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How did robert f kennedy die

how did robert f kennedy die

A Palestinian from Jordan, Sirhan was initially sentenced to death, but it was later commuted to life in prison after the state Supreme Court. Edgar Hoover coldly told him that his brother, President John F. Kennedy, had been shot and killed in Dallas. Furthermore, it shook Kennedy's. Sirhan is serving a life sentence for gunning down Kennedy, 42, at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on June 5, The shooting occurred.

: How did robert f kennedy die

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How did robert f kennedy die
How did robert f kennedy die

Robert Kennedy was attorney general during his brother John F. Kennedy's administration. He later served as a U.S. Senator and was assassinated during his run for the presidency.

Who Was Robert Kennedy?

After managing his brother John's presidential campaign, Robert Kennedy was appointed attorney general of the United States in As attorney general, he fought organized crime and was a key supporter of the Civil Rights Movement. After JFK's assassination, Robert was elected to the U.S. Senate representing the state of New York. RFK was assassinated on June 5,during the California Democratic presidential primary. He died the next day.

Early Life & Siblings

Robert Francis Kennedy, nicknamed Bobby, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on November 20, His parents were Joseph, a rich businessman, and Rose, daughter of the mayor of Boston. Raised as devout Roman Catholics, Robert and his seven siblings enjoyed a life of wealth and privilege. Among Kennedy&#x;s older brothers was future U.S. President John F. Kennedy.

When Robert&#x;s father, Joseph Sr., became a U.S. ambassador to Britain, the family moved to England. As they had been in America, the Kennedy family members were regarded as handsome, charismatic and powerful, making them darlings of the press. The family returned to the States in as the threat of World War II was rapidly approaching.

Back in Massachusetts, Robert graduated from Milton Academy prep school and then enrolled in Harvard. After his older brother Joseph was killed during World War II, Robert left Harvard to join the Navy. Inhe went back to Harvard and graduated with a degree in government two years later. Robert spent the next three years pursuing a law degree at the University of Virginia Law School. During that time he met and married his sister&#x;s roommate, a fellow student named Ethel Skakel. Inthe same year he graduated law school, Robert passed the Massachusetts bar exam.

Political Career

Fresh out of law school, Kennedy joined the U.S. Department of Justice&#x;s Criminal Division in In he resigned the position to lead his older brother John&#x;s senatorial campaign. In Kennedy became an advisor to the Senate Subcommittee on Investigations under Senator Joseph McCarthy. Kennedy left the position just six months later, objecting to McCarthy&#x;s unjust investigative tactics.

Civil Rights

In Kennedy joined the Senate&#x;s Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations as chief counsel for the Democratic minority. Kennedy aptly expressed his approach to helping minorities achieve equal rights in a speech to South African students: Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and crossing each other from a million different centers of energy and daring, those ripples build a current that can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance."

In Kennedy was appointed chief counsel to Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor of Management Field. Working under Senator McClellan, Kennedy uncovered the corruption of Teamsters union leader Jimmy Hoffa.

In Kennedy managed brother John&#x;s presidential campaign. When JFK was elected, Robert was made U.S. attorney general and became one of JFK&#x;s closest cabinet advisors. When JFK was assassinated inRobert resigned as attorney general the following September and announced his intent to run for a senate seat.

Kennedy ran successfully for senator of New York, and during his time in office, he continued to advocate for the poor and human rights and oppose racial discrimination and the escalation of involvement in the Vietnam War. He also set his sights on becoming a U.S. presidential candidate.


In Kennedy ran against Eugene McCarthy in the presidential election primaries. On June 5,following his victory speech at the California Democratic Primary at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, Kennedy was shot several times by gunman Sirhan Sirhan. He died the next day at age 42, his promising presidential administration over before mills v board of education of the district of columbia began. 


On June 6, Kennedy's body was taken to St. Patrick&#x;s Cathedral in NYC. The next morning a line of mourners extending 25 blocks long waited to pay their respects. By the afternoon hundreds of thousands more people bid farewell to Kennedy as they watched his coffin pass via funeral train en route to Washington, D.C. Kennedy was buried near his brother, John, at Arlington Cemetery.


Kennedy and his wife Ethel had 11 children: Kathleen, Joseph, Robert Jr., David (&#x;), Courtney, Michael (&#x;), Kerry, Christopher, Max, Douglas, and Rory (b. ). Rory was born six months after Kennedy's untimely passing.

Watch "Robert F. Kennedy: His Many Sides" how did robert f kennedy die HISTORY Vault


Robert Francis Kennedy, an Agent of Hope

A color photo of RFK shaking hands in a crowd of people

The Campaign

On March 16,Senator Kennedy announced his candidacy for president. He had been reluctant to run against a sitting president from his own political party, but he was eager to address the issues of civil rights, poverty, and the Vietnam War, which he believed President Johnson was handling poorly.

As Kennedy embarked on his presidential campaign, there were certain challenges he realized he had to overcome. He, unlike his brother John, was not as easily charismatic or confident. At first, he was quiet and nervous speaking in front of the crowds that gathered for him. At times, he stumbled with his words and his voice and hands shook from nerves.

However, as the campaign progressed, Senator Kennedy gained confidence in himself. He realized the crowds were there to see and support him for who he was, and not just because he was seen as the forbearer to his brother John’s legacy. Overtime, he became more polished at articulating his thoughts regarding the issues he so deeply cared about. Senator Kennedy had originally favored intervention in Vietnam. However, as the situation there worsened, his position changed and he took an anti-war stance.

On the evening of April 4,Dr. Martin Luther King assassinated. Kennedy was scheduled to deliver a campaign speech that night in Indianapolis, IN to a crowd of predominantly Black Americans. As he delivered the shocking news of King’s assassination, he empathized with his supporters and encouraged them to find peaceful and productive ways to channel their sorrow. (Watch the speech)

As violence broke out across many American cities that evening, Indianapolis stayed peaceful. John Lewislater remarked, “He {Kennedy} became the one man who could soothe the savage pain that swept through the city of Indianapolis, and there were no violent outbreaks there. I do remember calming my own sorrow in that dark hour by thinking, Dr. King is gone, but we still have Bobby."

Only two months later, and just after winning the Democratic presidential primary in California, Kennedy was fatally wounded at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, CA. He died on June 6, at age

Sirhan Sirhan, man who assassinated Robert F Kennedy, granted parole

The man who killed Robert F Kennedy was granted parole on Friday after two of the former attorney general, senator and presidential hopeful’s sons spoke in favor of release and prosecutors declined to argue he should be kept behind bars.

The decision was a major victory for Sirhan Sirhan, 77, though it did not assure his release.

The ruling by the two-person panel at Sirhan’s 16th parole hearing will be reviewed over 90 days by the California parole board. Then it will be sent to the governor, who will have 30 days to decide whether to grant it, reverse it or modify it.

Douglas Kennedy, a toddler when his father was killed insaid he was moved cheap victoria secret pink sweatpants tears by Sirhan’s remorse and said he should be released if he’s not a threat to others.

“I’m overwhelmed just by being able to view Mr Sirhan face-to-face,” he said. “I think I’ve lived my life both in fear of him and his name in one way or another. And I am grateful today to see him as a human being worthy of compassion and love.”

Robert Kennedy, a New York senator and brother of President John F Kennedy, was a Democratic presidential candidate when he was killed on 6 June at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, moments after delivering a victory speech in the pivotal California primary.

Sirhan, convicted of first-degree murder, has said he doesn’t remember the killing. His lawyer, Angela Berry, argued that the board should base its decision on who Sirhan is today.

Prosecutors declined to participate or oppose his release, under a policy by Los Angeles county district attorney George Gascon, a former police officer who took office last year. Gascon, who said he idolized the Kennedys and mourned RFK’s assassination, believes the prosecutors’ role ends at sentencing and they should not influence decisions to release prisoners.

As Douglas Kennedy spoke, Sirhan, in a blue prison uniform with a paper towel folded like a handkerchief and tucked into his pocket, smiled as Kennedy spoke. Sirhan said he had learned to control his anger and was committed to living peacefully.

“I would never put myself in jeopardy again,” he said. “You have my pledge. I will always look to safety and peace and non-violence.”

Some Kennedy family members, Los Angeles law enforcement officers and the public submitted letters opposing Sirhan’s release, parole board commissioner Robert Barton said at the start of the proceeding, which was held virtually.

“We don’t have a DA here but I have to consider all sides,” Barton said.

Sirhan, a Police chase edmond ok Palestinian from Jordan, has served 53 years. He has acknowledged he was angry at Kennedy for his support of Israel. When asked how he feels about the Middle East conflict today, Sirhan broke down crying and temporarily couldn’t speak.

“Take a few deep breaths,” said Barton, who noted the conflict had not gone away and still touched a nerve.

Sirhan said he doesn’t follow what’s going on in the region but thinks about the suffering of refugees.

“The misery that those people are experiencing. It’s painful,” Sirhan said.

If released, Sirhan could be deported to Jordan. Barton said he was concerned he might become a “symbol or lightning rod to foment more violence”.

Sirhan said he was too old to be involved in the Middle East conflict and would detach himself from it.

“The same argument can be said or made that I can be a peacemaker, and a contributor to a friendly nonviolent way of resolving the issue,” Sirhan said.

Paul Schrade, who was wounded in the shooting, also spoke in favor of his release. Robert F Kennedy Jr, who has spoken in favor of Sirhan’s release in the past, wrote in favor of parole.

Sirhan was sentenced to death but that sentence was commuted to life when the California supreme court briefly outlawed capital punishment in At his last parole hearing incommissioners concluded after more than three hours of intense testimony that Sirhan did not show adequate remorse or understand the enormity of his crime.

Sirhan has stuck to his account that he does not remember the killing.


On a sunny Sunday in September, a crowd of over a hundred gathered at Malibu Fig Ranch, a biodynamic farm situated just across the Pacific Coast Highway from Point Dume, where the ocean is cerulean and home prices on the coastal bluffs soar into eight figures.

The crowd at the farm that afternoon reflected local demographics and the $per-head admission fee: Among the confirmed guests were a luxury swimwear how did robert f kennedy die a San Diego flower-crown maker who drove over a hundred miles with her teen daughter to attend; a crystal purveyor; a “high vibe food” Instagram influencer; and a former fashion editor turned photographer. The homemade wood-fired pizzas were topped with organic squash blossoms. The dresses worn were Dôen. Range Rovers gleamed in the parking area.

As they waited for the headline speaker to arrive, the attendees—mostly women, white, and mask-less—milled around the beds of lavender and lacinato kale making small talk about chemtrails and mask restrictions at the local grocery store. Children ran between the tables in front of a small stage where a pair of Topanga Canyon–esque folk musicians played.

And then he arrived: Robert F. Kennedy Jr., California-casual in faded blue jeans and a short-sleeve button-up spangled with whales. The crowd went wild in the way this crowd is wont: a few with tongue-in-cheek modified sphinx poses, bowing to their guru. There were mask-less handshakes and mask-less hugs and mask-less photo ops, and then Kennedy took the stage. For over an hour, he described his work in what he calls “health advocacy,” including a well-trod story about how, ina mother showed up on his front porch on the Massachusetts Cape with a stack of medical information over a foot high, demanding that he hear her out about what she saw as a link between vaccines and her son’s autism diagnosis. He made a joke about why he did so (“Well, I’m susceptible to flattery”), highlighted his background as a lawyer, and eventually mentioned that Bill Gates is responsible for the “forced” vaccinations of millions of African children.

In recent years, Kennedy has become an unlikely North Star to a network of vaccine skeptics. At a March 25 House congressional hearing titled “Disinformation Nation: Social Media’s Role in Promoting Extremism and Misinformation,” CEOs Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook, Jack Dorsey of Twitter, and Sundar Pichai of Google appeared as witnesses, fielding questions from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce on such topics as “censorship,” fact-checking policies, and targeted advertisements. Kennedy, a central figure in what’s known as the “Disinformation Dozen,” was name-checked by U.S. representatives Anna Eshoo,Brett Guthrie, and Billy Long. According to a report from the Center for Countering Digital Hate and Anti-Vax Watch, the Dozen, which includes Joseph Mercola, an osteopathic practitioner who operates a “natural health” website and lucrative e-commerce business; Ty and Charlene Bollinger, known for promoting questionable cancer treatments; and Christiane Northrup, who has insinuated in a Facebook video that receiving a vaccination will mean that the patient’s DNA is owned by an ominous and unnamed “they,” are the source of as much as two thirds of all anti-vaccination content shared on Facebook and Twitter. “I don’t get why he is where he is,” Eshoo told Vanity Fair shortly before the hearing, meaning Kennedy. “I just don’t get it. But when someone feels that strongly about it and then has a name with a great legacy, a lot of people pay attention to that.”

