Urban Thesaurus - Find Synonyms for Slang Words
Skip to content

Archives

Speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U

Posted on by tibo

speccy broccoli  - Crack Key For U

special exact major u quickly skin position us jump mix study team action blame anywhere holy itself bag fully key effort standard simply memory tv. 003 a anal teacher sister your and doggystyled is. soles a latex you by behind times sexy scene: in good key turns she gets fucked heavy husband arrival. This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work; to adapt the work and to Words of non-Latin origin in this group are broccoli.

Speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U -

3. The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of English, 1: Consonants

1This chapter can be summed up by saying that 13 of the 24 consonant phonemes of RP have highly regular spellings (though for two of these, /w, ŋ/, positional constraints have to be stated), while the other 11 have to be analysed according to position in the word.

2So, the 11 consonant phonemes/b d g h m n p r t θ ð/are regularly spelt <b d g h m n p r t th th> respectively; /w/ (which occurs only before vowel phonemes and therefore does not occur word-finally) is regularly spelt <w> initially, <u> medially (but see the note below Table 3.1); and /ŋ/ (which occurs only after short vowel phonemes and therefore does not occur initially) is regularly spelt <n> before/k, g/, however spelt, otherwise <ng>.

3The main regularities for the other 11 consonant phonemes are summarised in Table 3.1, by position in the word. For seven phonemes final position has to be subdivided, and final/s, k/have a further sub-subdivision. The entries for /ʤ, s, k/blur the distinction between phonemes and graphemes in defining word positions – for more detail on these phonemes’complicated correspondences, and for the 2-phoneme grapheme <x>, see sections 3.7.1, 3.7.4 and 3.7.6 and Tables 3.3 and 3.4.

TABLE 3.1: MAIN CORRESPONDENCES OF THE 11 CONSONANT PHONEMES WITH VARIABLE SPELLINGS, BY POSITION IN THE WORD

Position in word

Phoneme

Initial

Medial

Final

/∫/

sh

ti

sh

/f/

f

f

ff

/v/

v

v

ve

/j/ within /juː/

See Table 5.1

/j/ elsewhere

y

i*

(does not occur)

in monosyllables after a short vowel spelt with one letter

otherwise

/I/

I

I

II

L

/ʧ/

ch
but <t>
before/uː/

t

tch

ch

/ʒ/

(rare)

si

(does not occur)

ge

/z/

z

s

zz

S

/ʤ/

j

<g> before <e, i, y>, otherwise <j>

dge

ge

/s/

s

s

ss

in other monosyllables <ce>; in polysyllables <s>

/k/

c

c

ck

in other monosyllables <k>; in polysyllables <c>

but <k> before <e, i, y>

* N. B. Many occurrences of medial /j/ (and some of medial /w/) are actually not represented in the spelling at all – see sections 3.8.7-8.

4In sections 3.5, 3.7 and 3.8 I set out the consonantal phoneme-grapheme correspondences of English, under the consonant phonemes listed in the order in which they appear in Table 2.1 in chapter 2.

5The consonant phonemes fall into two main categories, those which have a doubled spelling, such as <bb> for /b/ in rabbit, and those which do not. Within those which do have a doubled spelling there is a further important distinction, between those whose doubled spellings are rare in one-syllable words and those whose doubled spellings are regular at the end of one-syllable words after a short vowel phoneme spelt with one letter (Crystal, 2012, especially chapters 7 and 8, explains how this division goes back many centuries). Sections 3.5 and 3.7 cover these two categories of consonant phonemes with doubled spellings, and section 3.8 those which do not have a doubled spelling.

6This trichotomy (the Greek etymology of this word officially means ‘cutting into three’, but unofficially could also mean ‘haircut’– how neat is it that the word meaning ‘cutting into three’could also mean ‘splitting hairs’?) does not quite accommodate /r/. It does have a doubled spelling (<rr>) and therefore does not belong in section 3.8 (phonemes without a doubled spelling). But /r/ does not occur word-finally in RP, so is not even a candidate for section 3.7 (phonemes whose doubled spellings are regular at the end of one-syllable words after a short vowel phoneme spelt with one letter). Yet /r/ spelt <rr> is not just rare in one-syllable words – it is non-existent – so it might seem not to fit into section 3.5 (phonemes whose doubled spellings are rare in one-syllable words) either. However, section 3.5 is where I have put it, on the grounds that (a) there are some medial examples of /r/ spelt <rr>, e.g. error; (b) many other examples of /r/ spelt <rr> arise from suffixation, e.g. preferring, referral; (c) in these respects /r/ is similar to the other phonemes in section 3.5.

7Within each group I list the phonemes in alphabetical order of the letter (s) comprising their basic spellings, except that in section 3.5 /r/ is dealt with after /t/; /r/ is dealt with last because that leads on naturally to the treatment in section 3.6 of a special process involving /r/, namely /r/-linking, hence the interruption in the order of sections.

8Under each consonant phoneme I deal with the spellings in this order:

  1. The basic grapheme. In my opinion, each of the 24 consonant phonemes of English has a basic grapheme, the one that seems most natural as its spelling. The identification of <si> as the basic grapheme for /ʒ/ may seem curious – but this is the least frequent phoneme in English speech and <si> is its most frequent spelling. As you will see from the percentages at the beginning of each section, the basic grapheme is also, in 20 cases, the most frequent spelling of that phoneme – the exceptions are /z, ʤ, ∫, j/.

  2. Other graphemes which are used for the phoneme with reasonable frequency. By reasonable frequency I mean at least 5 per cent of the occurrences of the phoneme in running text.

  3. The doubled spelling, if the phoneme has one – 16 of the 24 consonant phonemes do (indeed, a few have more than one). Most doubled consonant spellings consist of the basic single-letter grapheme written twice, but some have a different pattern. Most of the doubled spellings are quite rare in stem words. For some guidance on when to spell a consonant double see chapter 4. None of the doubled spellings of English consonant phonemes ever occur in word-initial position (with the two exceptions noted under /l/ in sections 3.7.5 and 4.1), so wordinitial position is not mentioned in the entries about doubled spellings in this chapter (except under /l/).

  4. The doubled spelling plus final <e>, if the phoneme has such a spelling.

  5. Oddities, graphemes which are used to spell that phoneme only rarely.

  6. Any 2-phoneme graphemes in which the phoneme is represented. Almost all the 2-phoneme graphemes are also Oddities, but a few belong to the main system (see section 3.4) and are included there.

  7. Any 3-phoneme grapheme in which the phoneme is represented. Both 3-phoneme graphemes are definitely Oddities.

9Some entries end with Notes, and a few have Tables.

