with Towers Financial as their raiding vessel. Their bid failed.[]

Thomas G. Plaskett, a former American Airlines and Continental executive, replaced Acker as president in January (joining Pan Am from the latter).[] While a program to refurbish Pan Am aircraft and improve the company's on-time performance began showing positive results (in fact, Pan Am's most profitable quarter ever was the third quarter of ), on December 21,the bombing of Pan Am flight above Lockerbie, Scotland, resulted in fatalities.[] Faced with a $&#;million lawsuit filed by more than families of the victims, the airline subpoenaed records of six US government agencies, including the CIA, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the State Department. Though the records suggested that the US government was aware of warnings of a bombing and failed to pass the information to the airline, the families claimed Pan Am was attempting to shift the blame.[]

Also, in December the FAA fined Pan Am for 19 security failures, out of the that were detected amongst 29 airlines.

Failed bid for Northwest Airlines[edit]

In June Plaskett presented Northwest Airlines with a $&#;billion takeover bid that was backed by Bankers Trust, Morgan Guaranty Trust, Citicorp and Prudential-Bache. The proposed merger was Pan Am's final attempt to create a strong domestic network to provide sufficient feed for the two remaining mainline hubs at New York JFK and Miami. It was also intended to help the airline regain its status as a global airline by re-establishing a sizable transpacific presence. The merger was expected to result in annual savings of $&#;million.[][] However, billionaire financier Al Checchi outbid Pan Am by presenting Northwest's directors with a superior proposal.

Fallout from –91 Persian Gulf War[edit]

The first Gulf War triggered by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2,caused fuel prices to rise, which severely depressed global economic activity. This in turn caused a sharp contraction of worldwide air travel demand, plunging once profitable operations, including Pan Am's prime transatlantic routes, into steep losses. These unforeseen events constituted a further major blow to Pan Am, which was still reeling from the Lockerbie disaster. To shore up its finances, Pan Am sold most of its routes serving London Heathrow – arguably Pan Am's most important international destination – to United Airlines. This left Pan Am with only two daily London flights, serving Detroit and Miami, which used Gatwick as their London terminal from the start of the /91 winter timetable. Further asset disposals included Pan Am's sale of its IGS routes to Berlin to Lufthansa for $&#;million, which became effective at the same time and brought the total value of asset disposals to $&#;billion.[][] These measures were accompanied by the elimination of 2, jobs (% of its work force). These cutbacks were announced by the airline in September []

Bankruptcy[edit]

Clipper Miles Standish(NPA), an Airbus A

Pan Am was forced to file for bankruptcy protection on January&#;8,&#;[]Delta Air Lines purchased the remaining profitable assets of Pan Am, including its remaining European routes (except one from Miami to Paris), and Frankfurt mini hub, the Shuttle operation, 45 jets, and the Pan Am Worldport at John F. Kennedy Airport, for $&#;million. Delta also injected $&#;million becoming a 45 percent owner of a reorganized but smaller Pan Am serving the Caribbean, Central and South America from a main hub in Miami. The airline's creditors would hold the other 55 percent.[][][][]

The Boston–New York LaGuardia–Washington NationalPan Am Shuttle service was taken over by Delta in September [] Two months later Delta assumed all of Pan Am's remaining transatlantic traffic rights, except Miami to Paris and London.[]

In Octoberformer Douglas Aircraft executive Russell Ray, Jr. was hired as Pan Am's new president and CEO.[] As part of this restructuring, Pan Am relocated its headquarters from the Pan Am Building in New York City to new offices in the Miami area in preparation for the airline's relaunch from both Miami and New York on November&#;1.[] The new airline would have operated approximately 60 aircraft and generated about $&#;billion in annual revenues with 7, employees. Following the relaunch, Pan Am continued to sustain heavy losses. Revenue throughout October and November fell short of what had been anticipated in the reorganization plan, with Delta claiming that Pan Am was losing $3&#;million a day. This undermined Delta's, Wall Street's and the traveling public's confidence in the viability of the reorganized Pan Am.[][]

Clipper Sparking Wave(NPA), a Boeing on short final into Berlin Tempelhof Airport, wearing Pan Am's final "billboard" style livery

Pan Am's senior executives outlined a projected shortfall of between $ million and possibly $&#;million, with the airline requiring a $25&#;million installment just to fly through the following week. On the evening of December 3, Pan Am's Creditors Committee advised US Bankruptcy Judge Cornelius Blackshear that it was close to convincing an airline (TWA) to invest $15&#;million to keep Pan Am operating. A deal with TWA owner Carl Icahn could not be struck. Pan Am opened for business at &#;am and within the hour, Ray was forced to withdraw Pan Am's plan of reorganization and execute an immediate shutdown plan for Pan Am.