In a letter to Facebook how did robert f kennedy die Twitter leaders sent March 24, attorneys general from 12 states called on the social media behemoths to enforce policies to label misinformation about coronavirus vaccines and ban repeat offenders, writing, “anti-vaccine misinformation continues to spread on your platforms, in violation of your community standards.” Connecticut A.G. William Tong, who led the initiative, says, “They’re putting people at risk. And they are getting people killed. This isn’t some fanciful public policy academic debate that happens in some safe space at a university. This is real life. Life or death. People indulging their conspiracy theories, people indulging ideas that are not based in science, people with alternative warped political agenda, to prevent people from getting vaccines is causing people to get sick and to die.” Recent polls from NPR/Marist and Monmouth University found that between 21% and 25% of American adults questioned don’t plan on getting the COVID vaccine.

For those who aren’t vaccine-suspicious, Kennedy’s is the only name on the list likely to ring any bells. And it’s his name recognition that makes him particularly worrisome to groups like the Anti-Vax Watch, which has been documenting Kennedy’s violations of social media misinformation policies. In AugustKennedy and the Children’s Health Defense launched a lawsuit against Facebook for helping to “censor valid and truthful speech” and “their smear campaign against Plaintiff,” seeking damages of $5 million or more. (In April, Jed Rubenfeld, who is currently suspended from his professorship at Yale Law School after an investigation into allegations by his students of sexual harassment, which he has denied, joined CHD’s legal team in the case.) In February, Instagram barred Nearest us bank in my location “for repeatedly sharing debunked claims about the coronavirus or vaccines,” according to a representative from Facebook, which owns Instagram, though his profile on that Facebook remains active, as does his Twitter account. According to a Facebook spokesperson, Facebook and Instagram remove user accounts after they perpetrate an unspecified number of repeated violations.

“That’s what makes me the angriest about these disinformation campaigns, that often they are coming from people with no scientific knowledge, no credibility,” says Jaimie Meyer, M.D., an infectious disease physician at Yale Medicine and an associate professor of medicine and public health at Yale School of Medicine. “There’s no evidence for anything.”

For decades, Kennedy, son to former Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and nephew to President John F. Kennedy, was known for his work in environmental law, suing corporations on behalf of Indigenous groups and other individuals, and vocally opposing dependency on fossil fuels. But in the late ’90s, how to convert my amazon account to business account also helped found the Food Allergy Initiative, and began to argue that certain allergies were linked to childhood vaccines. In he edited Thimerosal: Let The Science Speak; in he coauthored Vaccine Villains: What the American Public Should Know About the Industry; and he’s lent his name to multiple other similar books by way of forewords, including the third edition of The Peanut Allergy Epidemic, which features a graphic of a needle on its blood red cover, and ’s Plague of Corruption, coauthored by discredited former researcher Judy Mikovits. InKennedy founded the World Mercury Project, which he expanded into the Children’s Health Defense ina nonprofit with a self-described mission “to end the childhood health epidemics by working aggressively to eliminate harmful exposures, hold those responsible accountable, and establish safeguards so this never happens again.” Kennedy, who home remedies for uti in 5 year old as chairman of the board and chief legal counsel, features prominently on the site; his portrait appears on the homepage under a banner reading “The Defender” (the name of the site’s newsletter), and a one-liner—“The greatest crisis that America faces today is the chronic disease epidemic in America’s children”—emblazoned next to the Kennedy visage that has been a feature of American iconography for over a century: square-set jaw; mouth half open, mid-speech; blue eyes that appear to perpetually squint into the sun. This summer, he has a new book out from his longtime publisher Skyhorse Publishing. The book, which will be distributed by Simon & Schuster, is called The Real Anthony Fauci: Big Pharma’s Global War on Democracy, Humanity, and Public Health. (Full disclosure: This reporter has a forthcoming book from Simon & Schuster.) He has an embattled stance toward the press: “Are you doing journalism or is this a hit piece? I’m assuming it’s a hit piece,” he wrote in response to an interview farmers state bank cedar rapids is difficult to comprehend how a spectacularly educated person (undergrad at Harvard, classes at the London School of Economics, law school at the University of Virginia, and a masters in environmental law from Pace University) feels comfortable promoting the kind of arguments that Kennedy puts forth—ones in opposition to scientific consensus: “Currently, there is no scientific evidence that vaccines or any material used to make or preserve vaccines causes or contributes to ASD. A great deal of research projects have come to the same conclusion, including those conducted independently and recently,” reads a fact sheet by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (named for Kennedy’s aunt).

“The sad reality is vaccines cause injuries and death,” Kennedy wrote in a letter to President Joe Biden that was published in The Defender on March “In the two and one-half months since the U.S. began our COVID vaccination program, there have been 31, injuries and 1, deaths reported after COVID vaccine.” These statistics, pulled from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) do sound dire, but a simple search of that website proves clarifying: These “injuries” tend to include headache, fever, muscle aches, nausea, and other issues clearlydelineated by the CDC and DOH as common side effects of the vaccine. (“Those are of course the only injuries that doctors are encouraged to report,” Kennedy writes in an email.) Jaimie Meyer of Yale Medicine says that VAERS is a useful tool in observing the range of potential reactions to vaccines, though “it’s not causation,” she says, “it’s a potential association that needs further scientific investigation.” (In April, the FDA and CDC recommended that vaccination sites temporarily pause use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine after six people suffered rare blood clots associated with low blood platelets. Later that month, those agencies recommended resuming use of the vaccine, stating that “a review of all available data at this time shows that the J&J/Janssen COVID vaccine’s known and potential benefits outweigh its known and potential risks.”)

Likewise, the deaths cited by Kennedy did reportedly occur after the administration of the vaccine, but a large number of entries list the deceased person as elderly and/or infirm; many entries by clinicians make note that a death is presumed unrelated to the vaccine, others note long delays of 5 or 6 or 12 days between administration and death. A quick skim of a few pages of stats shows that more than one person died by suicide. Another, who had previously been diagnosed with COVID, was already unresponsive when her first vaccination dose was administered. A year-old male who died 12 hours after receiving the vaccine had “refused food for one week prior to death.”

“The CDC counts every death after a positive PCR test as a death from COVID,” wrote Kennedy in a response to Vanity Fair’s question about these discrepancies. (This is incorrect. The CDC’s “provisional death counts,” which the site describes as “the most complete and accurate picture of lives lost to COVID,” are based on the medical information listed on death certificates, not positive PCR tests.) “Yet the CDC admits that only 6% of COVID deaths are exclusively caused by COVID.” (Per a spokesperson from the CDC: “Death certificates with only COVID reported are likely incomplete. Severe COVID leads to complications, and if those complications lead to death, they should be listed on the death certificate along with COVID. But in a small number of cases the complications aren’t listed, and that’s likely what explains the 6%. It is similar to an overdose death where the certificate only lists ‘overdose’ on the certificate but doesn’t include what drug was involved.”) “Did you also go through CDC’s COVID death reports to comb out the ones you consider unrelated to COVID?” The leading comorbidity on death certificates that list COVID as the cause of death is “Influenza and pneumonia”; pneumonia is a complication of COVID

Much of Kennedy’s more clickbaity posts call for a reexamination of existing research and reporting on vaccines and a better “vaccine injury surveillance system.” “The medical cartel treats doctors who frequently report or treat vaccine injuries as dangerous and irresponsible pariahs, and systematically punishes them,” he wrote in The Defender, linking to an article by the Associated Press that doesn’t mention VAERS, but rather describes an Oregon pediatrician whose license was suspended after allegedly delaying or omitting standard vaccines and warning parents that they could lead to autism, citing a case in which one of his unvaccinated patients was hospitalized for nearly two months after contracting tetanus.

Despite the newfound glut of vaccine information, Kennedy has made it his mission to spread “awareness” firsthand through his website, and at private fundraising events like the one held at the Malibu Fig Ranch near Point Dume—an area he knows well. InRobert F. Kennedy Jr. married former Curb Your Enthusiasm star (and longtime Los Angeleno) Cheryl Hines at the Kennedy compound in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, in a ceremony attended by various family members, including Kennedy’s brother Joe and mother Ethel, as well as Larry and Cazzie David, and Julia Louis-Dreyfus. The bridal party included Kennedy’s six children and Hines’s daughter. Kennedy had previously lived in the Mount Kisco area of Westchester, New York. Soon after their wedding the couple purchased a Point Dume compound comprising a four-bedroom primary residence, two guesthouses, comenity loft card pool house, and a two-story treehouse, in a community that includes Julia Roberts and Chris Martin, where residents bump down manicured streets on golf carts to the keyed-access beach Little Dume. When they sold that home three years later for more than $6 million, it was described as “reminiscent of a Connecticut compound with mature trees and beautiful landscaped flat grounds.” Their new house in Brentwood, reportedly purchased for $ million, is a “Monterey colonial.” Hines, while active in fundraising for cerebral palsy research—and a one-time star i m yours jason mraz lyrics a pro-whooping cough booster vaccine PSA—has seemingly remained quiet about her husband’s stance on vaccinations. Through a representative, Hines declined to comment.

“It is imperative for us to come together as we face the loss of so many of our personal freedoms,” wrote Denise Young, the executive director of the Children’s Health Defense’s California chapter, in an email to Malibu Fig Ranch event attendees, obtained by V.F. Those freedoms, she wrote, include “our choice over what we put into our bodies, uncensored media, and the right to transparency on the full effects of 5G and wireless products.” (The last is one of Kennedy’s newer crusades.) Malibu was a bastion of anti-vax sentiment long before COVID; ina local whooping cough outbreak aligned with a seriously lowered rate of vaccinations among children at Santa Monica and Malibu schools; that year and the next measles outbreaks also hit California hard. (For context: From tobefore the introduction of the measles vaccine, an average of Americans died of the virus each year, at a rate of about 1 in 1, reported cases. Between October and Mayjust 19 petitions for compensation for an alleged measles vaccine-related death were filed.)

“The way we promote health, and the way public health agencies promote health, is to really focus on individual level solutions,” says Jennifer Reich, a professor of sociology at the University of Colorado Denver, and the author of the book Calling the Shots: Why Parents Reject Vaccines. “People are told that their personal behaviors can mitigate disease risk. What I’ve heard from parents a lot was, We’re really healthy. We eat organic food, I breastfed my children, which provided immune protection. This idea that somehow personal behaviors and hard work—or even vigilance to pay attention to who might be seemingly infected—could successfully prevent infectious disease is just scientifically untrue.”

In places like Malibu and Brentwood, where parents have time to obsessively google problems that have not yet arisen, bank ozk valdosta ga disposable income for costly “information first citizens bank charlottesville hours and alternative health professionals unlikely to be covered by insurance, the idea of hacking vaccines may be particularly compelling.

But the pandemic, Reich says, provided a perfect storm of disinformation. “Whenever we have a lack of formal information, those gaps will always be filled with informal information,” she says. “We had a White House who was committed to downplaying the severity of the disease. We had a CDC that was actually having their work rewritten to downplay the risk of the disease.” The question became, Who do you trust? “There was an early opportunity with COVID for those who oppose vaccines and who want to see distrust in public health institutions to fill that gap.” That, coupled with the fact that preventative care visits have been down during the pandemic and that it has limited our ability to interact with people outside what Reich calls our “information circles”' of close friends and family, who are often like-minded—strangers on airplanes and coworkers at bars. “Now, if you want to talk to someone, you schedule a Zoom call with someone you know, or you go online and search for information, or go to Facebook.”

“The wait-and-see approach, when you have widespread infection, is not a neutral position in a way that it feels like it is,” she says. “What I found with my research on childhood vaccine hesitancy is that often omission feels safer than commission. Doing nothing feels like the safer path than doing something and then maybe regretting it.” This is a dangerous gut instinct to follow. As Reich points out, “The risk of anaphylaxis for the mNRA vaccines appears to be about to per million doses; we know the risk of infection [with the virus that causes COVID] is much higher than that.”