10Under most phonemes I give the frequency of occurrence of each major grapheme as a spelling of the phoneme, using the information in Edward Carney’s massive study A Survey of English Spelling (1994). He gives two frequencies for most phoneme-grapheme correspondences:

  • text frequency, that is, the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all the correspondences in a large set of pieces of continuous prose, but discounting derived forms of stem words, e.g. past tenses, and all function words, e.g. of, is, there, where. Because Carney lemmatised his corpus (that is, reduced all the words to stem forms), his text frequencies for doubled consonants are probably systematically underestimated, since large numbers of occurences of doubled consonant letters arise from suffixation – see sections 4.2 and 4.3.1;

  • lexical frequency, that is, the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all and only the correspondences in a dictionary.

11Usually the two frequencies are similar, but where a particular correspondence occurs in only a few words but those words are very common, the text frequency will be high and the lexical frequency low (and vice versa where a correspondence occurs in many words but those words are rare). For this chapter and chapter 5 I’ve used only Carney’s text frequencies since those (mainly) represent what readers encounter. However, my lists of examples range far and wide within English vocabulary, and take in words which are so rare that they certainly did not contribute to Carney’s text frequencies. An odd category here is words in which /ɪə/ is spelt <ier> - this category is never mentioned by Carney; presumably no such words turned up in the corpus he compiled and analysed.

12I give no frequencies for doubled spellings plus final <e> since these are all rare, and in most cases the frequencies for the Oddities are lumped together.

13Under each phoneme I separate the correspondences with graphemes into what I consider to be the main system and the rest (this distinction is very similar to that between major and minor units postulated by Venezky, 1970: 52-55). The correspondences which I include in the main system are those which seem to me to operate as part of larger regularities, even though pretty rarely as absolute rules. For the consonant phonemes the larger regularities comprise the basic correspondences, the correspondences which have reasonable frequency as I’ve defined it above, and the doubled spellings, but not the doubled spellings plus <e>, the 2-and 3-phoneme graphemes (except a few 2-phoneme graphemes which are of reasonably high frequency), or the Oddities. In this chapter (and in chapters 5, 9 and 10) correspondences which have reasonable frequency are shown in 9-point type, the rest in smaller 7.5-point type.

14Three quite rare correspondences are, however, included in the main system – /k/ spelt <q>, /ʒ/ spelt <ge>, and /uː/ spelt <ue>. For /k/ spelt <q> this is because <q> would otherwise not appear in the main system at all, but <q> is a grapheme of written English and therefore has to be included; also, the 2-phoneme sequence /kw/ is mainly spelt <qu>. /ʒ/ spelt <ge> is needed to complete the pattern of correspondences in word-final position – see Table 3.1. And although/uː/spelt <ue> is very rare, I found it necessary to include it in the main system because the mirror-image correspondence (<ue> pronounced/uː/) is one of only two frequent correspondence of <ue> - see section 10.37.

15For the incluson of /r/ in this section see section 3.2.

16Despite their rarity in stem words, the doubled spellings of these consonant phonemes arise very frequently from suffixation, e.g. rubbed, budding, begged, skimmed, skinned, hopped, pitted, preferring (see sections 4.2 and 4.3.1).

3.5.1 /b/ as in by

17THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<b> 98%

e.g. rabid

Other frequent graphemes

(none)

Doubled spelling

<bb> <1%

medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with a single letter, e.g. babble – see section 4.3.3; there are also independent medial examples, e.g. abbey, abbot, bobbin, cabbage, dibber, hobbit, hobby, hubbub, rabbi, rabbit, ribbon, rubber, rubbish, Sabbath, shibboleth, stubborn – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in ebb – see section 4.3.2

18THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

(does not occur)

Oddities

1% in total

<bh>

only in abhor and its derivatives abhorred, abhorrent, plus bhaji, bhang (ra), bhindi, Bhutan and a few other rare words from the Indian sub-continent. <b, h> are usually separate graphemes at a morpheme boundary, as in clubhouse, subheading

<bu>

only in build, buoy, buy. See Notes

<pb>

only in the compound words cupboard, raspberry, plus Campbell

2-phoneme graphemes

(none)

19NOTES

20For the compound words gooseberry /ˈgʊzbriː/), raspberry /ˈrɑːzbriː/), strawberry /ˈstrɔːbriː/) see section 6.10.

21I analyse <bu> in build, buoy, buy as a grapheme spelling /b/ because this is more economical than adding /ɪ/ spelt <ui>, /ɔɪ/ spelt <uoy> and /aɪ/ spelt <uy> to the list of graphemes; cf. <gu> under /g/, section 3.5.3, and <cu> under /k/, section 3.7.1.

3.5.2 /d/ as in dye

22THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<d> 98%

e.g. bud

Other frequent grapheme

<ed>

(not counted in percentages) See Note

Doubled spelling

<dd> 2%

medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. griddle – see section 4.3.3; other medial examples include addictive, additive, adduce, bladder, buddy, cheddar, fodder, judder, ladder, midden, rudder, ruddy, shoddy, sodden, sudden, teddy, toddy, widdershins – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5 – 6; perhaps also the compound word granddad, but see section 4.4.7; word-finally, only in add, odd, rudd, Sudd – on add, odd see section 4.3.2

23THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

(does not occur)

Oddities

<1% in total

<bd>

only in bdellium

<ddh>

only in Buddha and derivatives, saddhu

<de>

only in aide, blende, blonde, horde and (for)bade pronounced /(fəˈ)bæd/ (also pronounced /(fəˈ)beɪd/ with <d> alone spelling /d/ and <a.e> spelling /eɪ/). The <e> in blonde marks it French-style as feminine (masculine: blond)

<dh>

only in a few loanwords and names from the Indian subcontinent, e.g. dhobi, dhoti, dhow, Gandhi, jodhpurs, sandhi, Sindh

2-phoneme graphemes

(none)

24NOTE

25/d/ is almost always spelt <ed> in past forms of regular verbs ending in a voiced consonant other than /d/ or a vowel, e.g. ebbed, flowed. The only exceptions are laid, paid which would (if they were spelt regularly) be *layed, *payed – cf. delayed, played and sections 5.7.1 and 6.5. See also the entry for <ed> in chapter 10, section 10.15.