Pan Am ceased operations on December&#;4,&#;,[][] following a decision by Delta CEO Ron Allen and other senior executives not to go ahead with the final $25&#;million payment Pan Am was scheduled to receive the weekend after Thanksgiving.[][] As a result, some 7, Pan Am employees lost their jobs, thousands of whom had worked in the New York City area and were preparing to move to the Miami area to work at Pan Am's new headquarters near Miami International Airport. Economists predicted that 9, jobs in the Miami area, including jobs at companies not connected to Pan Am that were dependent on the airline's presence, would be lost after it folded.[] The carrier's last flown scheduled operation was Pan Am flight which departed that day from Bridgetown, Barbados at 2&#;pm (EST) for Miami under the command of Captain Mark Pyle flying Clipper Goodwill, a Boeing (NPA).[][][]

Delta was sued for more than $&#;billion on December 9,by the Pan Am Creditors Committee.[] Shortly thereafter, a large group of former Pan Am employees sued Delta.[] In Decembera federal judge ruled in favor of Delta, concluding that it was not liable for Pan Am's demise.[]

Pan Am was the third American major airline to shut down inafter Eastern Air Lines and Midway Airlines.[]

After serving only two months as Pan Am's CEO, Ray was replaced by Peter McHugh to supervise the sale of Pan Am's remaining assets by Pan Am's Creditor's Committee.[] Pan Am's last remaining hub (at Miami International Airport) was split during the following years between United Airlines and American Airlines. TWA's Carl Icahn purchased Pan Am Express at a court ordered bankruptcy auction for $13&#;million, renaming it Trans World Express.[] The Pan Am brand was sold to Charles Cobb, CEO of Cobb Partners and former United States Ambassador to the Republic of Iceland under President George H.W. Bush and Under Secretary of the US Department of Commerce under President Reagan. Cobb, along with Hanna-Frost partners invested in a new Pan American World Airways headed by veteran airline executive Martin R. Shugrue, Jr, a former Pan Am executive with 20 years of experience at the original carrier.[]

In his book, Pan Am: An Aviation Legend, Barnaby Conrad III contends that the collapse of the original Pan Am was a combination of corporate mismanagement, government indifference to protecting its prime international carrier, and flawed regulatory policy. He cites an observation made by former Pan Am Vice President for External Affairs, Stanley Gewirtz:

What could go wrong did. No one who followed Juan Trippe had the foresight to do something strongly positive … it was the most astonishing example of Murphy's law in extremis. The sale of Pan Am's profitable parts was inevitable to the company's destruction. There were not enough pieces to build on.

—&#;Stanley Gewirtz

Under the terms of bankruptcy, the airline's International Flight Academy in Miami was permitted to remain open. It was established as an independent training organization beginning in under its current name, Pan Am International Flight Academy. The company began operating by using the flight simulation and type rating training center of the defunct Pan Am. InAmerican Capital Strategies invested $58 united airlines honolulu airport phone number into the academy.[] Owned by the parent of Japanese airline All Nippon Airways as of OctoberPan Am International Flight Academy is the only surviving division of Pan American World Airways.

Reuse of name[edit]

Aside from the aforementioned flight academy, the Pan Am brand has been resurrected six times sincebut the reincarnations were related to the original Pan Am in name only.

Airlines[edit]

Pan American World Airways trademarks and some assets were purchased by Eclipse Holdings, Inc. at an auction by the US Bankruptcy Court on December 2–3, The scheduled airline rights were sold to Pan American Airways on December 20–29, by Eclipse Holdings, which was to retain the Pan Am charter rights and operate through its subsidiary, Pan Am Charters, Inc., now Airways Corporation.[]

The first reincarnation of the original Pan Am operated from towith a focus on low-cost, long-distance flights between the United States and the Caribbean with the IATA airline designatorPN.[] Eclipse Holdings (Pan Am II) later rescinded the Asset Purchase Agreement for cause and issued a cease and desist in Januaryaffecting all downstream transactions thereafter (as noted in US DOT proceeding OST, and SEC Q dated August 24,Plan of Reorganization (S.D. FL), and others).[]

The second was unrelated to the first and was a small regional carrier based in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, that operated between and It found its niche in operating usually at smaller airports near major ones, such as Pease International (Portsmouth), and Gary Municipal Airport in Indiana. It used the IATA code PA, and the ICAO code PAA.[]