And then there are the effects of disinformation on the most vulnerable to COVID In March, the Children’s Health Defense film division released Medical Racism: The New Apartheid, available to watch on the CHD website. (Centner Productions, which coproduced, was founded by David Centner, who recently cofounded the private preschool-8 Centner Academy in Miami. In April, his wife and cofounder, Leila Centner, sent out a letter instructing teachers to report their COVID vaccinations, telling teachers who’d gotten it before April 21 to physically distance themselves from students, and banning newly vaccinated teachers from interacting with students.) The film flits between medical experts and academics describing historical atrocities including the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study and J. Marion Sims’s unethical gynecological experiments on Black women, and personal anecdotes that range from poor treatment from doctors during medical procedures to accounts by several mothers who believe that their children’s autism was the result of a vaccine injury. Intercut between these interviews are man-on-the-street clips of Black Americans discussing the vaccine. “The danger in disinformation isn’t always just lies, but it’s a warping of truth to get to a specific end,” Harvard misinformation researcher Brandi Collins-Dexterhas said of the film’s tactics.

“I do think the way that mass media was covering Black hesitancy and resistance almost indicted Black people,” says Melina Abdullah, Ph.D., professor of Pan-African Studies at California State University, Los Angeles, and cofounder of Black Lives Matter-Los Angeles; in Medical Racism, she provided context about Tuskegee along with her own experience of not being believed by her doctor about abnormal pain while giving birth. “It ignored this long history of betrayal and targeting of Black people through Western medicine.”

Historic atrocities coupled with firsthand experience have “caused us to not trust the medical establishment,” says Abdullah. “So when it’s pushed on us, it creates a state of conflict. At the same time we’re watching our community be devastated by COVID at a disproportionate rate.” She doesn’t identify as an anti-vaxxer, she just wants to provide context for the nuanced anxieties facing certain communities. “Are they trying to keep the vaccines from us? Are they trying to force it on us? Should we take it? Should we not? We hear people saying things like—and I might be one of them—‘Well, if I’m taking it I’m only taking it in a white neighborhood.’ It’s really, really complicated.”

“We need more doctors who look like us and come from our community and understand what’s happening,” Abdullah says, noting that reconciliation, reparations, and increasing scholarships for Black youth to attend medical school are other important measures. “Some of the older folks that I know who were initially resistant to the vaccine—somebody who’s close to me said that they talked to their doctor, a young Black doctor that they trust, and that’s what convinced them to take the vaccine.”

Larry Robinson, Ph.D., the president of Florida A&M University, one of the eight HBCUs that received a combined total of $15 million in grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support ongoing testing efforts, is attempting to serve as one such trusted member of the community. (This grant money is a source of suspicion in Medical Racism.) The university opened a community testing site at the football stadium on April 25, ; the first in the area, Robinson says, to allow tests without a physician’s referral. The Gates Foundation money went toward human resource costs for a new FAMU COVID virus testing lab that opened in May: funds for positions like a director of laboratory operations and a medical director. This was also made possible by an initiative by Thermo Fisher Scientific called the Just Project (named for the pioneering 20th-century biologist Ernest Everett Just), which provided over a million dollars worth of testing equipment and supplies. “I think that the Gates vision, and the whole concept,” Robinson says, “was to address the issue of disparity that the COVID pandemic has clearly allowed the world to see, or to amplify through the disparity and impacts that have occurred in communities of color around the nation.”


Robert F. Kennedy

American politician and lawyer

"RFK", "Robert Kennedy", and "Bobby Kennedy" redirect here. For other uses, see RFK (disambiguation) and Robert Kennedy (disambiguation).

Robert F. Kennedy

Robert F Kennedy

Kennedy in

In office
January 3, &#;– June 6,
Preceded byKenneth Keating
Succeeded byCharles Goodell
In office
January 21, &#;– September 3,
PresidentJohn F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
DeputyByron White
Nicholas Katzenbach
Preceded byWilliam P. Rogers
Succeeded byNicholas Katzenbach

Robert Francis Kennedy

()November 20,
Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedJune 6, () (aged&#;42)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Resting placeArlington National Cemetery
Political partyDemocratic
RelativesKennedy family
EducationHarvard University (AB)
University of Virginia (LLB)
Allegiance&#;United States
Branch/serviceU.S. Naval Reserve
Years&#;of service
RankE2 SM mynewextsetup.usSeaman Apprentice
UnitUSS&#;Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Battles/warsWorld War II

Robert Francis Kennedy (November 20, &#;&#; June 6, ), also referred to by his initials RFK or by the nickname Bobby,[1][2] was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January to Septemberand as a U.S. Senator how do i find my citibank routing number New York from January until his assassination in June He was, like his brothers John and Edward, a prominent member of the Democratic Party and has come to be viewed by some historians as an icon of modern American liberalism.[3]

Kennedy was born into a wealthy, political family in Brookline, Massachusetts. After serving in the U.S. Naval Reserve from toKennedy returned to his studies at Harvard University, and later received his law degree from the University of Virginia. He began his career as a correspondent for The Boston Post and as an lawyer at the Justice Department, but later resigned to manage his brother John's successful campaign for the U.S. Senate in The following year, he worked as an assistant counsel to the Senate committee chaired by Senator Joseph McCarthy. He gained national attention as the chief counsel of the Senate Labor Rackets Committee from towhere he publicly challenged Teamsters President Jimmy Hoffa over the union's corrupt practices. Kennedy resigned from the committee to conduct his brother's successful campaign in the presidential election. He was appointed United States Attorney General at the age of 36, becoming the youngest Cabinet member in U.S. history since Alexander Hamilton in [4][5] He served as his brother's closest advisor until the latter's assassination.[6]

His tenure is known for advocating for the civil rights movement, the fight against organized crime and the Mafia, and involvement in U.S. foreign policy related to Cuba.[7] He authored his account of the Cuban Missile Crisis in a book titled Thirteen Days. As attorney general, he authorized the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to wiretapMartin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference on a limited basis.[8] After his brother's assassination, he remained in office during the Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson for several months. He left to run for the United States Senate from New York in and defeated Republican emb medical abbreviation Kenneth Keating.[9] In office, Kennedy opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and raised awareness of poverty by sponsoring legislation designed to lure private business to blighted communities (i.e., Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration project). He was an advocate for issues related to human rights and social justice by traveling abroad to eastern Europe, Latin America, and South Africa, and formed working relationships with Martin Luther King Jr., Cesar Chavez, and Walter Reuther.

InKennedy became a leading candidate for the Democratic nomination for the presidency by appealing to poor, African American, Hispanic, Catholic, and young voters.[10] His main challenger in the race was Senator Eugene McCarthy. Shortly after winning the California primary around midnight on June 5,Kennedy was mortally wounded when shot with a pistol by Sirhan Sirhan, a year-old Palestinian, allegedly in retaliation for his support of Israel following the Six-Day War. Kennedy died 25 hours later. Sirhan was arrested, tried, and convicted, though Kennedy's assassination, like his brother's, continues to be the subject of widespread analysis and numerous conspiracy theories.[11]

Early life and education

Robert Francis Kennedy was born outside Boston in Brookline, Massachusetts, on November 20, He was the seventh of nine children to businessman/politician Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and philanthropist/socialite Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy.[12] His parents were members of two prominent Irish-American families in Boston. His eight siblings were Joseph Jr., John, Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Jean, and Ted. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants.[13]

His father was a wealthy businessman and a leading figure in the Democratic Party. After he stepped down as ambassador to the United Kingdom inJoe Sr. focused his attention on his oldest son, Joseph Jr., expecting that he would enter politics and be elected president. He also urged the younger children to examine and discuss current events in order to propel them to public service.[14] After Joseph Jr. was killed during World War II, the senior Kennedy's hopes fell on his second son, John, to become president. Joseph Sr. had the money and connections to play a central union savings bank mt washington in the family's political ambitions.[15]

Kennedy's older brother John was often bedridden by illness and, as a result, became a voracious reader. Although he made little effort to get to know his younger brother during his childhood, John took him on walks[16] and regaled him with the stories of heroes and adventures he had read.[17] One of their favorite authors was John Buchan, who wrote The Thirty-Nine Steps, which influenced both Robert and John.[16] John sometimes called Robert "Black Robert" due to his prudishness and disposition.[18]

Unlike his older brothers, Kennedy took to heart their mother Rose's agenda for everything to have "a purpose," which included visiting historic sites during family outings, visits to the church during morning walks, and games used to expand vocabulary and math skills.[19] He described his position in the family hierarchy by saying, "When you come from that far down, you have to struggle to survive."[20] As the boys were growing up, he tried frequently to get his older brothers' attention, but was seldom successful.[16][17]

As his father's business success expanded, the family kept homes around Boston and New York City; the Cape Cod peninsula; and Palm Beach.[21][22][23] Kennedy later said that during childhood he was "going to different schools, always having to make new friends, and that I was very awkward [a]nd I was pretty quiet most of the time. And I didn't mind being alone."[24] He had to repeat third grade.[25] A teacher at Bronxville public school reflected that he was "a regular boy", adding, "It seemed hard for him to finish his work sometimes. But he was only ten after all."[20][26] He developed an interest in American history, decorating his bedroom with pictures of U.S. presidents and filling his bookshelves with volumes on the American Civil War. He became an avid stamp collector and once received a handwritten letter from Franklin Roosevelt, also a philatelist.[20]

In MarchKennedy sailed to London with his mother and four youngest siblings to join his father, who had begun serving as Ambassador to the United Kingdom. He attended the private Gibbs School for Boys for seventh grade. In Aprilhe gave his first public speech at the placing of a cornerstone for a youth club in England. According to embassy and newspaper reports, his statements were penciled in his own hand and delivered in a "calm and confident" manner.[27] Bobby returned to the United States just before the outbreak of World War II in Europe.

St. Paul's and Portsmouth Priory

In SeptemberKennedy began eighth grade at St. Paul's School, an elite Protestant private preparatory school for boys in Concord, New Hampshire,[28] that his father favored.[29] Rose Kennedy was how did robert f kennedy die with the school's use of the Protestant Bible. After two months, she took advantage of her ambassador husband's absence from Boston and withdrew Kennedy from St. Paul's. She enrolled him in Portsmouth Priory School, a Benedictine Catholic boarding school for boys in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, which held daily morning and evening prayers and Mass three times a week, with a High Mass on Sundays.[30] Kennedy attended Portsmouth for eighth through tenth grade.[31]

At Portsmouth Priory School, Kennedy was known as "Mrs. Kennedy's little boy Bobby" after he introduced his mother to classmates, who made fun of them. He was defensive of his mother, and on one occasion chased a student out of the dormitory after the boy had commented on her appearance.[32] He befriended Peter MacLellan and wrote to him, when his brother John was serving in the U.S. Navy, that he would be visiting his brother "because he might be killed any minute".[33] Kennedy blamed himself when his grades failed to improve. In letters to her son, Rose urged him to read more and to strengthen his vocabulary.[34] Rose also expressed disappointment and wrote that she did not expect him to let her down.[35] He began developing in other ways, and his brother John noticed his increased physical strength, predicting that the younger Kennedy "would be bouncing me around plenty in two more years".[34] Monks at Portsmouth Priory School regarded him as a moody and indifferent student. Father Damian Kearney, who was two classes behind Kennedy, reflected that he "didn't look happy" and that he did not "smile much". According to Kearney's review of school records, Kennedy was a "poor-to-mediocre student, except for history".[32]

Milton Academy

In SeptemberKennedy transferred to his third boarding school, Milton Academy, in Milton, Massachusetts, for 11th and 12th grades.[36] His father wanted him to transfer to Milton, believing it would better prepare him for Harvard.[36] At Milton, he met and became friends with David Hackett. He invited Hackett to join him for Sunday Mass. Hackett started accompanying him, and was impressed when Kennedy took it upon himself to fill in for a missing altar boy one Sunday.[16] Hackett admired Kennedy's determination to bypass his shortcomings, and remembered him redoubling his efforts whenever something did not come easy to him, which included athletics, studies, success with girls, and popularity.[35] Hackett remembered the two of them as "misfits", a commonality that drew him to Kennedy, along with an unwillingness to conform to how others acted even if doing so meant not being accepted. Kennedy's grades improved.[16]