3.5.3 /g/ as in goo

26THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<g> 92%

e.g. beg

Other frequent graphemes

(none)

Doubled spelling

<gg> 2%

medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. muggle – see section 4.3.3; other medial examples include aggressive, beggar, dagger, doggerel, haggis, jagged, maggot, nugget, ragged, rugged, rugger, sluggish, trigger – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in egg – see section 4.3.2

27THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

(does not occur)

Oddities

2% in total

<ckgu>

only in blackguard /ˈblægəd, ˈblægɑːd/

<gh>

word-final only in ugh; otherwise only in afghan, aghast, burgher, ghastly, ghat, ghee, gherkin, ghetto, ghillie (also spelt gillie), ghost, ghoul, ogham, sorghum and a few more rare words

<gu>

word-initially, only in guarantee, guard, guerrilla, guess, guest, guide, guild, guilder, guile, guillemot, guillotine, guilt, guinea, guise, guitar, guy and a few more rare words; medially, only in baguette, beguine, dengue, disguise, languor (the <u> surfaces as /w/ in languid, languish – see section 7.2) and suffixed forms of a few words in next category, e.g. cataloguing; phonemically word-final only in brogue, drogue, fatigue, fugue, intrigue, plague, rogue, vague, vogue and a few more rare words where the final written <e> is part of a split digraph with the vowel letter preceding the <g> – see also next paragraph, and Notes

<gue>

only word-final and only in analogue, catalogue, colleague, decalogue, demagogue, dialogue, eclogue, epilogue, ideologue, league, monologue, morgue, pedagogue, prologue, prorogue, synagogue. In some of the words ending <-ogue> US spelling has <-og>, which is simpler in the stem forms but means that in, e.g., cataloging the first <g> (less regularly) spells /g/ before <i>, a problem which the spelling with <u> avoids. The only word in which final <g, u, e> are all separate graphemes is segue /ˈsegweɪ/

2-phoneme graphemes

For all of these see Notes

/gz/

4%

(1) spelt <x>

only in some polysyllabic words of Latin origin, namely anxiety pronounced /æŋˈgzaɪjɪtiː/ (also pronounced /æŋˈzaɪjɪtiː/), auxiliary, exact, exaggerate, exalt, exam(ine), example, exasperate, executive, executor, exemplar, exemplify, exempt, exert, exigency, exiguous, exile, exist, exonerate, exorbitant, exordium, exuberant, exude, exult, plus exotic from Greek and a few more rare words; also in Alexandra, Alexander and becoming frequent in exit pronounced /ˈegzɪt/(also pronounced /ˈeksɪt/). For anxiety see also under /ŋ/ in section 3.8.2

(2) spelt <xh>

only in about 7 polysyllabic words of Latin origin: exhaust(ion), exhibit, exhilarat-e/ ion, exhort, exhume – but in some derivatives <xh> spells /eks/, e.g. exhibition, exhortation, exhumation

/gʒ/ spelt <x>

only in luxuriance, luxuriant, luxuriate, luxurious

28NOTES

29In blackguard (also spelt blaggard), guarantee, guard the <u> is technically redundant because <ckg, g> would spell (and be pronounced) /g/ without it. But in all the other words with <gu> the <u> has to be there in order to prevent the <g> appearing to spell (and be pronounced) /ʤ/. It’s because guild, guy must be analysed this way that I analyse build, buy (and by extension buoy) as having /b/ spelt <bu> (see section 3.5.1, and cf. <cu> under /k/, section 3.7.1).

30The regular 2-grapheme spelling of /gz/ is <gs>, e.g. dogs. The sequence <gz> seems to occur only in zigzag.

31The 2-phoneme sequence /gʒ/ seems to occur only in the four words listed above and to have no 2-grapheme spelling.

32The 2-phoneme sequence /gw/ is almost always spelt <gu>, e.g. in anguish, distinguish, extinguish, guacamole, guano, guava, iguana, language, languish, linguist, penguin, sanguine, segue, unguent. Exception: wigwam. The converse does not hold – most occurrences of <gu> are pronounced either as /g/ or as 2 phonemes (/g/ plus a vocalic pronunciation of <u>) – see section 9.15.

33For <go> in allegory, category see section 6.10.

3.5.4 /m/ as in my

34THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<m> 96%

e.g. sum

Other frequent graphemes

(none)

Doubled spelling

<mm> 3%

medially, does NOT occur before final /əl/ spelt <-le>; medial examples include comma, commune, cummerbund, hammock, hummock, immense, plummet, rummage, slummock, summit and some derived forms, e.g. dia/pro-grammatic, immodest – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; never word-final

35THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

<mme>

now only in oriflamme and (noncomputer) programme since gram and its derivatives are no longer spelt *gramme, etc.

Oddities (all word-final only)

<1% in total

<gm>

only in apophthegm, diaphragm, epiphragm, paradigm, phlegm, syntagm. /g/ surfaces in some derivatives: paradigmatic, phlegmatic, syntagma (tic) – see section 7.2

<mb>

only in dithyramb, lamb; climb, limb; aplomb, bomb, catacomb, comb, coomb, coxcomb, coulomb, hecatomb, rhomb, tomb, womb; crumb, dumb, numb, plumb, rhumb, succumb, thumb and a few more very rare words. /b/ surfaces in some derivatives: dithyrambic, bombard(ier), bombast(ic), rhomb-ic/us, crumble and supposedly, according to some authorities, in thimble – see section 7.2

<mbe>

only in buncombe (‘nonsense’; also spelt bunkum), co(o)mbe (‘short valley’; also spelt coomb); and contrast flambe /ˈflɒmbeɪ/, where <m, b, e> are all separate graphemes

<me>

never initial; mainly word-final and there only in become, come, some, welcome and the adjectival suffix /səm/ spelt <-some>, e.g. handsome (contrast hansom); medially only in camera, emerald, omelette, ramekin pronounced /ˈræmkɪn/ (also pronounced /ˈræmɪkɪn/) – see section 6.10 – and Thames

<mn>

only in autumn, column, condemn, contemn, damn, hymn, limn, solemn. /n/ surfaces in some derivatives: autumnal, columnar, columnist, condemnation, contemner, damnable, damnation, hymnal, solemnity – see section 7.2

<nd>

only in sandwich pronounced /ˈsæmwɪʤ/ (also has a ‘regular’ spelling pronunciation /ˈsændwɪʧ/)

2-phoneme grapheme

/əm/
spelt <m>

only word-final, e.g. chasm, enthusiasm, orgasm, phantasm, pleonasm, sarcasm, spasm, several words ending in – plasm (e.g. ectoplasm), chrism, prism, schism and all the many derived forms ending in – ism, macrocosm, microcosm, abysm, aneurysm (also spelt aneurism), cataclysm, paroxysm, algorithm, rhythm and a few other very rare words; also in film pronounced /ˈfɪləm/in some Irish accents. See Note

36NOTE

37In all but the last three of the words just listed with word-final /əm/ spelt <-m> the preceding phoneme is /z/ spelt <s>, so the regular spelling of word-final /zəm/ is <-sm> (only exception: bosom). This is one of only a handful of cases where the spelling of a final syllable is more predictable as a whole than from its separate phonemes, which here would predict (for example) *chasam, *prisom, etc. However, word-final /əm/ with other preceding phonemes has various 2-grapheme spellings in, e.g., alyssum, balsam, besom, fathom (but contrast the 1-grapheme spelling in algorithm, rhythm), gypsum, hansom, lissom, opossum, ransom, transom and all the adjectives ending <-some>.