Boston-Maine Airways, a sister company of the second reincarnation, operated the "Pan Am Clipper Connection" brand from to February A domestic airline in the Dominican Republic, descended from the company's first reincarnation, traded until March 23,as Pan Am Dominicana.[]

In November Pan American Airways, Incorporated, was resurrected for the fifth time by World-Wide Consolidated Logistics, Inc. The reincarnated operator is based at Brownsville/South Padre Island International Airport in Brownsville, Texas. The airline's inaugural flight was to Monterrey, Mexico, on November 12, [] The airline had said it would carry cargo only at first but intended to announce passenger service by [] Due to serious legal charges that were laid against the company's CEO Robert L. Hedrick inincluding child pornography charges for which he was eventually convicted, the company lost its bid with the FAA to pursue passenger or cargo flights of any kind.[]

Railways[edit]

In Guilford Transportation Industries purchased Pan American World Airways and all related naming rights and intellectual properties.[][] The railway is now operated as Pan Am Railways.[]

Record-setting flights[edit]

At the outbreak of the war in the Pacific in Decemberthe Pacific Clipper was en route to New Zealand from San Francisco. Rather than risk flying back to Honolulu and being shot down by Japanese fighters, it was directed to fly west to New York. Starting on December 8,at Auckland, New Zealand, the Pacific Clipper covered over 31, miles (50,&#;km) via such exotic locales as Surabaya, Karachi, Bahrain, Khartoum and Leopoldville. The Pacific Clipper landed at Pan American's LaGuardia Field seaplane base at on the morning of January 6,completing the first commercial plane flight to circumnavigate the world.[]

During the mids, Pan Am set two round-the-world records. Liberty Bell Express, a Boeing SP named Clipper Liberty Bell, broke the commercial round-the-world record set by a Flying Tiger Line Boeing with a new record of 46 hours, 50 seconds. The flight left New York-JFK on May 1,and returned on May 3. The flight stopped only in New Delhi and Tokyo, where a strike among the airport workers delayed it two hours. The flight beat the Flying Tiger Line's record by 16 hours 24 minutes.

Into commemorate its 50th birthday, Pan Am organized Flight 50, a round-the-world flight from San Francisco to San Francisco, this time over the North Pole and the South Pole with stops in London Heathrow, Cape Town Airport and Auckland Airport. SP Clipper New Near me citizens bank was the former Liberty Bell, making the plane the only one to go around the globe over the Equator and the poles. The flight made it in 54 hours, 7 minutes, and 12 seconds, creating seven new world records certified by the FAI. Captain Walter H. Mullikin, who commanded this flight, also commanded the Liberty Bell Express flight.

Corporate affairs[edit]

For much of its history the corporate headquarters were the Pan Am Building in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

When Juan Trippe had the company offices relocated to New York City, he rented space in a building on 42nd Street. This facility was across from the Grand Central Terminal. From a period in the s untilthe airline headquarters were in the Chrysler Building,[] on East 42nd Street, also in Midtown Manhattan.[]

In September Trippe and developer Erwin Wolfson signed a $, lease agreement for the airline to occupy ,square-foot (56,&#;m2) worth of space for the headquarters, totaling about 15 floors, and a new main ticket office at the intersection of 45th Street and Vanderbilt Avenue. At the time, the year lease in the Chrysler Building was nearing the end of its life. The new lease was scheduled for 25 years.[]

In popular culture[edit]

Pan Am held a lofty position in the popular culture of the Cold War era. One of the most famous images in which a Pan Am plane formed a backdrop was the Beatles' February 7, arrival at John F. Kennedy Airport aboard a Pan Am BoeingClipper Defiance.[]

From to con artistFrank Abagnale, Jr., claims to have masqueraded as a Pan Am pilot while still a minor, dead-heading to many destinations in the cockpit jump seat. He also claims to have used Pan Am's preferred hotels, paid the bills with bogus checks, and later cashed fake payroll checks in Pan Am's name. Abagnale and his co-author Stan Redding documented this era in the memoir Catch Me if You Can, which became a film in Abagnale called Pan Am the "Ritz-Carlton of airlines," and noted that the days of luxury in airline travel were over.[] In however, research by journalist Alan C. Logan proved that Frank Abagnale's claims were for the most part fabrications. He had in reality spent most of his late teenage years in prison, and had only written a handful of false Pan Am checks that were rapidly detected as false, and landed him back in prison.[][]

In August Pan Am accepted the reservation of Gerhard Pistor, a journalist from Vienna, Austria, as the first passenger for future flights to the Moon. He paid a deposit of Austrian Schillings (roughly US$20 at the time).[] About 93, people followed on the Pan Am waiting list, called "First Moon Flights Club". Pan Am expected the flight to depart about []