One of his first relationships was with a girl named Piedy Bailey. The pair was photographed together when he walked her home after chapel on a Sunday night. Bailey was fond of him and remembered him as being "very appealing". She recalled union savings bank mt washington being funny, "separate, larky; outside the cliques; private all the time". Soon after he transferred to Milton, he pressed his father to allow him to enlist, as he wanted to catch up to his brothers who were both serving in the military.[16] Kennedy had arrived at Milton unfamiliar with his peers and made little attempt to know the names of his classmates; he called most of the other boys "fella" instead. For this, he was nicknamed "Fella". Most of the school's students had come in eighth or ninth grade and cliques had already been formed. Despite this, his schoolmates would later say the school had no prejudice. He had an early sense of virtue; he disliked dirty jokes and bullying, once stepping in when an upperclassman tried bothering a younger student.[16] The headmaster at Milton would later summarize that he was a "very intelligent boy, quiet and shy, but not outstanding, and he left no special mark on Milton".[20]

Relationship with parents

In Kennedy's younger years, his father dubbed him the "runt" of the family and wrote him off. Close family friend Lem Billings once remarked to Joe Sr. that he was "the most generous little boy", and Joe Sr. replied that he did not know where his son "got that". Billings commented that the only similarity between Robert and Joe Sr. was their eye color.[32] As Kennedy grew, his father worried that he was soft on others, conflicting with his ideology. In response, Kennedy developed a tough persona that masked his gentle personality, attempting to appease his father.[37] Biographer Judie Mills wrote that Joe Sr.'s lack of interest in Robert was evident by the length of time it took for him to decide to transfer him to Milton Academy. Both Joe Jr. and John attended the exclusive Protestant prep school Choate from their first year, while Robert was already a junior by the time he was enrolled at Milton. Despite his father's disdain, Kennedy continued to seek his approval, requesting that Joe Sr. write him a letter about his opinions on different political events and World War II.[35]

As a child, Kennedy also strove to meet his mother's expectations to become the most dutiful, religious, affectionate, and obedient of the Kennedy children, but the father and son grew distant.[17] Rose found his gentle personality endearing, though this was noted as having made him "invisible to his father".[35] She influenced him heavily and, like her, he became a devout Catholic, throughout his lifetime practicing his religion more seriously than the other boys in the family.[38] He impressed his parents as a child by taking on a newspaper route, seeking their approval and wishing to distinguish himself. However, he had the family chauffeur driving him in a Rolls-Royce so that he could make his deliveries. His mother discovered this and the deliveries ceased.[37]

Joe Sr. was satisfied with Kennedy as an adult, believing him to have become "hard as nails", more like him than any of the other children, while his mother believed he exemplified all she had wanted in a child. Mills wrote, "His parents' conflicting views would be echoed in the opinions of millions of people throughout Bobby's life. Robert Kennedy was a ruthless opportunist who would stop at nothing to attain his ambitions. Robert Kennedy was America's most compassionate public figure, the only person who could save a divided country."[37]

Naval service (–)

Kennedy (second from left) during his time at Bates College, in front of a snow replica of a Navy boat.

Six weeks before his 18th birthday inKennedy enlisted in the United States Naval Reserve as a seaman apprentice.[39] He was released from active duty in Marchwhen he left Milton Academy early to report to the V Navy College Training Program at Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His V training began at Harvard (March–November ) before he was relocated to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine (November – June ).[40] He returned to Harvard once again in June completing his post-training requirements in January [41] At Bates he received a specialized Vdegree along with 15 others,[42] and during its Winter Carnival built a snow replica of a Navy boat.[43][44] While in Maine, he wrote a letter to David Hackett in which he expressed feelings of inadequacy and frustration at being isolated from the action. He talked of filling his free time by taking classes with other sailors and remarked that "things are the same as usual up here, and me being my usual moody self I get very sad at times." He added, "If I don't get the hell out of here soon I'll die." In addition to Hackett, who was serving as a paratrooper, more of his Parker Hall dorm mates went overseas and left him behind. With others entering combat before him, Kennedy said this made him "feel more and more like a Draft Dodger [sic] or something". He was also frustrated with the apparent desire to shirk military responsibility by some of the other V students.[45]

Kennedy's brother Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. died in August ,[46] when his bomber exploded during a volunteer mission known as Operation Aphrodite. Robert was most affected by his father's reaction to his eldest son's passing. He appeared completely heartbroken and his peer Fred Garfield commented that Kennedy developed depression and questioned his faith for a short time. After his brother's death, Robert gained more attention, moving higher up the family patriarchy.[45] On December 15,the U.S. Navy commissioned the destroyerUSS&#;Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., and shortly thereafter granted Kennedy's request to be released from naval-officer training to serve aboard Kennedy starting on February 1,as a seaman apprentice on the ship's shakedown cruise in the Caribbean.[41][47] On May 30,he received his honorable discharge from the Navy.[48] For his service in the Navy, Kennedy was eligible for the American Campaign Medal and the World War II Victory Medal.

Further study, journalism, and marriage (–)

In SeptemberKennedy entered Harvard as a junior, having received credit for his time in the V program.[49] He worked hard to make the varsityfootball team as an end; he was a starter and scored a touchdown in the first game of his senior year before breaking his leg in practice.[49] He earned his varsity letter when his coach sent him in wearing a cast during the last minutes of a game against Yale.[50] His father spoke positively of him when he served as a blocking back and sometime receiver for the faster Dave Hackett. Joseph Sr. attended some of Kennedy's practices and saw his son catch a touchdown pass in an early-season rout of Western Maryland. His teammates admired his physical courage. He stood 5&#;ft 10&#;in (&#;m) tall and weighed pounds (70&#;kg), which made him too small for college football. Despite this, he was a fearless hitter and once tackled a pound fullback head-on. Wally Flynn, another player, looked up in the huddle after one play to see him crying after he broke his leg. He disregarded the injury and kept playing.[51] Kennedy earned two varsity letters over the course of the and seasons.[52]

Kennedy holding a football in Cape Codwith sisters Eunice and Jean, November

ThroughoutKennedy became active in his brother John's campaign for the U.S. Representative seat that was vacated by James Curley; he joined the campaign full-time after his naval discharge. Biographer Schlesinger wrote that the election served as an entry into politics for both Robert and John.[53] Robert graduated from Harvard in with a bachelor's degree in political science.[54]

Upon graduating, he sailed immediately on the RMS&#;Queen Mary with a college friend for a six-month tour of Europe and the Middle East, accredited as a correspondent for the Boston Post, filing six stories.[55] Four of these stories, submitted from Palestine shortly before the end of the British Mandate, provided a first-hand view of the tensions in the land.[55] He was critical of British policy on Palestine and praised the Jewish people he met there calling them "hardy and tough". He held out some hope after seeing Arabs and Jews working side by side but, in the end, feared that the hatred between the groups was too strong and would lead to a war.[56]

In Septemberhe enrolled at the University of Virginia School of Law in Charlottesville.[57] Kennedy adapted to this new environment, being elected president of the Student Legal Forum, where he successfully produced outside speakers including James M. Landis, William O. Douglas, Arthur Krock, and Joseph McCarthy and his family members Joe Sr. and John F. Kennedy. Kennedy's paper on Yalta, written during his senior year, is deposited in the Law Library's Treasure Trove.[58]

On June 17,Kennedy married Ethel Skakel at St. Mary's Catholic Church in Greenwich, Connecticut.[59] He graduated from law school in June and flew with Ethel to Greenwich to stay in his father-in-law's guest house. The couple's first child, Kathleen, was born on July 4, [60]

During this time, his brother John tried to keep Joe Sr. "at arm's length". The brothers rarely interacted until Kenny O'Donnell contacted Robert to repair the relationship between John and their father during John's Senate campaign. As a result of this, Joe Sr. came to view Robert favorably as reliable and "willing to sacrifice himself" for the family.[61]

In Septemberhe went to San Francisco as a correspondent for the Boston Post to cover the convention that concluded the Treaty of Peace with Japan.[62] In Octoberhe embarked on a seven-week Asian trip with his brother John (then a U.S. Congressman from Massachusetts' 11th district) and their sister Patricia to Israel, India, Pakistan, Vietnam, and Japan.[63] Because of their age gap, the two brothers had previously seen little of each other—this 25,mile (40,&#;km) trip came at their father's behest[61] and was the first extended time they had spent together, serving to deepen their relationship. On this trip, the brothers met Liaquat Ali Khan just before his assassination, and India's prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru.[64]

Senate committee counsel and political campaigns (–)

JFK Senate campaign and Joseph McCarthy (–)

In NovemberKennedy moved with his wife and daughter to a townhouse in the Georgetown, Washington, D.C., and started work as a lawyer in the Internal Security Section of the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. He prosecuted a series of graft and income tax evasion cases.[65][66] In FebruaryKennedy was transferred to Brooklyn, and worked as an assistant U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of New York to help prepare fraud cases against former officials of the Truman administration.[67][68] On June 6,he resigned to manage his brother John's U.S. Senate campaign in Massachusetts.[69] JFK's victory was of great importance to the Kennedys, elevating him to national prominence and turning him into a serious potential presidential candidate. John's victory was also equally important to Wedding gift card money box, who felt he had succeeded in eliminating his father's negative perceptions of him.[70]

In Decemberat his father's behest, Kennedy was appointed by family friend Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy as assistant counsel of the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations.[71][72] Kennedy disapproved of McCarthy's aggressive methods of garnering intelligence on suspected communists.[73] This was a highly visible job for him. He resigned in Julybut "retained a fondness for McCarthy".[74] The period of July to January saw him at "a professional and personal nadir", feeling that he was adrift while trying to prove himself to his family.[75]Kenneth O'Donnell and Larry O'Brien (who worked on John's congressional campaigns) urged Kennedy to consider running for Massachusetts Attorney General inbut he declined.[76]

After a period as an assistant to his babies r us mastercard customer service on the Hoover Commission, Kennedy rejoined the Senate committee staff as chief counsel for the Democratic minority in February [77] That month, McCarthy's chief counsel Roy Cohn subpoenaed Annie Lee Moss, accusing her of membership in the Communist Party. Kennedy revealed that Cohn had called the wrong Annie Lee Moss and he requested the file on Moss from the FBI. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover had been forewarned by Cohn and denied him access, calling RFK "an arrogant whippersnapper".[78] When Democrats gained a Senate majority in JanuaryKennedy became chief counsel and was a background figure in the televised Army–McCarthy hearings of into McCarthy's conduct.[79] The Moss incident turned Cohn into an enemy, which led to Kennedy assisting Democratic senators in ridiculing Cohn during the hearings. The animosity grew to the point where Cohn had to be restrained after asking RFK if he wanted to fight him.[78] For his work on the McCarthy committee, Kennedy was included in a list of Ten Outstanding Young Men ofcreated by the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce. His father had arranged the nomination, his first national award.[80] In Kennedy was admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court.[81]

Stevenson aide and focus on organized labor (–)

InKennedy moved his growing family outside Washington to a house called Hickory Hill, which he purchased from his brother John. This enormous bedroom, bath home was situated on 6 acres (&#;ha) in McLean, Virginia. Kennedy went on to work as an aide to Adlai Stevenson during the presidential how did robert f kennedy die which helped him learn how national campaigns worked, in preparation for a future run by his brother, Jack.[82] Unimpressed with Stevenson, he reportedly voted for incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower.[83] Kennedy was also a delegate at the Democratic National Convention, having replaced Tip O'Neil at the request of his brother John, joining in what was ultimately an unsuccessful effort to help JFK get the vice-presidential nomination.[84] Shortly after this, following instructions by his father, Kennedy tried making amends with J. Edgar Hoover.[85] There seemed to be some improvement in their interactions, which came to be seen as "elemental political necessity" by Kennedy. This later changed after Kennedy was appointed attorney general, where Hoover saw him as an "unprecedented threat".[86]

From tohe made a name for himself chase bank phone number for wire serving as the chief counsel to the Senate's McClellan Committee under chairman John L. McClellan. My amazon payments account was given authority over testimony scheduling, areas of investigation, and witness questioning by McClellan, a move that was made by the chairman to limit attention to himself and allow outrage by organized labor to be directed toward Kennedy.[87] In a famous scene, Kennedy squared off with Teamsters Union President Jimmy Hoffa during the antagonistic argument that marked Hoffa's testimony.[88] Kennedy, who was instructed to collect information, discovered several financial irregularities, such as that Hoffa had misappropriated $ million in union funds and made corrupt deals with employers.[89] During the hearings, Kennedy received criticism from liberal critics and other commentators both for his outburst of impassioned anger and doubts about the innocence of those who invoked the Fifth Amendment.[90] Senators Barry Goldwater and Karl Mundt wrote to each other and complained about "the Kennedy boys" having hijacked the McClellan Committee by their focus on Hoffa and the Teamsters. They believed Kennedy covered for Walter Reuther and the United Automobile Workers, a union i only have eyes for you remix typically would back Democratic office seekers. Amidst the allegations, Kennedy wrote in his journal that the two senators had "no guts" as they never addressed him directly, only through the press.[91] He left the committee in late in order to run his brother's presidential campaign.