3.5.5 /n/ as in nigh

38THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<n> 97%

e.g. tin

Other frequent graphemes

(none)

Doubled spelling

<nn> <1%

medially, does NOT occur before final /əl/ spelt <-le>; medial examples include anneal, annual, annul, biennale, binnacle, Britannic, cannibal, chardonnay, cinnabar, cinnamon, ennui, innocent, punnet, tannic, tinnitus, tintinnabulation, zinnia – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in Ann, djinn, Finn, inn – on Ann, inn see section 4.3.2

39THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

<nne>

only word-final and only in Anne, cayenne, comedienne, cretonne, doyenne, tonne and a few other rare words

Oddities

3% in total

<dne>

only in Wednesday

<gn>

word-initially, only in gnarl, gnash, gnat, gnaw, gneiss, gnome, gnosis, Gnostic and gnu analysed as /n/ spelt <gn> plus /juː/ spelt <u>; medially, only in cognisance (also pronounced with /gn/), physiognomy, recognise pronounced /ˈrekənaɪz/ (usually pronounced /ˈrekəgnaɪz/); word-finally, only in align, arraign, assign, benign, campaign, coign, condign, consign, deign, design, ensign, feign, foreign, impugn and a few other very rare words in –pugn, malign, reign, resign, sign, sovereign, thegn; also phonemically word-final in champagne, cologne where the final written <e> is part of a split digraph with the letter before the <g> spelling a diphthong. /g/ surfaces in some derivatives: agnostic, diagnosis, prognosis, malignant, pugnacious, repugnant, assignation, designation, resignation, signal, signature – see section 7.2

<gne>

only word-final and only in cockaigne, epergne, frankalmoigne /kəˈkeɪn, ɪˈpɜːn, ˈfræŋkælmɔɪn/

<kn>

1% never word-final; medially, only in acknowledge, knick-knack; otherwise only word-initial and only in knack (er (s)), knap, knave, knead, knee, knell, knew, knick (er (s)), knickerbocker, knick-knack, knife, knight, knit, knob, knobbly, knock, knoll, knot, know (ledge), knuckle and a few more very rare words

<mn>

only word-initial and only in mnemonic, mnemonist. /m/ surfaces in amnesia, amnesty – see section 7.2

<nd>

only in grandfather, Grandma (hence the frequent misspelling *Granma – cf. section 4.4.7 on Gran(d)dad), handsome (cf. hansom (cab)), landscape

<ne>

non-finally, only in vineyard (and even there it’s stem-final), vulnerable pronounced /ˈvʌlnrəbəl/ - see also Notes and section 6.10 (I refuse to analyse the alternative pronunciation /ˈvʌnrəbəl/with loss of the first /l/ because it would add an otherwise not-needed grapheme <lne> to the inventory); otherwise only word-final and only in about 35 words, namely borne, bourne, bowline, Catherine, clandestine pronounced /klænˈdestɪn/ (also pronounced /ˈklændəstaɪn/), cocaine, compline, crinoline, demesne, (pre)destine, determine, discipline, engine, ermine, examine, famine, feminine, genuine, gone, groyne, heroine, hurricane pronounced /ˈhʌrɪkən/ (also pronounced /ˈhʌrɪkeɪn/), illumine, intestine, jasmine, marline, masculine, medicine, migraine, moraine, none, peregrine, ptomaine, saccharine, sanguine, scone pronounced /skɒn/ (also pronounced /skəʊn/), shone, urine, vaseline, wolverine. In all these words the <e> is phonographically redundant, in that its removal would not affect the pronunciation. However, without <e> done, none would become don and the prefix non- (and changing their spellings to dun, nun would cause other confusions). Also, the <e> keeps borne, heroine visually distinct from born, heroin

<ng>

only in length, lengthen, strength, strengthen pronounced /lenθ, ˈlenθən, strenθ, ˈstrenθən/. See also under/k, ŋ/, sections 3.7.1, 3.8.2

<nt>

only in croissant, denouement, rapprochement

<nw>

only in gunwale

<pn>

only word-initial and only in words derived from Greek πνεῦμα pneuma (‘breath’) or πνεύμων pneumon (‘lung’), e.g. pneumatic, pneumonia

2-phoneme graphemes

/ən/
spelt <n>

only in Haydn (I mention him in memory of Chris Upward of the Simplified Spelling Society) and most contractions of not with auxiliary verbs, i. e. isn’t, wasn’t, haven’t, hasn’t, hadn’t, doesn’t, didn’t, mayn’t, mightn’t, mustn’t, couldn’t, shouldn’t, wouldn’t, oughtn’t, usedn’t, some of which are rare to the point of disuse, plus durstn’t, which is regional / comic; in all of these except mayn’t the preceding phoneme is a consonant. Other contractions of not with auxiliary verbs (ain’t, aren’t, can’t, daren’t, don’t, shan’t, weren’t, won’t), i. e. all those with a preceding vowel phoneme (except mayn’t) are monosyllabic (though some Scots say /ˈdeərənt/ with a preceding consonant and linking /r/ and therefore two syllables). Curiously, innit, being a contraction of isn’t it, reduces isn’t to a single syllable. See Notes

/nj/
spelt <gn>

see under /j/, section 3.8.8

40NOTES

41/ən/ has several 2-grapheme spellings, e.g. in cotton, ruffian, written.

42For <ne> in confectionery, generative, stationery, vulnerable see section 6.10.