A fictional Pan Am "Space Clipper,"[] a commercial spaceplane called the Orion III, had a prominent role in Stanley Kubrick's film A Space Odyssey and was featured prominently in one of the movie's posters. Plastic models of the Pan Am Space Clipper were sold by both the Aurora Company and Airfix at the time of the film's release in A satire of the movie by Mad magazine in showed Pan Am female flight attendants in "Actionwear by Monsanto" outfits as they joked about the problems their passengers faced while vomiting in zero gravity. The film's sequel, , also featured Pan Am in a background television commercial in the home of David Bowman's widow with the slogan, "At Pan Am, the sky is no longer the limit."[]

The airline appeared in other movies, notably in several James Bond films. The company's Boeing s were featured in Dr. No () and From Russia with Love (), while a Pan Am and the Worldport appeared in the film Live and Let Die.[]

A term used in popular psychology is "Pan American (or Pan Am) Smile." Named after the smilestewardesses gave to passengers in the airline's television commercials. It consists of a perfunctory mouth movement without the activity of facial muscles around the eyes that characterizes a genuine smile.[]

The film Blade Runner contains several prominent shots of advertisements for Pan Am. The sequel, Blade Runner also shows a Pan Am sign in an establishing shot.[]

Cap

InABC announced a new television series based on the lives of a s Pan Am flight crew. The series, titled Pan Am, began airing in September [] It was canceled in May

InFunko Games released a Pan Am board game, in which players play as airlines in competition with Pan Am.[]

Flight crews[edit]

Critical to Pan Am's success as an airline was the proficiency of its flight crews, who were rigorously trained in long-distance flight, seaplane anchorage and berthing operations, over-water navigation, radio procedure, aircraft repair, and marine tides.[] During the day, use of the compass while judging drift from sea currents was normal procedure; at night, all flight crews were trained to use celestial navigation. In bad weather, pilots used dead reckoning and timed turns, making successful landings at fogged-in harbors by landing out to sea, then taxiing the plane into port. Many pilots had merchant marine certifications and radio licenses as well as pilot certificates.[][]

A Pan Am flight captain would normally begin his career years earlier as a radio operator or even mechanic, steadily gaining his licenses and working his way up the flight crew roster to navigator, second officer, and first officer. Before World War II it was not unusual for a captain to make engine repairs at remote locations.[]

Pan Am's mechanics and support staff were similarly trained. Newly hired applicants were frequently paired with experienced flight mechanics in several areas of the company until they had achieved proficiency in all aircraft types.[] Emphasis was placed on learning to maintain and overhaul aircraft in harsh seaborne environments when faced with logistical difficulties, as might be expected in a small foreign port without an aviation infrastructure or even an adequate road network. Many crews supported repair operations by flying in spare parts to planes stranded overseas, in some cases performing repairs themselves.[]

Acquisitions and divestments[edit]

  • Pan American Airways, Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean Airways, and Aviation Corporation of the Americas founded.
  • All three precursor firms merge into Aviation Corporation of the Americas, with Pan American Airways as its brand.
  • 50% interest of Peruvian Airways acquired by Pan American.
  • Mexicana of Mexico acquired by Pan Am.
  • Pan American-Grace Airways (PANAGRA), operating on the west coast of South America, formed as a 50–50 joint venture with W. R. Grace and Company.
  • New York, Rio, and Buenos Aires Line (NYRBA) acquired, allowing Pan Am to operate along the east coast of South America. NYRBA's Brazilian subsidiary is renamed Panair do Brasil.
  • Majority control of SCADTA of Colombia acquired in secret.
  • Pacific Alaska Airways formed.
  • Boston-Maine Airways begins contract operations.
  • Aerovias Centrales, S.A. formed.
  • Cubana of Cuba acquired.
  • Uraba, Medellin and Central Airways acquired.
  • China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC) acquired.
  • Servicios Aviacion de Guatemala acquired.
  • Panama Airways acquired.
  • CNAC merged with China Airways.
  • Minority holders of SCADTA bought-out.
  • Aerovías de Guatemala formed.
  • 40% of Aeronaves de Mexico acquired.
  • SCADTA merged into SACO to form Avianca, owned by the Colombian government.
  • Aerovías Venezolanas, S.A. (AVENSA) of Venezuela founded as a joint venture.
  • 45% interest of Bahamas Airways acquired.
  • Cuban investors acquire 56% of Cubana through a stock float.
  • SAHSA was founded, being owned 40% of Pan Am, 40% of the Honduran Government, and 20% from private carriers.
  • InterContinental, a chain of hotels, founded.
  • Brazilian investors bought 4% of Panair do Brasil, with Pan Am's share decreased to 48%.
  • Pan Am acquires a stake in Middle East Airlines (MEA), as well as a management contract.
  • Pan Am's 20% stake in CNAC acquired by Chinese Nationalists, with assets split variously between the Nationalists and the People's Republic of China.
  • American Overseas Auto crb (AOA) acquired from American Airlines.
  • Pan Am receives a contract to operate Patrick Air Force Base.
  • Cuban government acquires Pan Am's remaining stake in Cubana.
  • Pan Am's 49% stake in MEA is sold to British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC).
  • Mexican government acquires Pan Am's stake in Mexicana and Aeronaves de México (later renamed Aeroméxico).
  • Brazilian investors acquires all the Pan Am's share in Panair do Brasil.
  • PANAGRA sold to Braniff International Airways.
  • Pan Am's 40% stake in SAHSA acquired by Transportes Aéreos Nacionales (TAN).
  • AVENSA stake divested to Venezuelan government.
  • National Airlines acquired.
  • Pan Am Building sold to MetLife.[]
  • InterContinental sold to Grand Metropolitan.[]
  • Pacific Division sold to United Airlines.[]
  • Pan Am's queue for 50 A sold to Braniff Inc.[]
  • Pan Am World Services (PAWS) sold to Johnson Controls.[]
  • London–Heathrow-based routes sold to United Airlines.[]
  • Internal German Services Division sold to Lufthansa.[]
  • Atlantic Division, Pan Am Shuttle, and New York City Worldport sold to Delta Air Lines.[]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Main article: List of Pan American World Airways accidents and incidents