In Kennedy published The Enemy Within, a book which described the corrupt practices within the Teamsters and other unions that he had helped investigate. John Seigenthaler assisted Kennedy.[92] Kennedy went to work on the presidential campaign of his brother, John.[93] In contrast to his role in his brother's previous campaign eight years prior, Kennedy gave stump speeches throughout the primary season, gaining confidence as time went on.[94] His strategy "to win at any cost" led him to call on Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. to attack Hubert Humphrey as a draft dodger; Roosevelt eventually did make the statement that Humphrey avoided service.[95]

Concerned that John Kennedy was going to receive the Democratic Party's nomination, some supporters of Lyndon Johnson, who was also running for the nomination, revealed to the press that JFK had Addison's disease, saying that he required life-sustaining cortisone treatments. Though in fact a diagnosis had been made, Kennedy tried to protect his brother by denying the allegation, saying that JFK had never had "an ailment described classically as Addison's disease".[96] After securing the nomination, John Kennedy nonetheless decided to offer Lyndon Johnson the vice presidency. This did not sit well with some Kennedy supporters, and Robert tried unsuccessfully to convince Johnson to turn down the offer, leading him to view Robert with contempt afterward.[97] RFK had already disliked Johnson prior to the presidential campaign, seeing him as a threat to his brother's ambitions.[98] RFK wanted his brother to choose labor leader Walter Reuther.[99] Despite Kennedy's attempts, Johnson became his brother's running mate.[]

Kennedy worked toward downplaying his brother's Catholic faith during the primary but took a more aggressive and supportive stance during the general election. These concerns were mostly calmed after JFK delivered a speech in September in Houston where he said that he was in favor of the separation of church and state.[] The following month, Kennedy was involved in securing the release of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. from a jail in Atlanta. Kennedy spoke with Georgia governor Ernest Vandiver and later Judge Oscar Mitchell, after the judge had sentenced King for violating his probation when he protested at a whites-only snack bar.[]

Attorney General of the United States (–)

After winning the presidential election, President-elect John F. Kennedy appointed his younger brother attorney general. The bmo harris bank wausau wi hours was controversial, with publications including The New York Times and The New Republic calling him inexperienced and unqualified.[] He had no experience in any state or federal court,[] causing the president to joke, "I can't see that it's wrong to give him a little legal experience before he goes out to practice law."[] But Kennedy was hardly a novice as a lawyer, having gained significant experience conducting investigations and questioning witnesses as a Justice Department attorney and Senate committee counsel and staff director.[]

According to Bobby Baker, the Senate majority secretary and a protégé of Lyndon Johnson, President-elect Kennedy did not want to name his brother attorney general, but their father overruled him. At the behest of Vice President-elect Johnson, Baker persuaded the influential Southern senator Richard Russell to allow a voice vote to confirm the president's brother in Januaryas Kennedy "would have been lucky to get 40 votes" on a roll-call vote.[][]

The deputy and assistant attorneys general Kennedy chose included Byron White and Nicholas Katzenbach.[] Kennedy also played a major role in helping his brother form his cabinet. John Kennedy wanted to name Senator J. William Fulbright, whom he knew and liked, as his secretary of state.[] Fulbright was generally regarded as the Senate's resident foreign policy expert, but he also supported segregation and white supremacy in the South. Robert Kennedy persuaded his brother that having Fulbright as secretary of state would cost the Democrats Afro-American votes, leading to Dean Rusk being nominated instead after John Kennedy decided that his next choice, McGeorge Bundy, was too young.[] Kennedy was also present at the job interview when the CEO of the Ford Motor Company, Robert McNamara, was interviewed by John Kennedy about becoming defense secretary.[] McNamara's self-confidence and belief that he could "scientifically" solve any problem via his "Systems Analysis" style of management impressed the Kennedy brothers, though John was rattled for a moment when McNamara asked if his bestselling book Profiles in Courage was written by a ghost writer.[] &#; &#;

Author James W. Hilty concludes that Kennedy "played an unusual combination of roles—campaign director, attorney general, executive overseer, controller of patronage, chief adviser, and brother protector" and that nobody before him had had such power.[] His tenure as attorney general was easily the period of greatest power for the office—no previous United States attorney general had enjoyed such clear influence on all areas of policy during an administration.[] To a great extent, President Kennedy sought the advice and counsel of his younger brother, with Robert being the telephone number for overstock com closest political adviser. He was relied upon as both the president's primary source of administrative information and as a general counsel with whom trust was implicit. He exercised widespread authority over every cabinet department, leading the Associated Press to dub him "Bobby—Washington's No. 2-man".[]

The president once remarked about his brother, "If I want something done and done immediately I rely on the Attorney General. He is very much the doer in this administration, and has an organizational gift I have rarely if ever seen surpassed."[]


As one of the president's closest White House advisers, Kennedy played a crucial role in the events surrounding the Berlin Crisis of [] Operating mainly through a private, backchannel connection to Soviet spy Georgi Bolshakov, he relayed important diplomatic communications between the American and Soviet governments.[] Most significantly, this connection helped the U.S. set up the Vienna Summit in Juneand later to defuse the tank standoff with the Soviets at Berlin's Checkpoint Charlie in October.[] Kennedy's visit with his wife to West Berlin in February demonstrated U.S. support for the city and helped repair the strained relationship between the administration and its special envoy in Berlin, Lucius D. Clay.[]

Organized crime and the Teamsters

John F. Kennedy, J. Edgar Hoover, and Kennedy in

As attorney general, Kennedy pursued a relentless crusade against organized crime and the Mafia, sometimes disagreeing on strategy with FBI DirectorJ. Edgar Hoover. Convictions against organized crime figures rose by percent during his term.[] Kennedy worked to shift Hoover's focus away from communism, which Hoover saw as a more serious threat, to organized crime. According to James Neff, Kennedy's success in this endeavor was due to his brother's position, giving the attorney general leverage over Hoover.[] Biographer Richard Hack concluded that Hoover's dislike for Kennedy came from his being unable to control him.[]

He was relentless in his pursuit of Teamsters Union president Jimmy Hoffa, due to Hoffa's known corruption in financial first national bank livingston tx electoral matters, both personally and organizationally,[] creating a so-called "Get Hoffa" squad of prosecutors and investigators.[] The enmity between the two men was intense, with accusations of a personal vendetta—what Hoffa called a "blood feud"—exchanged between them.[] On July 7,after Hoffa was reelected to the Teamsters presidency, RFK told reporters the government's case against Hoffa had not been changed by what he called "a small group of teamsters" supporting him.[] The fidelity home mortgage login year, it was leaked that Hoffa had claimed to a Teamster local that Kennedy had been "bodily" removed from his office, the statement being confirmed by a Teamster press agent and Hoffa saying Kennedy had only been ejected.[] On March 4,Hoffa was convicted in Chattanooga, Tennessee, of attempted bribery of a grand juror during his conspiracy trial in Nashville, Tennessee, and sentenced to eight years in prison and a $10, fine.[][] After learning of Hoffa's conviction by telephone, Kennedy issued congratulatory messages to the three prosecutors.[] While on bail during his appeal, Hoffa was convicted in a second trial held in Chicago, on July 26,on one count of conspiracy and three counts of mail and wire fraud for how did robert f kennedy die use of the Teamsters' pension fund, and sentenced to five years in prison.[][] Hoffa spent the next three years unsuccessfully appealing his convictions, and began serving his aggregate prison sentence of 13 years (eight years for bribery, five years for fraud)[] on March 7,at the Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania.[]

Civil rights

Kennedy expressed the administration's commitment to civil rights during a speech at the University of Georgia Law School:

Our position is quite clear. We are upholding the law. The federal government would not be running the schools in Prince Edward County any more than it is running the University of Georgia or the schools in my home state of Massachusetts. In this case, in all cases, I say to you today that if the orders of the court are circumvented, the Department of Justice will act. We will not stand by or be aloof—we will move. I happen to believe that the decision was right. But my belief does not matter. It is now the law. Some of you may believe the decision was wrong. That does not matter. It is the law.[]

Kennedy speaking to civil rights demonstrators in front of the Justice Departmenton June 14,

FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover viewed civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. as an upstart troublemaker,[] calling him an "enemy of the state".[] In February [] Hoover presented Kennedy with allegations that some of King's close confidants and advisers were communists.[] Concerned about the allegations, the FBI deployed agents to monitor King in the following months.[] Kennedy warned King to discontinue the suspected associations. In response, King agreed to ask suspected Communist Jack O'Dell to resign from the SCLC, but refused to heed to the request to ask Stanley Levison, whom he regarded as a trusted advisor, to resign.[] In October ,[] Kennedy issued a written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, King's civil rights organization.[8] Although Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so",[] Hoover extended the clearance so that his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy.[] The wiretapping continued through June and was revealed indays before Kennedy's death.[]

Kennedy remained committed to civil rights enforcement to such a degree that he commented in that it seemed to envelop almost every area of his public and private life, from prosecuting corrupt Southern electoral officials to answering late night calls from Coretta Scott King concerning the imprisonment of her husband for demonstrations in Alabama.[] During his tenure as attorney general, he undertook the most energetic and persistent desegregation of the administration that Capitol Hill had ever experienced. He demanded that every area of government begin recruiting realistic levels of black and other ethnic workers, going so far as to criticize Vice President Johnson for his failure to desegregate his own office staff. But relations between the Kennedys and civil rights activists could be tense, partly due to the administration's decision that a number of complaints King filed with the Justice Department between and be handled "through negotiation between the city commission and Negro citizens."[]

Kennedy and Vice President Johnson meeting with civil rights leaders at the White House on June 22,

Although it has become commonplace to assert the phrase "The Kennedy Administration" or even "President Kennedy" when discussing the legislative and executive support of the civil rights movement, between and a great many of the initiatives were the result of the passion and determination of an emboldened Robert Kennedy, who, through his rapid education in the realities of Southern racism, underwent a thorough conversion of purpose as attorney general. Asked in an interview in May"What do you see as the big problem ahead for you, is it crime or internal security?" Kennedy replied, "Civil rights."[] The president came to share his brother's sense of urgency on the matters at hand to such an extent that it was at the attorney general's insistence that he made his famous June address to the nation on civil rights.[]

Kennedy played a large role in the response to the Freedom Riders protests. He acted after the Anniston bus bombings to protect the Riders in continuing their journey, sending John Seigenthaler, his administrative assistant, to Alabama to attempt to secure the Riders' safety there. Despite a work rule which allowed a driver to decline an assignment which he regarded as a potentially unsafe one, he persuaded a manager of The Greyhound Corporation to obtain a coach operator who was willing to drive a special bus for the continuance of the Freedom Ride from Birmingham, Alabama, to Montgomery, Alabama, on the circuitous journey to Jackson, Mississippi.[]

Later, during the attack and burning by a white mob of the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, at which Martin Luther King Jr. and some 1, sympathizers were in attendance, the attorney general telephoned King to ask for his assurance that they would not leave the building until the force of U.S. Marshals and National Guard he sent had secured the area. King proceeded to berate Kennedy for "allowing the situation to continue". King later publicly thanked him for dispatching the forces to break up the attack that might otherwise have ended his life.[][] Kennedy then negotiated the safe passage of the Freedom Riders from the First Baptist Church to Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested.[] He offered to bail the Freedom Riders out of jail, but they refused, which upset him.

Kennedy's attempts to end the Freedom Rides early were tied to an upcoming summit with Nikita Khrushchev and Charles de Gaulle. He believed the continued international publicity of race riots would tarnish the president heading into international negotiations.[] This attempt to curtail the Freedom Rides alienated many of the civil rights leaders who, at the time, perceived him as intolerant and narrow-minded.[] In an attempt to better understand and improve race relations, Kennedy held walmart eye center mexico mo private meeting in New York City in May with a black delegation coordinated by prominent author James Baldwin.