3.5.6 /p/ as in pie

43THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<p> 95%

e.g. apt

Other frequent graphemes

(none)

Doubled spelling

<pp> 5%

medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. apple: other medial examples include apply, apprehend, cappuccino, dapper, frippery, hippodrome, hippopotamus, guppy, opponent, oppose, opposite, scupper, supper, supply, support – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; wordfinally, only in Lapp

44THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

<ppe>

only in grippe, steppe

Oddities

<1% in total

<b>

only in presbyterian pronounced /prespɪˈtɪəriːjən/ (also pronounced /prezbɪˈtɪəriːjən/)

<bp>

only in subpoena /səˈpiːnə/

<gh>

only in misspelling of hiccup as *hiccough

<pe>

only in canteloupe, troupe, plus opera in rapid speech – for <pe> in opera see section 6.10

<ph>

only in diphtheria, diphthong, naphtha, ophthalmic and shepherd. The first four also have pronunciations with /f/ – e.g. /ˈdɪfθɒŋ/versus /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/

2-phoneme graphemes

(none)

3.5.7 /t/ as in tie

45THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<t> 96%

e.g. rat

Other frequent grapheme

<ed>

(not counted in percentages) See Notes

Doubled spelling

<tt>

3% medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. rattle; other medial examples include attention, attract, attribute, battalion, battery, butter, button, buttress, chitterlings, falsetto, glutton, jitter(s), mattress, rattan, smattering, tattoo, tittup – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in bott, boycott, butt, matt, mitt, mutt, nett, putt, watt. See also Notes

46THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

<tte>

only word-final and only in about 23 stem words, namely baguette, brunette, cassette, coquette, corvette, croquette, epaulette, etiquette, garrotte, gavotte, gazette, maisonette, omelette, oubliette, palette, pipette, pirouette, roulette, serviette, silhouette, toilette, vignette, vinaigrette, and a few derived forms, e.g. cigarette, launderette, rosette, statuette, suffragette, and some other rare words. In latte <tt, e> represent separate phonemes, as do <u.e, tt> in butte

Oddities

1% in total

<bt>

only in debt, doubt, subtle. /b/ surfaces in debit, indubitable, subtility – see section 7.2

<ct>

only in Connecticut, indict, victualler, victuals. /k/ surfaces in indiction – see section 7.2

<dt>

only in veldt

<phth>

only in phthisic, phthisis pronounced /ˈtaɪsɪk, ˈtaɪsɪs/

<pt>

only in Deptford, ptarmigan, pterodactyl (Greek, = ‘wing finger’), pterosaur (Greek, = ‘wing lizard’), Ptolem-y/ aic, ptomaine, receipt and a few more very rare words. /p/ surfaces in archaeopteryx, helicopter (Greek, = ‘ ancient wing, spiral wing’), reception, receptive – see section 7.2

<te>

mainly word-final and in that position in at least 120 words, namely
- ate pronounced /et/ (also pronounced /eɪt/, which requires a different analysis: /t/ spelt <t> and /eɪ/ spelt <a. e>), Bacchante, composite, compote, confidante, debutante, definite, detente, dirigiste, enceinte, entente, entracte, exquisite, favourite, granite, hypocrite, infinite, minute (‘sixtieth of an hour’), opposite, perquisite, plebiscite, pointe, requisite, riposte, route, svelte - about 30 nouns/adjectives in /ət/ spelt <-ate> where the verbs with the same spelling are pronounced with /eɪt/, e.g. advocate, affiliate, aggregate, alternate (here with also a difference in stress and vowel pattern: noun/adjective pronounced /ɔːlˈtɜːnət/, verb pronounced /ˈɔːltəneɪt/), animate, appropriate, approximate, articulate, associate, certificate, consummate (here with also a difference in stress and vowel pattern: adjective pronounced/kənˈsʌmət/, verb pronounced /ˈkɒnsjəmeɪt/), coordinate, curate (here with also a difference in meaning and stress: noun (‘junior cleric’) pronounced /ˈkjʊərət/, verb (‘mount an exhibition’) pronounced /kjʊəˈreɪt/), degenerate, delegate, deliberate (here with also a difference in syllable structure: adjective /dɪˈlɪbrət/ with three syllables and an elided vowel – see section 6.10; verb /dɪˈlɪbəreɪt/ with four syllables), designate, desolate, duplicate, elaborate, estimate, expatriate, graduate, initiate, intimate, legitimate, moderate, pontificate (here with unrelated (?) meanings: noun (‘ pope’s reign’) pronounced/pɒnˈtɪfɪkət/, verb (‘speak pompously’) pronounced/pɒnˈtɪfɪkeɪt/), precipitate (but here only the adjective has /ət/; the noun as well as the verb has /eɪt/), predicate, separate (here too with a difference in syllable structure: adjective /ˈseprət/ with two syllables and an elided vowel – see section 6.10; verb /ˈsepəreɪt/ with three syllables), subordinate, syndicate, triplicate. In the verbs and the many other nouns and adjectives with this ending pronounced /eɪt/, the <e> is part of the split digraph <a. e> spelling /eɪ/ and the /t/ is spelt solely by the <t> - a further set of at least 60 nouns/adjectives (some of which are derived forms) in /ət/ spelt <-ate> with no identically-spelt verb, e.g. accurate, adequate, agate, appellate, celibate, chocolate, climate, collegiate, conglomerate, (in) considerate, consulate, delicate, desperate, (in) determinate, directorate, disconsolate, doctorate, electorate, episcopate, extortionate, fortunate, illegitimate, immaculate, immediate, inanimate, in (sub) ordinate, inspectorate, intricate, inviolate, (bacca) laureate, legate, (il) literate, novitiate, obdurate, palate, particulate, (com/dis-)passionate, private, profligate, proletariate (also spelt proletariat), (dis) proportionate, protectorate, proximate, roseate, senate, surrogate, (in) temperate, triumvirate, ultimate, (in) vertebrate (a few of these words do have related but not identicallyspelt verb forms with <-ate> pronounced /eɪt/: animate, legitimate, mediate, subordinate, violate)
- possibly just one word where both noun and verb have <-ate> pronounced /ət/: pirate
- <te> spelling /t/ also occurs medially in a few words in rapid speech, e.g. interest, literacy, literal, literary, literature, sweetener, veterinary – see section 6.10
In all cases where /ət/ is spelt <-ate> the <e> is phonographically redundant (that is, it does not indicate a ‘ long’pronunciation of the preceding vowel letter and could therefore be omitted from the spelling without altering the pronunciation; hence I have not analysed such words as having /ə/ spelt <a. e> and /t/ spelt <t>), but in two cases it makes the words visually distinct from words without the <e> and with an unrelated meaning: point, rout.
Carney does not recognise <te> as a spelling of /t/ and this probably means that percentages for my analysis would be slightly different from his

<th>

only in Thai, thali, Thame, Thames, Therese, Thomas, thyme, Wrotham /ˈruːtəm/

<tw>

only in two and derivatives, e.g. twopence, twopenny. /w/ surfaces in between, betwixt, twain, twelfth, twelve, twenty, twice, twilight, twilit, twin – see section 7.2

2-phoneme graphemes

/tθ/
spelt <th>

only in eighth. See section 4.4.7

/ts/

(1)
spelt <z>

only in Alzheimer’s, bilharzia, Nazi (but Churchill said /ˈnɑːziː/), scherzo, schizo(-)

(2)
spelt <zz>

only in intermezzo, paparazzi, pizza, pizzicato

47NOTES

48/t/ is always spelt <ed> in past forms of regular verbs ending in a voiceless consonant other than /t/, e.g. walked. See also the entry for <ed>, section 10.15.