Fleet[edit]

Fleet in [edit]

The following were aircraft operated Pan Am and Pan Am Express in Marcha year and a half before the airline's collapse:

Fleet history[edit]

All the aircraft ever operated by Pan Am:

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

The airlines are no longer desperate. Gone are the pandemic-era flight deals, flexible booking policies, and open middle seats. Millions of Americans are traveling again, as the weather warms (in some parts of the US) and vaccination rates rise. This is cause for optimism. The joys of normal life — summer vacations and guilt-free social gatherings — are on the horizon. But first, the airport.

Travel is back, and so are its all-too-many inconveniences: long security lines, pissed-off passengers, boarding mishaps, and random airline fees. It’s not good news for summer travelers, especially those with trips booked around Independence Day, so plan accordingly for all of the above. And it isn’t just that rowdy travelers might be acting up. From a logistical standpoint, things have actually gotten worse.

The number of flyers daily in the US is nearly back to pre-pandemic levels, even though business and international travel have been slow to resume. Airlines and airports have struggled to accommodate this influx, which has resulted in longer customer service wait times, significant flight delays, and sudden cancellations. In some cities, airport concession stands and restaurants aren’t fully staffed or open, leaving stranded travelers with fewer options for food and beverages.

Industry executives have attributed such inconveniences to bad weather and, perhaps more vaguely, “labor shortages.” A May memo from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to its employees warned that over of America’s largest airports will struggle with staffing shortages and asked office workers to assist with airport security on a volunteer basis. Delta’s CEO was concerned about staffing enough contracted workers for the summer. American Airlines recently announced plans to cancel hundreds of flights in July, citing “unprecedented weather,” a spike in travel demand, and a dearth of workers. Skift, a news site on the travel industry, predicted a summer full of subpar domestic travel experiences — from elbow-to-elbow seating on flights to sold-out destinations — as a result of the labor shortage.

Republican lawmakers and business leaders have used similar language to describe America’s slow job recovery. They’ve blamed the worker shortage on generous unemployment benefits and stimulus checks, claiming that people would rather stay at home and receive government aid than apply for jobs, a theory rejected by economists. According to the Washington Post’s Heather Long, America is undergoing a “great reassessment of work,” as people consider changing their industry or seek out higher-paying, stable jobs that are less public-facing. Regardless of the reason, America’s labor market is still far from normal, and certain sectors are recovering at different rates.

After a year spent slashing jobs, airlines and aviation subcontractors are now back on the hiring train. It’s not enough to hire back workers; those workers need to undergo training and security clearances. “For airlines, you just don’t go out and hire somebody,” Mike Boyd, an aviation consultant, told Yahoo Finance. “If you’re going to have them work at a ticket counter, they have to have training in hazardous materials and security. You just don’t bring people on real quick. The real issue is [the airlines] had to let somebody go.”

United’s CEO recently warned of a pending pilot shortage as older crew members retire, but it’s not just pilots that are in demand. Airlines and airports are looking to staff a variety of positions, from flight crew and food service workers to customer call staff and gate agents.