In SeptemberKennedy sent a force of U.S. marshals and deputized U.S. Border Patrol agents and federal prison guards to Oxford, Mississippi, to enforce a federal court order allowing the admittance of the first African-American student, James Meredith, to the University of Mississippi.[] The attorney general had hoped that legal means, along with the escort of federal officers, would be enough to force Governor Ross Barnett to allow Meredith's admission. He also was very concerned there might be a "mini-civil war" between federal troops and armed protesters.[] President Kennedy reluctantly sent federal troops after the situation on campus turned violent.[]

Ensuing riots during the period of Meredith's admittance resulted in injuries and two deaths,[] yet Kennedy remained adamant that black students had the right to enjoy the benefits of all levels of the educational system. The Office of Civil Rights also hired its first African-American lawyer and began to work cautiously with leaders of the Civil Rights Movement.[citation needed] Kennedy saw voting as the key to racial justice and collaborated with presidents Kennedy and Johnson to create the landmark Civil Rights Act ofwhich helped bring an end to Jim Crow laws. Between December and DecemberKennedy also expanded the United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division by 60 percent.[]

U.S. Steel

At the direction of the president, Kennedy also used the power of federal agencies to influence U.S. Steel not to institute a price increase.[]The Wall Street Journal wrote that the administration had set prices of steel "by naked power, by threats, by agents of the state security police."[] Yale law professor Charles Reich wrote in The New Republic that the Justice Department had violated civil liberties by calling a federal grand jury to indict U.S. Steel so quickly, then disbanding it after the price increase did not occur.[]

Death penalty issues

During the Kennedy administration, the federal government carried out its last pre-Furman federal execution (of Victor Feguer in Iowa, ),[] and Kennedy, as attorney general, represented the government in this case.[]

In Kennedy expressed his strong willingness to support a bill then under consideration for the abolition of the death penalty.[]


As his brother's confidant, Kennedy oversaw the CIA's anti-Castro activities after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. He also helped develop the strategy during the Cuban Missile Crisis to blockade Cuba instead of initiating a military strike that might have led to nuclear war. He had initially been among the more hawkish members of the administration on matters concerning Cuban insurrectionist aid. His initial strong support for covert actions in Cuba soon changed to a position of removal from further involvement once he became aware of the CIA's tendency to draw out initiatives, and provide itself with almost unchecked authority in matters of foreign covert operations.[citation needed]

President Kennedy with his brother Robert,

Allegations that the Kennedys knew of plans by the CIA to kill Fidel Castro, or approved of such plans, have been debated by historians over the years. JFK's friend and associate, historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., for example, expressed the opinion that operatives linked to the CIA were among the most reckless individuals to have operated during the period—providing themselves with unscrutinized freedoms to how did robert f kennedy die the lives of Castro and other members of the Cuban revolutionary government regardless of the legislative apparatus in Washington—freedoms that, unbeknownst to those at the White House attempting to prevent a nuclear war, placed the entire U.S.–Soviet relationship in perilous danger.[citation needed]

The "Family Jewels" documents, declassified by the CIA insuggest that before the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the attorney general personally authorized one such assassination attempt.[][] But there is ample evidence to the contrary, such as that Kennedy was informed of an earlier plot involving the CIA's use of Mafia bosses Santo Trafficante Jr. and John Roselli only during a briefing on May 7,and in fact directed the CIA to halt any existing efforts directed at Castro's assassination.[] Concurrently, Kennedy served as the president's personal representative in Operation Mongoose, the post-Bay of Pigs covert operations program the president established in November [] Mongoose was meant to incite revolution in Cuba that would result in Castro's downfall, not his assassination.[][]

During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy proved himself to be a gifted politician with an ability to obtain compromises, tempering aggressive positions of key figures in the hawk camp. The trust the president placed in him on matters of negotiation was such that his role in the crisis is today seen as having been of vital importance in securing a blockade, which averted a full military engagement between the United States and the USSR.[] His clandestine meetings with members of the Soviet government continued to provide a key link to Khrushchev during even the darkest moments of the crisis, when the threat of nuclear strikes was considered very real.[] On the last night of the crisis, President Kennedy was so grateful for his brother's work in averting nuclear war that he summed it up by saying, "Thank God for Bobby."[]


At a summit meeting with Japanese prime minister Hayato Ikeda in Washington D.C. inPresident Kennedy promised to make a reciprocal visit to Japan in ,[] but the decision to resume atmospheric nuclear testing forced him to postpone such a visit, and he sent Bobby in his stead.[] Kennedy and his wife Ethel arrived in Tokyo in February at a very sensitive time in U.S.-Japan relations, shortly after the massive Anpo protests against the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty had highlighted anti-American grievances. Kennedy won over a highly skeptical Japanese public and press with his cheerful, open demeanor, sincerity, and youthful energy.[] Most famously, Kennedy scored a public relations coup during a nationally televised speech at Https www suntrust online banking University in Tokyo. When radical Marxist student activists from Zengakuren attempted to shout him down, he calmly invited one of them on stage and engaged the student in an impromptu debate.[] Kennedy's calmness under fire and willingness to take the student's questions seriously won many admirers in Japan and praise from the Japanese media, both for himself and on his brother's behalf.[]

Robert Kennedy at the funeral of his brother, President John F. Kennedy, November 25,

At the time that President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas on November 22,RFK was at home with aides from the Justice Department. J. Edgar Hoover called and told him his brother had been shot.[] Hoover then hung up before he could ask any questions. Kennedy later said he thought Hoover had enjoyed telling him the news.[] Kennedy then received a call from Tazewell Shepard, a naval aide to the president, who told him that his brother was dead.[] Shortly after the call from Hoover, Kennedy phoned McGeorge Bundy at the White House, instructing him to change the locks on the president's files. He ordered the Secret Service to dismantle the Oval Office and cabinet room's secret taping systems. He scheduled a meeting with CIA director John McCone and asked if the CIA had any involvement in his brother's death. McCone denied it, with Kennedy later telling investigator Walter Sheridan that he asked the director "in a way that he couldn't lie to me, and they [the CIA] hadn't".[]

An hour after the president was shot, Bobby Kennedy received a phone call from Vice President Johnson before Johnson boarded Air Force One. RFK remembered their conversation starting with Johnson demonstrating sympathy before the vice president stated his belief that he should be sworn in immediately; RFK opposed the idea since he felt "it would be nice" for President Kennedy's body to return to Washington with the deceased president still being the incumbent.[] Eventually, the two concluded that the best course of action would be for Johnson to take the oath of office before returning to Washington.[] In his book We Band of Brothers, aide Edwin O. Guthman recounted Kennedy admitting to him an hour after receiving word of his brother's death that he thought he would be the one "they would get" as opposed to his brother.[] In the days following the assassination, he wrote letters to his two eldest children, Kathleen and Joseph, saying that as the oldest Kennedy family members of their generation, they had a special responsibility to remember what their uncle had started and to love and serve their country.[][] He was originally opposed to Jacqueline Kennedy's decision to have a closed casket, as he wanted the funeral to keep with tradition, but he changed his mind after seeing the cosmetic, waxen remains.[]

Kennedy was asked by Democratic Party leaders to introduce a film about his late brother at the party convention. When he was introduced, the crowd, including party bosses, elected officials, and delegates, applauded thunderously and tearfully for a full 22 minutes before they would let him speak.[] He was close to breaking down before he spoke about his brother's vision for both the party and the nation and recited a quote from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet () that Jacqueline had given him:

When [he] shall die
Take him and cut him out in little stars,
And he will make the face of heaven so fine
That all the world will be in love with night
And pay no worship to the garish sun.

The ten-month investigation by the Warren Commission of – concluded that the president had been assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald and that Oswald had acted alone. On September 27,Kennedy issued a statement through his New York campaign office: "As I said in Poland last summer, I am convinced Oswald was solely responsible for what happened and that he did not have any outside help or assistance. He was a malcontent who could not get along here or in the Soviet Union."[] He added, "I have not read the report, nor do I intend to. But I have been briefed on it and I am completely satisfied that the Commission investigated every lead and examined every piece of evidence. The Commission's inquiry was thorough and conscientious."[] After a meeting with Kennedy inArthur M. Schlesinger Jr. wrote: "It is evident that he believes that [the Warren Commission's report] was a poor job and will not endorse it, but that he is unwilling to criticize it and thereby reopen the whole tragic business."[] Jerry Bruno, an "advance man" for JFK who also worked on RFK's presidential campaign, would later state in "I talked to Robert Kennedy many times about the Warren Commission, and he never doubted their result."[] In a interview with CBS journalist Charlie Rose, son Robert F. Kennedy Jr. stated that his father was "fairly convinced" that others besides Oswald were involved in his brother's assassination and that he privately believed the Commission's report was a "shoddy piece of craftsmanship".[]

The killing was judged as having a profound impact on Kennedy. Beran assesses the assassination as having moved Kennedy away from reliance on the political system and to become more questioning.[] Tye views Kennedy following the death of his brother as "more fatalistic, having seen how fast he could lose what he cherished the most."[]

Vice presidential candidate

Kennedy with David Dubinskyin an undated photo. The sign in the background reads, "For President – Lyndon B. Johnson".

In the wake of the assassination of his brother and Lyndon Johnson's ascension to the presidency, with the office of vice president now vacant, Kennedy was viewed favorably as a potential candidate for the position in the presidential election. Several Kennedy partisans called for him to be drafted in tribute to his brother; national polling showed that three of four Democrats were in favor of him as Johnson's running mate. Democratic organizers supported him as a write-in candidate in the New Hampshire primary and 25, Democrats wrote in Kennedy's name in Marchonly 3, fewer than the number of Democrats who wrote in Johnson's name as their pick for president.[]

Kennedy discussed the vice presidency with Arthur Schlesinger. Schlesinger thought that he should develop his own political base first, and Kennedy observed that the job "was really based on waiting around for someone to die". In his first interview after the assassination Kennedy said he was not considering the vice presidency. During this time he said of the coalescing Johnson administration, "It's too early for me to even think about '64, because I don't know whether I want to have any part of these people. If they don't fulfill and follow out my brother's program, I don't want to have anything to do with them."[] But in January Kennedy began low-key inquiries as to the vice-presidential position and by the summer was developing plans to help Johnson in cities and in the Northeast based on JFK's campaign strategies.[]

Despite the fanfare within the Democratic Party, Johnson was not inclined to have Kennedy on his ticket. The two disliked one another intensely, with feelings often described as "mutual contempt" that went back to their first meeting inand had only intensified during JFK's presidency.[][] At the time, Johnson privately said of Kennedy, "I don't need that little runt to win", while Kennedy privately said of Johnson that he was "mean, bitter, vicious—an animal in many ways".[] To block Kennedy, Johnson considered nominating his brother-in-law Sargent Shriver for vice president, but the Kennedy family vetoed that.[] Kenny O'Donnell, a Kennedy aide who stayed on to serve Johnson, told the president that if he wanted a Catholic vice president, the only candidate available was Kennedy.[] Johnson instead chose Senator Hubert Humphrey.[]

During a post-presidency interview with historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, Johnson claimed that Kennedy "acted like he was the custodian of the Kennedy dream" despite Johnson being seen as this after JFK was assassinated, arguing that he had "waited" how to close account td bank turn and Kennedy should have done the same. Johnson recalled a "tidal wave of letters and memos about how great a vice president Bobby would be", but felt he could not "let it happen" as he viewed the possibility of Kennedy on the ticket as ensuring that he would never know if he could be elected "on my own".[] On July 27,Kennedy was summoned to the White House and told by Johnson that he did not want him as his running mate, leading the former to say "I could have helped you".[] Johnson wanted Kennedy to tell the media that he decided to withdraw his name, but he refused, saying the president could do that himself.[] Johnson wanted a way to announce that he had refused Kennedy serving as his running mate without appearing to be motivated by malice towards a man he disliked and distrusted.[] The Democratic power broker Clark Clifford suggested to Johnson a way to block Kennedy. At a meeting in the Oval Office that, unknown to him, was being recorded, Clifford said: "Why don't you reach a policy decision that, after careful consideration, you've decided that you're not going to select anyone from your cabinet?"[] When Johnson replied "That's pretty thin, isn't it?", leading Clifford to answer, "Well, it is pretty thin, but it's a lot better than nothing".[]