49/ts/ also has 2-grapheme spellings, the regular one being <ts>, plus the Oddity <tz> – for the latter see under /s/, section 3.7.6.

3.5.8 /r/ as in rye

50Occurs only before a vowel phoneme (in RP).

51THE MAIN SYSTEM

Basic grapheme

<r> 94%

e.g. very

Other frequent graphemes

(none)

Doubled spelling

<rr> 4%

medially, does NOT occur before final /əl/ spelt <-le> and arises mainly from suffixation (see Notes), but there are some independent examples, e.g. arroyo, barrow, berry, borrow, burrow, carrot, derrick, garrotte, guerrilla, herring, horrid, hurry, lorry, mirror, (to) morrow, parrot, porridge, scurrilous, serrate, sorry, squirrel, stirrup, terrine, warrant, wherry, worrit, worry – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; never wordfinal as a separate grapheme – see Notes

52THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

(does not occur as a spelling of /r/ – but see Notes)

Oddities

2% in total

<re>

only in forehead pronounced /ˈfɒrɪd/

<rh>

only word-initial and only in a few words mainly of Greek origin, namely rhapsody and several other words beginning rhapsod-, rhea, rheme, rhesus, rhetor(ic), rheum(ati-c/sm), rhinestone, rhinoceros and several other words beginning rhin(o)-, rhizome and several other words beginning rhizo-, rhododendron and several other words beginning rhodo-, rhodium, rhomb-ic/us, the Greek letter name rho, rhotic, rhubarb, rhyme, rhythm and a few other rare words

<rrh>

only medial and only in a few words of Greek origin, namely amenorrhoea, arrhythmia, cirrhosis, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, haemorrhage, haemorrhoid, lactorrhoea, logorrhoea, pyorrhoea, pyrrhic. N.B. In catarrh, myrrh the <rrh> is not a separate grapheme – see Notes (but in catarrhal /r/-linking occurs – see section 3.6)

<wr>

except in awry, only in initial position and only in wrap, wrasse, wreck, wren, wrench, wrest (le), wretch (ed), wriggle, wring, wrinkle, wrist, write, wrong, Wrotham /ˈruːtəm/, wrought, wry and a few more rare words

2-phoneme graphemes

(none)

53NOTES

54The only stem words in which final <-rr,-rre,-rrh> occur are carr, charr, parr, err, chirr, shirr, skirr, whirr, burr, purr; barre, bizarre, parterre; catarrh, myrrh. Because there is no /r/ phoneme in these words (in RP), these letters do not form separate graphemes but are part of the trigraphs or four-letter graphemes <arr, err, irr, urr, arre, erre, arrh, yrrh> spelling variously/ɑː, ɜː, eə/– see the entries for those phonemes in sections 5.5.1, 5.5.2 and 5.6.3 and, for some suffixed forms, the next section. For err see also section 4.3.2.

55In words like preferring, referral, the <rr> is due purely to a spelling rule involving the suffix – see the next section and section 4.2. In such words the letters <err> spell the vowel/ɜː/and the <rr> also spells the linking /r/ consonant – for /r/-linking see section 3.6, and for dual-functioning section 7.1. But in berry, errant, guerrilla, herring, wherry, abhorrent, demurral, garrotte, <e, o, u, a> spell/e, ɒ, ʌ, ə/and the <rr> simply spells /r/ without influencing the pronunciation of the vowel; similarly in the other words listed above as having independently-occurring medial <rr>.

56Although word-final /r/ does not occur in RP when words are pronounced in isolation, words which end in letter <r> after a vowel letter retain the possibility of a /r/ phoneme surfacing when a suffix or the next word begins with a vowel phoneme. For example, I pronounce the phrase dearer and dearer with three /r/ sounds, corresponding to the first three occurrences of the letter <r>: /ˈdɪərərənˈdɪərə/. For more phonological detail see Cruttenden (2014: 224, 315-7).

57Many people call this phenomenon ‘<r>-linking’, using the name of the letter <r>. I prefer to call it ‘/r/-linking’, using (in speech) the sound of, or (in writing) the symbol for, the phoneme /r/ because that is what the link consists of in speech. Moreover, various other graphemes which can spell /r/ allow /r/-linking – see, for example, <rrh> in catarrhal in the entry for /r/ just above. /r/-linking is one of four special processes which I have identified as operating in English spelling (for the others see section 6.10 and chapter 7).

58In Table 3.2 I have assembled all the examples of /r/-linking mentioned in this book.

59NOTES TO TABLE 3.2: FULL LIST OF /r/-linking CATEGORIES.

60In some cases the pre-linking ‘phoneme’ is actually a 2-phoneme sequence.

61In a few categories where, before linking, the last phoneme of the stem is /ə/ spelt <er, or>, /ə/ is deleted in speech and <e, o> in writing, and the <r> is left to spell /r/. This process needs to be distinguished from vowel elision (see section 6.10), where a vowel letter is written even though there is no vowel phoneme at that point in the spoken word.

62Where <e>-deletion (see section 6.4) occurs, I analyse the phoneme before the linking /r/ (provided it has not been deleted or elided) as spelt by the pre-linking grapheme minus <e>, even when that phoneme has changed.

63Except where stated:

  1. stress placement and the phoneme before the linking /r/ remain unchanged;

  2. the /r/-linking grapheme continues to function as part of the spelling of the preceding phoneme (dual-functioning – see section 7.1), even when that phoneme has changed and/or <e>-deletion has occurred. This principle is adopted in order to avoid introducing some correspondences for which there is no other warrant in my analysis, e.g. <a> alone spelling /eə/ in vicarious. For more detail see section A. 8 in Appendix A.