The airlines’ response has been akin to a corporate shoulder shrug that sidesteps the industry’s role in fragmenting its workforce, argued Laura Moran, a spokesperson for the Service Employees International Union. “There was a time when most folks — the customer service and wheelchair agents, security officers, cabin cleaners, and baggage handlers — were directly employed by the airlines,” Moran said. “Now, we have a real patchwork of subcontracted workers who perform crucial labor for the airlines.”

Some of these positions were first on the chopping block when travel halted. Thousands of jobs were nixed to stem immediate revenue loss — by airlines, airports, or the vendors they contracted out work. The travel and leisure industry accounted for a staggering 39 percent of all US job losses from Covid Airlines cut about 90, full-time, in-house positions by the end ofincluding the 30, workers they’ve placed on furlough.

Workers employed directly by the airlines were promised some job security; domestic carriers received billions of dollars in federal aid — $25 billion in April and $15 billion in December — predicated on the condition that they would bring back employees or keep them on payroll for a set period of time. But thousands of others in contracted positions, like cabin cleaners and wheelchair attendants, weren’t offered the same protections. A House investigation revealed that aviation contractors axed tens of thousands of jobs — roughly 15 percent of their workforce — even after receiving CARES Act funding for payroll assistance.

Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis via Getty Images

Thus, it’s inaccurate to chalk up a diminished passenger experience to a “labor shortage” without contextualizing the airline industry’s working conditions and standards — and why it’s seemingly unable to summon back tens of thousands of crucial workers. A shortage does little to acknowledge the fluctuations in work consistency and lack of financial security that many have contended with. The industry has long relied on an understaffed and underpaid workforce, with many clocking in on the front lines (which, again, are unusually stressful these days). Yet, airlines have consistently deflected blame toward the vendors and contractors that employ some of these missing workers. It’s a tactic used by major corporations (and the airlines themselves) to shirk responsibility for low wages and the lack of worker benefits and protections.

Airlines work with different vendors to outsource different types of labor, from cleaning to food services to baggage handling. These vendors independently negotiate subcontracting agreements with the airline, Moran explained, which determines workers’ wages and benefits: “The result is a disconnected system of work with no standard wages, and it’s a situation the airlines have created to keep costs down and profits up. It’s unreasonable that low-wage Black and brown workers on the front lines are expected to bear the brunt of these problems when airlines are trying to reach profitability.”

Now, across the country, it seems there are fewer workers willing to return to an underpaid, unstable job, whether in retail, food service, or travel. The work of airport unions and organized labor in recent years have helped secure better wages for subcontracted employees, but inequities still persist in many cities.

“There isn’t a shortage of workers. There is a shortage of workers wanting to come back to work for poverty wages,” said Elsa Caballero, president of SEIU Texas, whose union represents janitorial, security, and building staff in airports. “Airlines, which are a major employer in Houston, are still paying way below $12 an hour.”

United, for example, has previously downplayed its relationship to subcontracted airport workers, dismissing its influence over vendors’ pay. In response to a “Fight for $15” protest ina spokesperson emphasized how United does “not have a direct employer-employee relationship with [its] vendors’ employees,” as if that alone absolves the airline of any responsibility.

However, airlines do have leverage to raise wages, if they choose to intervene and place pressure on contractors. Workers at Philadelphia International Airport, for example, qualified for a $12 minimum wage after the city passed a “living wage” ordinance inbut subcontracting companies refused to increase their pay rate until American Airlines upped its contract to pay for the discrepancy. American interjected again inthe Philadelphia Inquirer reported, when contractors refused to bargain with the workers’ union.

“In Houston, we’ve had to work with the mayor and city officials to create an executive order to ensure that an airline like United will pay workers a living wage,” Caballero said. “We know airlines can pay more, but they are lowballing the contracts they offer vendors.”

Substantial federal aid has done little to assuage workers’ and union leaders’ fears of further layoffs. Airlines are still searching for ways to keep costs low. United Airlines, for example, told its in-house catering workers earlier this year that it was “exploring the option” of working with a third-party contractor for its kitchen services, igniting a series of worker protests in April.

Running an airline is a high-cost operation. Slate’s Henry Grabar previously described the industry as “low-margin, capital-intensive businesses,” which means a company’s cash savings won’t be very helpful during an extensive crisis. ”Capital-intensive means it’s hard to tighten your belt,” Grabar wrote. “You can save some money on fuel and food, but not on labor or rent. You still have to pay banks or leasing companies for your planes. You can’t save those seats for later, or fly twice as many flights when business picks up again. There is no factory to shut down. Even if you ground flights, many costs are fixed.” Customers have been expected to pay additional fees on top of ticket costs for additional luggage, seat selection, and priority boarding. (Fees are also another stream of revenue for airlines, one that is exempt from the 7 percent excise tax on domestic airfare.)