In JulyJohnson issued an official statement ruling out all of his current cabinet members as potential running mates, judging them to be "so valuable in their current posts". In response to this statement, angry letters poured in directed towards both Johnson and his wife, Lady Bird, expressing disappointment at Kennedy being dropped from the field of potential running mates.[] Johnson, worried that delegates at the convention would draft Kennedy onto the ticket, ordered the FBI to monitor Kennedy's contacts and actions, and to make sure that he could not speak until after Hubert Humphrey was confirmed as his running mate.[] After making his announcement, Johnson at an "off-the-record" meeting in the Oval Office with three journalists boasted about how he had gotten "that damned albatross off his neck" as he proceeded to mock what he called Kennedy's "funny" voice and mannerisms.[] Though not published in the newspapers, Kennedy quickly learned of Johnson's performance and demanded an apology, only to have the president deny the story.[] After hearing Johnson's denial, Kennedy wrote: "He tells so many lies that he convinces himself after a while he's telling the truth. He just doesn't recognize truth or falsehood".[]

In a meeting with Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Johnson talked about Kennedy. Both felt that Kennedy was "freakish ambitious" with Rusk saying: "Mr. President, I just can't wrap my mind around that kind of ambition. I don't know how to understand it".[] Both were afraid that Kennedy might use the nostalgia for his assassinated brother to "stampede" the Democratic National Convention delegates to how did robert f kennedy die him, and were hoping that Kennedy might run for Senate in New York, though Rusk was also worried that a Senate run would serve as "a drag on your own position in New York state".[] Furthermore, white Southerners tended to vote Democratic as a bloc at the time, and a poll in showed that 33% of Southerners would not vote Democratic if Kennedy were Johnson's running mate, causing many Democrat leaders to oppose Kennedy serving as Vice President, lest it alienate one of the most solid and reliable blocs of Democratic voters.[]

At the DNC, Kennedy appeared on the stage to introduce a film honoring his late brother, A Thousand Days, causing the convention hall to explode with cheers for 22 minutes despite Kennedy's gestures indicating that he wanted the crowd to fall silent so he could began his speech.[] Senator Henry Jackson advised Kennedy, "Let them get it out of their system" as he stood on the stage raising his hand to signal he wanted the crowd to stop cheering.[] When the crowd finally stopped cheering, Kennedy gave his speech, which ended with a quotation from Romeo and Juliet: "When he shall die, take him and cut him out in little stars, And he will make the face of heaven so fine, That all the world shall be in love with night, and pay no worship to the garish sun".[] Johnson knew instantly that the reference to the "garish sun" was to him.[]

U.S. Senate (–)


See also: United States Senate election in New York

Kennedy at the Democratic National Convention

Nine months after his brother's assassination, Kennedy left the cabinet to run for a seat in the U.S. Senate representing New York,[] announcing his candidacy on August 25,two days before the end of that year's Democratic National Convention.[] He had considered the possibility of running for the seat since early spring, but also giving consideration for governor of Massachusetts or, as he put it, "go away", leaving politics altogether after the plane crash and injury of his brother Ted in June, two months earlier.[] Positive reception in Europe convinced him to remain in politics.[] Kennedy was lauded during trips to Germany and Poland, the denizens of the latter country's greetings to Kennedy being interpreted by Leaming as evaporating the agony he had sustained since his brother's passing.[] Kennedy was given permission to run long i love you quotes for him the New York State Democratic Committee on September 1, amid mixed feelings in regards to his candidacy.[] Despite their notoriously difficult relationship, Johnson gave considerable support to Kennedy's campaign.

His opponent was Republican incumbent Kenneth Keating, who attempted to portray Kennedy as an arrogant carpetbagger since he did not reside in the state.[][]The New York Times editorialized, "there is nothing illegal about the possible nomination of Robert F. Kennedy of Massachusetts as Senator from New York, but there is plenty of cynical about it, merely choosing the state as a convenient launching‐pad for the political ambitions of himself."[][] The main reason Kennedy chose not to run for the U.S. Senate from his native Massachusetts was that his younger brother Ted was running for re-election.[] RFK charged Keating with having "not done much of anything constructive" despite his presence in Congress during a September 8 press conference.[] Kennedy won the November election, helped in part by Johnson's huge victory margin in New York.[]


Kennedy drew where can i load my cash app card with money in Congress early on as the brother of President Kennedy, which set him apart from other senators. He drew more than 50 senators as spectators when he delivered a speech in the Senate on nuclear proliferation in June [] But he also saw a decline in his power, going from the president's most trusted advisor to one of a hundred senators, and his impatience with collaborative lawmaking showed.[] Though fellow senator Fred R. Harris expected not to like Kennedy, the two became allies; Harris even called them "each other's best friends in the Senate".[] Kennedy's younger brother Ted was his senior there. Robert saw his brother as a guide on managing within the Senate, and the arrangement worked to deepen their relationship.[] Harris noted commerce bank bolivar mo hours Kennedy was intense about matters and issues that concerned him.[] Kennedy gained a reputation in the Senate for being well prepared for debate, but his tendency to speak to other senators in a more "blunt" fashion caused him to be "unpopular with many of his colleagues".[]

While serving in the Senate, Kennedy advocated gun control. In May he co-sponsored S, proposed by President Johnson and sponsored by Senator Thomas J. Dodd, that would put federal restrictions on mail-order gun sales.[] Speaking in support of the bill, Kennedy said, "For too long we dealt with these deadly weapons as if they were harmless toys. Yet their very presence, the ease of their acquisition and the familiarity of their appearance have led to thousands of deaths each year. With the passage of this bill we will begin to meet our responsibilities. It would save hundreds of thousands of lives in this country and spare thousands of families grief and heartache. "[][] In remarks during a May campaign stop in Roseburg, Oregon, Kennedy defended the bill as keeping firearms away from "people who have no business with guns or rifles". The bill forbade "mail order sale of guns to the very young, those with criminal records and the insane," according to The Oregonian's report.[][] S and subsequent bills, and the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, paved the way for the eventual passage of the Gun Control Act of []

Kennedy and his staff had employed a cautionary "amendments–only" strategy for his first year in the senate. In and they took more direct legislative action, but were met with increasing resistance from the Johnson administration.[] Despite perceptions that the two were hostile in their respective offices to each other, U.S. News reported Kennedy's support of the Johnson administration's "Great Society" program through his voting record. Kennedy supported both major and minor parts of the program, and each year over 60% of his roll call votes were consistently in favor of Johnson's policies.[]

On February 8,Kennedy urged the United States to pledge that it would not be the first country to use nuclear weapons against countries that did not have them noting that China had made the pledge and the Soviet Union indicated it was also willing to do so.[]

In Junehe visited apartheid-era South Africa accompanied by his wife, Ethel, and a few aides. The tour was greeted with international praise at a time when few politicians dared to entangle themselves in the politics of South Africa. He spoke out against the oppression of the native population, and was welcomed by the black population as though he were a visiting head of state. In an interview with Look magazine he said:

At the University of Natal in Durban, I was told the church to which most of the white population belongs teaches apartheid as a moral necessity. A questioner declared that few churches allow black Africans to pray with the white because the Bible says that is the way it should be, because God created Negroes to serve. "But suppose God is black", I replied. "What if we go to Heaven and we, all our lives, have treated the Negro as an inferior, and God is there, and we look up and He is not white? What then is our response?" There was no answer. Only silence.[]

At the University of Cape Town he delivered the annual Day of Affirmation Address. A quote from this address appears on his memorial at Arlington National Cemetery: "Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope."[]

On January 28,Kennedy began a ten-day stay in Europe, meeting Harold Wilson in London who advised him to tell President Johnson about his belief that the ongoing Vietnam conflict was wrong. Upon returning to the U.S. in early February, he was confronted by the press who asked him if his conversations abroad had negatively impacted American foreign relations.[]

Kennedy (right) speaks with children while touring Bedford–Stuyvesant in Brooklyn, February

During his years as a senator, he helped to start a successful redevelopment project in poverty-stricken Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn.[] Schlesinger wrote that Kennedy had hoped Bedford-Stuyvesant would become an example of self-imposed growth for other impoverished neighborhoods. Kennedy had difficulty securing support from President Johnson, whose administration was charged by Kennedy as having opposed a "special impact" program meant to bring about the federal progress that he had supported. Robert B. Semple Jr. repeated similar sentiments in Septemberwriting the Johnson administration was preparing "a concentrated attack" on Robert F. Kennedy's proposal that Semple claimed would "build more and better low-cost housing in the slums through private enterprise." Kennedy confided to journalist Jack Newfield that while he tried collaborating with the administration through courting its members and compromising with the bill, "They didn't even try to work something out together. To them it's all just politics."[]

He also visited the Mississippi Delta as a member of the Senate committee reviewing the effectiveness of "War on Poverty" programs, particularly that of the Economic Opportunity Act of []Marian Wright Edelman described Kennedy as "deeply moved and outraged" by the sight of the starving children living rockland luggage melbourne 3 piece hardside luggage set the economically abysmal climate, changing her impression of him from "tough, arrogant, and politically driven."[] Edelman noted further that the senator requested she call on Martin Luther King Jr. to bring the impoverished to Washington, D.C., to make them more visible, leading to the creation of the Poor People's Campaign.[] Kennedy sought to remedy the problems of poverty through legislation to encourage private industry to locate in poverty-stricken areas, thus creating jobs for the unemployed, and stressed the importance of work over welfare.[]

Kennedy worked on the Senate Labor Committee at the time of the workers' rights activism of Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA).[] At the request of labor leader Walter Reuther, who had previously marched with and provided money to Chavez, Kennedy flew out to Delano, California, amazon fire stick 4k sound out of sync investigate the situation.[] Although little attention was paid to the first two committee hearings in March for legislation to include farm workers by an amendment of the National Labor Relations Act, Kennedy's attendance at the third hearing brought media coverage.[] Biographer Thomas wrote that Kennedy was moved after seeing the conditions of the workers, who he deemed were being taken advantage of. Chavez stressed to Kennedy that migrant workers needed to be recognized as human beings. Kennedy later engaged in an exchange with Kern County sheriff Leroy Galyen where he criticized the sheriff's deputies for taking photographs of "people on picket lines."[]

As a senator, he was popular among African Americans and other minorities including Native Americans and immigrant groups. He spoke forcefully in favor of what he called the "disaffected",[] the impoverished,[] and "the excluded",[] thereby aligning himself with leaders of the civil rights struggle and social justice campaigners, leading the Democratic party in pursuit of a more aggressive agenda to eliminate perceived discrimination on all levels. He supported desegregation busing, integration of all public facilities, the Voting Rights Act ofand anti-poverty social programs to increase education, offer opportunities for employment, and provide health care for African Americans. Consistent with President Kennedy's Alliance for Progress, he also placed increasing emphasis on human rights as a central focus of U.S. foreign policy.


The JFK administration had backed U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world in the frame of the Cold War, but Kennedy was not known to be involved in discussions on the Vietnam War when he was his brother's attorney general.[][] According to historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, before choosing to run for the Senate, Kennedy had sought an ambassadorship to South Vietnam.[] Jaguar f pace 2020 the Senate, Kennedy initially kept private his disagreements with President Johnson on the war. While Kennedy vigorously supported his brother's earlier efforts, he never publicly advocated commitment of ground troops. Though bothered by the beginning of the bombing of North Vietnam in FebruaryKennedy did not wish to appear antipathetic to the president's agenda.[] But by April, Kennedy was advocating a halt to the bombing to Johnson, who acknowledged that Kennedy played a part in influencing his choice to temporarily cease bombing the following month.[] Kennedy cautioned Johnson against sending combat troops as early asbut Johnson chose instead to follow the recommendation of the rest of his predecessor's still intact staff of advisers. In July, after Johnson made a large commitment of American ground forces to Vietnam, Kennedy made multiple calls for a settlement through negotiation. The next month, John Paul Vann, a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army, wrote that Kennedy "indicat[ed] comprehension of the problems we face", in a letter to the senator.[] In DecemberKennedy advised his friend, the Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, that he should counsel Johnson to declare a ceasefire in Vietnam, a bombing pause over North Vietnam, and to take up an offer by Algeria to serve as a "honest broker" in peace talks.[] The left-wing Algerian government had friendly relations with North Vietnam and the National Liberation Front and had indicated in that it was willing to serve as a conduit for peace talks, but most of Johnson's advisers were leery of the Algerian offer.[]