TABLE 3.2: FULL LIST OF /r/-linking CATEGORIES

Phoneme before/r/-linking

Grapheme spelling that phoneme

/r/-linking grapheme

Example(s)

Notes

/ə/

<ar>

<r>

polarise

familiarity, hilarity, peculiarity, polarity, vulgarity

Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, the vowel there shifts to/æ/ and is spelt only by <a>, and <r> spells only /r/

vicarious

Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /eə/

<er>

ethereal, managerial

Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /ɪə/

hyperintelligent, interagency, leverage, offering, sufferance

/ə/ may be elided – see section 6.10

<eur>

amateurish

<er>

foundress, hindrance, laundress, ogress, temptress, tigress, waitress, wardress, wintry

/ə/ is deleted, as shown by the disappearance of the penultimate <e> of the stem, and <r> spells only /r/

<or>

actress, ambassadress, conductress, dominatrix, executrix

/ə/ is deleted, as shown by the disappearance of the penultimate <o> of the stem, and <r> spells only /r/

for instance, prioress, terrorist

authority

Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, the vowel there shifts to/ɒ/ and is spelt only by <o>, and <r> spells only /r/

/ə/

<or>

<r>

authorial, dictatorial

Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /ɔː/

<our>

favourite

/ə/ may be elided – see section 6.10

<r>, plus deletion of <u> from final syllable of stem

glamorise, rigorous, vigorous

<re>

<r> following
<e>-deletion

central, fibrous, lustr-al/ous, metrical, spectral

/ə/ is deleted (as shown by disappearance of <e>), and <r> spells only /r/

mediocrity, sepulchral, theatrical

/ə/ is deleted (as shown by disappearance of <e>), stress shifts to syllable before suffix if not already there, vowel there shifts to/ɒ, ʌ, æ/, and <r> spells only /r/

calibration

/ə/ is deleted (as shown by disappearance of <e>), stress shifts to first syllable of suffix, and <r> spells only /r/

acreage, massacreing, ochreous, ogreish /ˈeɪkərɪʤ, ˈmæsəkərɪŋ, ˈəʊkərəs, ˈəʊgərɪʃ/

/ə/ is not deleted (as shown by retention of <e>), and <r> spells only/r/, but the schwa and/r/ seem to be spelt by the <e> and <r> in reverse order

<ure>

injurious

Stress shifts to 2nd syll-able of stem, and vowel there shifts to /jʊə/

adventurous, natural, naturist, procedural, treasury

/ə/ is spelt only by the <u> and may be elided, especially in derived adverbs – see section 6.10 – and <r> spells only /r/

TABLE 3.2: FULL LIST OF /r/-linking CATEGORIES, CONT.

Phoneme before /r/-linking

Grapheme spelling that phoneme

/r/-linking grapheme

Example(s)

Notes

/ə/

<ur>

<r>

murmuring

sulphuric

Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /jʊə/

/ɜː/

<er>

conference,
deference,
preference

Stress shifts to first syllable, and last vowel phoneme of stem shifts to /ə/ (or may be elided – see section 6.10)

<err>

<rr>

errant

Preceding vowel shifts to /e/, and <rr> spells only /r/

<irr>

whirring

<urr>

purring

<er>

<rr> arising from consonant letter doubling (see section 4.2)

conferring, deferring, preferring, referral

<ur>

furry, occurring

demurral

Preceding vowel shifts to /ʌ/, and <rr> spells only /r/

/ɑː/

<ar>

sparring

<arre>

<rr> following <e>-deletion

bizarrery

<arrh>

<rrh>

catarrhal

<ar>

<r>

cigarette, czarina

Stress shifts to suffix, and in cigarette vowel phoneme preceding /r/ shifts to /ə/

/wɑː/

<oir>

memoirist

/eə/

<heir>

inherit

Too complicated to analyse

<air>

repairing

<aire, heir>

millionairess, heiress

Stress shifts to final syllable

<ayor>

mayoral, mayoress

In mayoress, stress shifts to final syllable

<ear>

wearing

/eə/

<ere>

<re>

thereupon

<r> following <e>-deletion

wherever, compering

<are>

staring

preparedness

/aɪə/

<ire>

<r> following <e>-deletion

entirety

2nd <e> surfaces as /ɪ/ – see section 7.2

wiring

inspiration

Stress shifts to first syllable of suffix, vowel in last syllable of stem shifts to /ɪ/ or /ə/ and is spelt only by the <i>, and <r> spells only /r/

satirical

Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, the vowel there shifts to /ɪ/ and is spelt only by the <i>, and <r> spells only /r/

<yre>

lyrical

Vowel in stem shifts to /ɪ/ and is spelt only by the <i>, and <r> spells only /r/

pyromaniac

/ʊə/

<ure>

enduring, surety

<oor, our>

<r>

boorish, touring

/ɔː/

<ar>

<rr> arising from consonant letter doubling (see section 4.2)

warring

<or>

abhorrent

Preceding vowel shifts to /ɒ/ and is spelt only by <o>, and <rr> spells only /r/

<or, oar, oor, our>

<r>

mentoring, hoary, flooring, pouring

/ɔː/

<ore>

<r> following <e>-deletion

boring

/ɪə/

<ere>

interfering

sincerity

Preceding vowel shifts to /e/ and is spelt only by <e>, and <r> spells only /r/

<ear, eer, ier>

<r>

dearer, hearing, cheering, tiering

/aʊə/

<our, ower>

devouring, towering

64An even fuller analysis would also mention cases of /r/-linking occurring where an intervening consonant phoneme has been dropped, as in the place-and surname Wareham /ˈweərəm/(where the /h/ of the Anglo-Saxon placename element ham was dropped many centuries ago) and the British Tommy’s adage about medals: ‘ Win’em and wear’em’– here the end of the sentence is also pronounced /ˈweərəm/, the /ð/ phoneme of RP /ˈweə ðəm/(with no /r/) having been elided. But this book is not about placenames, surnames or accents other than RP.

65Sometimes /r/-linking is overgeneralised to words which do not have a letter <r> in the written form (and never had, and still do not have, a /r/ phoneme in any accent of English when pronounced in isolation): the best-known example is law and order pronounced /ˈlɔːrəˈnɔːdə/ (‘Laura Norder’) with ‘intrusive /r/’, rather than /ˈlɔːwəˈnɔːdə/. (But this phrase never seems to be pronounced /ˈlɔːrəˈndɔːdə/ (‘Lauren Dawder’), with the <d> of and made explicit.) An example that occurs in children’s speech is drawing pronounced /ˈdrɔːrɪŋ/ rather than /ˈdrɔːɪŋ/. Cruttenden (2014: 316) provides several more examples.