Yet the aviation industry has a long history of generously padding the wallets of its executives, investors, and other shareholders through stock buybacks and hefty compensation packages. All this, despite being a fundamentally expensive business. So far, they’ve squared that tricky circle by passing on costs to the consumer and neglecting the needs of workers who are central to airline operations.

While customer service and labor issues can seem at odds with one another, Caballero argues that improved working conditions can directly affect the passenger experience. Travelers and workers could find solidarity in the fact that they both expect more from airlines. If travelers are being nickel-and-dimed for every expense, where does the additional money go? Research shows that higher pay boosts employee performance and retention; in a place like the airport, in which so many workers are public-facing employees united airlines honolulu airport phone number dealing with unruly passengers), fair compensation and benefits should be prerequisites.

“This is a consumer issue,” said Caballero. “It affects passengers when airport workers are paid poorly and don’t want to show up, when there’s no one to push a wheelchair or answer questions at the gate. Their work united airlines honolulu airport phone number undervalued, yet it’s incredibly important to passengers.”

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

A United Boeing commercial jet experienced right engine failure after leaving Denver International Airport on Saturday. The jet turned back and made an emergency landing at DIA, as debris fell over Broomfield neighborhoods.

United Flight was traveling to Honolulu, Hawaii. Nobody was reported injured on the flight or on the ground.

Listen to the mayday call below via LiveATC Audio Archive.

RELATED:Debris from damaged Boeing rains down on Broomfield as plane makes emergency landing at DIA

Read the transcript of the &#;mayday&#; call below:

FLIGHT &#;, uh, heavy. We&#;ve experienced engine failure, need to turn. Mayday, mayday. United, uh, 28, Unitedheavy. Mayday, mayday, aircraft, uh&#;&#;

DENVER TOWER: &#;Yes, heavy, say again, read all that again.&#;

FLIGHT &#;Denver, uh, departure. Unitedheavy. Mayday, aircraft, uh, just experienced engine failure, need a turn immediately.&#;

DENVER TOWNER: &#;, left or right turn?&#;

FLIGHT &#;Left turn.&#;

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

United Airlines flight suffers engine failure, sending debris falling on neighborhoods outside Denver

United Flight returned to the airport around p.m. after suffering an engine issue, an airport spokesperson told CNN. The flight had been bound for Honolulu.
The Federal Aviation Administration confirmed in a statement that the Boeing safely returned to the Denver International Airport after "experiencing a right-engine failure shortly after takeoff."
"The FAA is aware of reports of debris in the vicinity of the airplane's flight path," the statement said.
The flight returned about 20 minutes after the police department in Broomfield, Colorado, said via Twitter that it had received reports that an airplane flying over the Denver suburb had engine trouble and had "dropped debris in several neighborhoods around p.m."
"No injuries reported at this time," according to the tweet.
Debris from the aircraft landed outside a home in Broomfield, Colorado, on Saturday, February
Additional tweets from police said debris landed in Commons Park and the Northmoor and Red Leaf neighborhoods of Broomfield. The city is about 25 miles north of Denver and 30 miles west of Denver International Airport.
Images from the scene showed large pieces of debris lying in the front yards of homes and a soccer field at the local park. CNN affiliate KCNC shared photos showing the smashed cabin of a resident's pickup truck. Another CNN affiliate, KMGH, shared photos of a hole in the roof of a local home.
United Airlines told CNN there were people, including 10 crew members, aboard Flight All passengers have safely deplaned and are at a terminal in Denver, where the airline is working to get them on a new flight.
"United Flight experienced an engine failure and safely returned to Denver. We are in contact with the FAA, NTSB and local law enforcement," United Airlines said in a statement. "The NTSB is investigating and has directed that any persons with debris from this event contact their local law enforcement agency."
The union representing United pilots commended the crew of Flight and said Saturday "there is no substitute for experience."
"We are thankful for the tremendous teamwork shown by the entire flight and cabin crew, and that there were no injuries on the ground or in the air," the United Master Executive Council of the Air Line Pilots Association, International told CNN in a statement.