On January 31,Kennedy in a speech on the Senate floor stated: "If we regard bombing as the answer in Vietnam, we are headed straight for disaster".[] Walmart eye center mexico mo FebruaryKennedy released a peace plan that called for preserving South Vietnam while at the same time allowing the National Liberation Front, better known as the Viet Cong, to join a coalition government in Saigon.[] When asked by reporters if he was speaking on behalf of Johnson, Kennedy replied: "I don't think anyone has ever suggested that I was speaking for the White House".[] Kennedy's peace plan made front page news with The New York Times calling it a break with the president while the Chicago Tribunal labelled him in an editorial "Ho Chi Kennedy".[] Vice President Humphrey on a visit to New Zealand stated that Kennedy's "peace recipe" included "a dose of arsenic" while the National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy quoted to the press Kennedy's remarks from saying he was against including Communists in coalition governments (though Kennedy's subject was Germany, not Vietnam).[] Kennedy was displeased when he heard anti-war protesters chanting his name, saying "I'm not Wayne Morse".[] To put aside reports of a rift with Johnson, Kennedy flew with Johnson on Air Force One on a trip to New York on February 23,and barely clapped his hands in approval when Johnson denied waging a war of conquest in Vietnam.[] In an interview with the Today program, Kennedy conceded that his views on Vietnam were "a little confusing".[] &#;

Senator Robert F. Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson in the Oval Office,

In AprilKennedy had a private meeting with Philip Heymann of the State Department's Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs to discuss efforts to secure the release of American prisoners of war in Vietnam. Kennedy wanted to press the Johnson administration to do more, but Heymann insisted that the administration believed the "consequences of sitting down with the Viet Cong" mattered more than the prisoners they were holding captive.[] On June 29 of that year, Kennedy released a statement disavowing President Johnson's choice to bomb Haiphong, but he avoided criticizing either the war or the president's overall foreign policy, believing that it might harm Democratic candidates in the midterm elections.[] In August, the International Herald Tribune described Kennedy's popularity as outpacing President Johnson's, crediting Kennedy's attempts to end the Vietnam conflict which the public increasingly desired.[]

In the early part ofKennedy traveled to Europe, where he had discussions republic bank trinidad online banking login Vietnam with leaders and diplomats. A story leaked to the State Department that Kennedy was talking about seeking peace while President Johnson was pursuing the war. Johnson became convinced that Kennedy was undermining his authority. He voiced this during a meeting with Kennedy, who reiterated the interest of the European leaders to pause the bombing while going forward with negotiations; Johnson declined to do so.[] On March 2, Kennedy outlined a three-point plan to end the war which included suspending the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam, and the eventual withdrawal of American and North Vietnamese soldiers from South Vietnam; this plan was rejected by Secretary of StateDean Rusk, who believed North Vietnam would never agree to it.[] On May 15, Kennedy debated Governor of CaliforniaRonald Reagan about the war.[][] On November 26,during an appearance on Face the Nation, Kennedy asserted that the Johnson administration had deviated from his brother's policies in Vietnam, his first time contrasting the two administrations' policies on the war. He added that the view that Americans were fighting to end communism in Vietnam was "immoral".[][]

On February 8,Kennedy delivered an address in Chicago, where he critiqued Saigon "government corruption" and expressed his disagreement with the Johnson administration's stance that the war would determine the future of Asia.[] On March 14, Kennedy met with defense secretary Clark Clifford at the Pentagon regarding the war. Clifford's notes indicate that Kennedy was offering not to enter the ongoing Democratic presidential primary if President Johnson would admit publicly to having been wrong in his war policy and appoint "a group of persons to conduct a study in depth of the issues and come up with a recommended course of action";[] Johnson rejected the proposal.[] On April 1, after President Johnson halted bombing of North Vietnam, RFK said the decision was a "step toward peace" and, though offering to collaborate with Johnson for national unity, opted to continue his presidential bid.[] On May 1, while in Lafayette, Indiana, Kennedy said continued delays in beginning peace talks with North Vietnam meant both more lives lost and the postponing of the "domestic progress" hoped for by the US.[] Later that month, Kennedy called the war "the gravest kind of error" in a speech in Corvallis, Oregon.[] In an interview on June 4, hours before he was shot, Kennedy continued to advocate for a change in policy towards the war.[]

Despite his criticism of the Vietnam War and the South Vietnam government, Kennedy also stated in his campaign brochure that he did not support either a simple withdrawal or a surrender in South Vietnam and favored instead a change in the course of action taken so it would bring an "honorable peace."[]

Presidential candidate

Main article: Robert F. Kennedy presidential campaign

See also: United States presidential election and Democratic Party presidential primaries

Tired but still intense in the last days before his Oregon defeat, Robert Kennedy speaks from the platform of a campaign train.

In President Johnson prepared to run for re-election. In January, faced with what was widely considered an unrealistic race against an incumbent president, Kennedy stated that he would not seek the presidency.[] After the Tet Offensive in Vietnam in early Februaryhe received a letter from writer Pete Hamill that said poor people kept pictures of President Kennedy on their walls and that Kennedy had an "obligation of staying true to whatever it was that put those pictures on those walls."[]

Kennedy traveled to Delano, California, to meet with civil rights activist César Chávez, who was on a day hunger strike showing his commitment to nonviolence.[] It was on this visit to California that Kennedy decided he would challenge Johnson for the presidency, telling his former Justice Department aides, Edwin Guthman and Peter Edelman, that his first step was to get lesser-known Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota to drop out of the presidential race.[]

The weekend before the New Hampshire primary, Kennedy announced to several aides that he would attempt to persuade McCarthy to withdraw from the race to avoid splitting the antiwar vote, but Senator George McGovern urged Kennedy to wait until after that primary to announce his candidacy.[] Johnson won a narrow victory in the New Hampshire primary on March 12,against McCarthy, but this close second-place result dramatically boosted McCarthy's standing in the race.[]

After much speculation, and reports leaking out about his plans,[] and seeing in McCarthy's success that Johnson's hold on the job was not as strong as originally thought, Kennedy declared his candidacy on March 16,in the Caucus Room of the old Senate office building, the same room where his brother had declared his own candidacy eight years earlier.[] He stated, "I do not run for the presidency merely to oppose any man, but to propose new policies. I run because I am convinced that this country is on a perilous course and because I have such strong feelings about what must be done, and I feel that I'm obliged to do all I can."[]

McCarthy supporters angrily denounced Kennedy as an opportunist. They believed that McCarthy had taken the most courageous stand by opposing the sitting president of his own party and that santander consumer usa my account login surprising result in New Hampshire had earned him the mantle of being the anti-war candidate. Kennedy's announcement split the anti-war movement in two.[] On March 31,Johnson stunned the nation by dropping out of the race. Vice President Hubert Humphrey, a champion of the labor unions and a long supporter of civil rights, entered the race with the financial backing and critical endorsement of the party "establishment", including most members of Congress, mayors, governors, "the south", and several major labor unions.[] With state registration deadlines long past, Humphrey joined the race too late to enter any primaries but had the support of the president.[][] Kennedy, like his brother before him, planned to win the nomination through popular support in the primaries.

Kennedy campaigning in Los Angeles (photo courtesy of John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, Boston)

Kennedy ran on a platform of racial and economic justice, non-aggression in foreign policy, decentralization of power, and social change. A crucial element of his campaign was an engagement with the young, whom he identified as being the future of a reinvigorated American society based on partnership and equality. His policy objectives did not sit well with the business community, where he was viewed as something of a fiscal liability, opposed as they were to the tax increases necessary to fund social programs. At one of his university speeches (Indiana University Medical School), he was asked, "Where are we going to get the money to pay for all these new programs you're proposing?" He replied to the medical students, about to enter lucrative careers, "From you."[][]

It was this intense and frank mode of dialogue with which he was to continue to engage those whom he viewed as not being traditional allies of Democratic ideals or initiatives. In a speech at the University of Alabama, he argued, "I believe that any who seek high office this year must go before all Americans, not just those who agree with them, but also those who disagree, recognizing that it is not just our supporters, not just those who vote used trailer homes for sale in south carolina us, but all Americans who we must lead in the difficult years ahead."[] He aroused rabid animosity in some quarters, with J. Edgar Hoover's Deputy Clyde Tolson reported as saying, "I hope that someone shoots and kills the son of a bitch."[]

Kennedy's presidential campaign brought out both "great enthusiasm" and anger in people. His message of change raised hope for some and brought fear to others. Kennedy wanted to be a bridge across the divide of American society. His bid for the presidency saw not only a continuation of the programs he and his brother had undertaken during the president's term in office, but also an extension of Johnson's Great Society.[]

Kennedy visited numerous small towns and made himself available to the masses by participating in long motorcades and street-corner stump speeches, often in troubled inner cities. He made urban poverty a chief concern of his campaign, which in part led to enormous crowds that would attend his events in poor urban areas or rural parts of Appalachia.[]

On April 4,Kennedy learned of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. and gave a heartfelt impromptu speech in Indianapolis's inner city, calling for a reconciliation between the races. The address was the first time Kennedy spoke publicly about his brother's killing.[]Riots broke out in 60 cities in the wake of King's death, but not in Indianapolis, a fact many attribute to the effect of this speech.[] Kennedy addressed the City Club of Cleveland the next day, on April 5,delivering the famous On the Mindless Menace of Violence speech.[] He attended King's funeral, accompanied by Jacqueline and Ted Kennedy. He was described as being the "only white politician to hear only cheers and applause."[]

Despite Kennedy's high profile and name recognition, McCarthy won most of the early primaries, including Kennedy's native state of Massachusetts.[] Kennedy won the Indiana Democratic primary on May 7 with 42 percent of the vote, and the Nebraska primary on May 14 with 52 percent of the vote. On May 28, Kennedy lost the Oregon primary, marking the first time a Kennedy lost an election, and it was assumed that McCarthy was the preferred choice among the young voters.[] If he could defeat McCarthy in the California primary, the leadership of the campaign thought, he would knock McCarthy out of the race and set up a one-on-one against Vice President Humphrey at the Chicago national convention in August.


Main article: Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

Kennedy scored major victories when he won both the California and South Dakota primaries on June 4. He addressed his supporters shortly after midnight on June 5,in a ballroom at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.[] Leaving the ballroom, he went through the hotel kitchen after being told it was a shortcut to a press room.[] He did this despite being advised by his bodyguard—former FBI agent Bill Barry—to avoid the kitchen. In a crowded kitchen passageway, Kennedy turned to his left and shook hands with hotel busboy Juan Romero just as Sirhan Sirhan, a year-old Palestinian,[] opened fire with a caliberrevolver. Kennedy was hit three times, and five other people were wounded.[]

George Plimpton, former decathleteRafer Johnson, and former professional football player Rosey Grier are credited with wrestling Sirhan to the ground after he shot the senator.[] As Kennedy lay mortally wounded, Romero cradled his head and placed a rosary in his hand. Kennedy asked Romero, "Is everybody OK?", and Romero responded, "Yes, everybody's OK." Kennedy then turned away from Romero and said, "Everything's going to be OK."[][] After several minutes, medical attendants arrived and lifted the senator onto a stretcher, prompting him to whisper, "Don't lift me", which were his last words.[][] He lost consciousness shortly thereafter.[] He was rushed first to Los Angeles' Central Receiving Hospital, less than 2 miles (&#;km) east of the Ambassador Hotel, and then to the adjoining (one city block distant) Good Samaritan Hospital. Despite extensive neurosurgery to remove the bullet and bone fragments from his brain, Kennedy was pronounced dead at &#;a.m. (PDT) on June 6, nearly 26 hours after the shooting.

Robert Kennedy's death, like the assassination of his brother, Farmers state bank cedar rapids John F. Kennedy, has been the subject of conspiracy theories.


Kennedy's body was returned to Manhattan, where it lay in repose at Saint Patrick's Cathedral from approximately &#;p.m. until &#;a.m. on June 8.[][] A high requiem Mass was held at the cathedral at &#;a.m. on June 8. The service was attended by members of the extended Kennedy family, President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife Lady Bird Johnson, and members of the Johnson cabinet.[]Ted, the only surviving Kennedy brother, said the following:

My brother need not be idealized, or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life; to be remembered simply as a good and decent man, who saw wrong and tried to right it, saw suffering and tried to heal it, saw war and tried to stop it. Those of us who loved him and who take him to his rest today, pray that what he was to us and what he wished for others will some day come to pass for all the world. As he said many times, in many parts of this nation, to those he touched and who sought to touch him: "Some men see things as they are and say why. I dream things that never were and say why not."[]

The requiem Mass concluded with the hymn "The Battle Hymn of the Republic", sung by Andy Williams.[] Immediately following the Mass, Kennedy's body was transported by a special private train to Washington, D.C. Kennedy's

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Victim: Sirhan Sirhan was not the one who shot Robert F. Kennedy


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