Pilots report 'engine failure' in mayday call

Pilots are heard issuing a mayday call, telling air traffic controllers "we've experienced engine failure," according to air traffic control communications with Flight obtained by CNN.
Police received calls from residents who said they'd heard a loud explosion, said Rachel Welte of the Broomfield Police Department at a Saturday news conference.
"Then they just started seeing basically what they thought was a plane falling from the sky. What it was was debris," Welte said, describing the debris as "possibly some exterior pieces of the plane."
Welte, speaking at the local park, stressed how much worse things could have been.
"We could have hundreds of people here and the fact that we're not getting reports of any injuries is absolutely shocking at this point," she said. "It's amazing."
Aircraft debris from a United Airlines flight on a soccer field in Broomfield, Colorado, on Saturday, February
Police are working to contain the secure the large debris field for the National Transportation Safety Board, which will be in charge of the investigation, according to the FAA. Broomfield police said the debris field is a mile long.
"NTSB has opened an investigation into the Feb. 20,engine event on a United Denver-based NTSB investigators are responding," NTSB public affairs officerPeter Knudson told CNN.
Some of the jetliner debris is now in the custody of the NTSB, according to local police.
"@NTSB on scene. Starting to remove debris," the Broomfield Police Department tweeted Saturday night. The department says the debris will be taken to a hangar at Denver International Airport.
In the meantime, Broomfield police cautioned residents to not touch or move plane debris if they see it in their yard as the NTSB "wants all debris to remain in place for investigation."
United Airlines says the flight did not dump fuel, such as after engine failures on other commercial airliners. This is often necessary when an emergency landing is needed soon after takeoff because the plane may be too heavy to safely land. It's not clear why the crew elected to not dump fuel. According to radar tracking data, the flight made it to a relatively low 13, feet.
Travis Loock, a passenger on United Flighttold CNN it was about 20 minutes into the flight to Honolulu when he heard a boom.
"There was a big boom and the kind of sound you don't want to hear when you're on the airplane," Loock, who was flying with his wife, said via phone. "And I instantly put my shade up, and I was pretty frightened to see that the, the engine on my side was missing."
"We were just glad we weren't over the ocean, because that's where we were heading," he said.
A photo of the damaged engine of United Flight taken by passenger Travis Loock.
The plane had just reached 10, feet when it happened, Loock said, adding that he could sense the fear on the plane, but everyone was "very calm."
"A lot of people couldn't see the engine on that side, right, so I was a little more freaked out because I could see it, and I knew that was not right," he said.
When the plane landed safely, people cheered before exiting.
"We're having a cocktail," Loock said. "And, yeah, we're going to try it again. We're going to try it again. The odds are with us this time."
United said in a statement a majority of the passengers have taken another United flight to Honolulu while "those who did not wish to travel with us this evening were provided hotel accommodations."

NTSB will 'figure out what happened'

CNN aviation and transportation analysts described the incident as an uncontained engine failure.
"Literally the engine exploding," said CNN transportation analyst Mary Schiavo, a former inspector general at the federal Department of Transportation.
Such an engine failure is more likely to occur at takeoff, she said, because "you have to request so much power from your engines to get them up there."
CNN aviation analyst Miles O'Brien echoed that statement, saying, "Generally speaking, you're stressing the system on departure. That's when the system is doing the most work."
"If there's a flaw hidden inside -- between all those fans and turbines that are spinning around with such tremendous force and under such tremendous pressure and heat differentials -- if there's a flaw inside there, that's when you're going to find out about it."
Boeing said in a statement to CNN Saturday night that company technical advisers are supporting the NTSB with its investigation.
Peter Goelz, a former managing director of the NTSB, told CNN the agency will "absolutely" be able to discover what happened. But he, like police, stressed that bystanders shouldn't touch the debris in their yards.
"There's an old saying that the first piece off the aircraft indicates where the accident occurred," Goelz said. "So they're going to be looking at the beginning of the debris field to see what pieces came off this engine first and what they look like."
"The NTSB will find the wreckage, they will analyze it, and this one, they'll figure out what happened."
Kieran Cain told CNN he was playing with his children at a local elementary school when a plane flew over and they heard a loud boom.
"We saw it go over, we heard the big explosion, we looked up, there was black smoke in the sky," Cain told CNN.
"Debris started raining down, which you know, sort of looked like it was floating down and not very heavy, but actually now looking at it, it's giant metal pieces all over the place," he said.
"I was surprised that the plane sort of continued on uninterrupted, without really altering its trajectory or doing anything," he said. "It just kind of kept going the way it was going as if nothing happened."
Cain said he and his children took shelter under an overhang as the debris came down.
Correction: An earlier version of this story incorrectly described Broomfield's location. The city is about 30 miles west of Denver International Airport.

CNN's Pete Muntean, Aaron Pellish, Andy Rose and Greg Wallace contributed to this report.

Источник: mynewextsetup.us

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