66On the other hand, /r/-linking is sometimes avoided where the spelling suggests it would be natural. For example, the recorded announcers at Sheffield railway station say /ˈplætfɔːm fɔː ˈeɪ, ˈmænʧɪstə ˈeəpɔːt, ˈmænʧɪstə ˈɒksfəd ˈrəʊd, ˈʃaɪə əʊks / rather than /ˈplætfɔːm fɔːˈreɪ, ˈmænʧɪstəˈreəpɔːt, ˈmænʧɪstəˈrɒksfəd ˈrəʊd, ˈʃaɪərəʊks/for ‘Platform 4A’, ‘Manchester Airport’, ‘Manchester Oxford Road’, ‘Shireoaks’.

67Almost all instances of /r/-linking are also examples of what I call dualfunctioning. That is, after linking, the <r>, etc., continues to function as part of the grapheme spelling the pre-linking phoneme while also spelling /r/ in its own right. Exceptions shown in Table 3.2 where an <r> ceases to function as part of the grapheme spelling the pre-suffixation phoneme and therefore only spells /r/ after suffixation are: familiarity, hilarity, peculiarity, polarity, vulgarity, foundress, laundress, ogress, temptress, tigress, waitress, wardress, actress, ambassadress, conductress, dominatrix, executrix, protrectress, authority, mediocrity, sepulchral, theatrical, central, fibrous, lustr-al/ous, metrical, spectral, calibration, demurral, inspiration, satirical, lyrical, abhorrent, sincerity.

68For other categories of dual-functioning see section 7.1.

69For cases in which /ə/ may be elided after /r/-linking see also section 6.10.

70For ‘linking /w/’ and ‘linking /j/’see sections 3.8.7-8. Like /r/-linking, both occur frequently between a stem word and a suffix or a following word beginning with a vowel phoneme. However, there are two key differences: (1) in /w/- and /j/-linking, the quality of the glide between stem and suffix or next word is entirely predictable from the stem-final phoneme, whereas /r/-linking never is (in RP), and can be explained only historically – it occurs where once there was a postvocalic /r/; (2) similar /w/- and /j/-glides occur within many stem words where there is no indication of them in the spelling – /r/-linking never occurs within stem words.

71In addition to their frequency in stem words, the doubled spellings of /k f l s/ occasionally arise from suffixation, e.g. picnicking, iffy, modelling, gassing (see sections 4.2 and 4.3.1).

3.7.1 /k/ as in coo

72THE MAIN SYSTEM

73For all these categories see Notes and Table 3.3.

Basic grapheme

<c> 59%

e.g. cat
Regular in all positions except (1) before <e, i, y>, where the regular spelling is <k> (2) before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, where the regular spelling is <ck> (3) word-finally in one-syllable words, where the regular spelling is <ck> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, otherwise <k> For other exceptions see below

Other frequent grapheme

<k> 21%

regular before <e, i, y>, e.g. kelp, kit, sky, including word-finally within split digraphs, e.g. like, make; also word-finally in onesyllable words except those where <ck> is regular. Only exceptions: ache, Celt, Celtic, sceptic and one pronunciation of words beginning encephal-; arc, chic, disc, and a few more words

Doubled spelling

<ck> 6%

regular in word-final position in onesyllable words after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. crack; also before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. heckle – see section 4.3.3; for other occurrences medially in stem words see Table 3.3; there are several word-final occurrences in polysyllables, e.g. derrick, dunnock, haddock, hammock, hummock, slummock

Frequent 2-phoneme grapheme

/ks/ 5%
spelt <x>

word-initially, only in the Greek letter-name xi pronounced /ksaɪ/; regular medially, e.g. buxom, maxim, next (for exceptions see below); also finally where the /s/ is part of the stem, e.g. box (only exception: aurochs)

Rare grapheme

<q> 3%

e.g. quick See <cq, cqu, qu, que> within the Oddities, below, and Notes

74THE REST

Doubled spelling + <e>

(does not occur)

Oddities

6% in total

<cc> spells /k/

- before <e, i, y>: only in baccy, biccy, recce /ˈrekiː/(short for reconnoitre), soccer, speccy, streptococci
- where the next letter is not <e, i, y>: in about 45 words mainly of Latin origin, namely acclaim, acclimatise, accolade, accommodate, accompany, accomplice, accomplish, accord, accost, account, accoutrement, accredit, accrete, accrue, acculturate, accumulate, accurate, accursed, accuse, accustom, desiccate, occasion, occlude, occult, occupy, occur, succour, succubus, succulent, succumb.
Words of non-Latin origin in this group are broccoli, buccaneer, ecclesiastic, felucca, hiccup, mecca, moccasin, peccadillo, peccary, piccolo, raccoon, scirocco, staccato, stucco, tobacco, toccata, Wicca, yucca
See Notes for the complementary value of <cc> before <e, i, y>, and on why <cc> is not the doubled spelling of /k/

<cch>

only in bacchanal, Bacchante, bacchic, ecchymosis, gnocchi, saccharide, saccharine, zucchini. In bacchanal, Bacchante, ecchymosis, saccharide, saccharine, the <h> could be deleted without altering the English pronunciation – see just above; but in bacchic, gnocchi, zucchini this change might make them look as if they were pronounced with /ks/

<ch>

mainly in words of Greek origin, e.g. amphibrach, anarchy, anchor, archaic and every other word beginning /ɑːk/ (except arc, ark), brachial, brachycephalic, bronchi (-al/tis), catechis-e/m, chalcedony, chameleon, chaos, character, charisma, chasm, chemical, chemist, chiasma, chimera, chiropody (also pronounced with initial /ʃ/), chlamydia, chloride, chlorine, choir, cholesterol, cholera, choral, chord, choreograph (-er/ y), chorus, chrism, Christian, Christmas, Chris (topher), chrome, chromosome, chronic and every other word beginning /krɒn-/, chrysalis, chrysanth(emum), chyle, chyme, cochlea, diptych, distich, drachma, echo, epoch, eschatology, eucharist, eunuch, hierarch(y) and every other polysyllabic noncompound word ending /ɑːk (iː)/ (except aardvark), hypochondriac, ichor, lichen pronounced /ˈlaɪkən/ (also pronounced /ˈlɪʧən/), machination, malachite, mechani-c/sm, melanchol-y/ic, monarch(-y/ic), ochlocracy, ochre, orchestra, orchid, pachyderm, parochial, pentateuch, psyche and all its derivatives, scheme, schizo and all its derivatives, scholar, scholastic, school, stochastic, stomach, strychnine, synchronise, synecdoche, technical, technique, trachea, triptych, trochee.
Words of non-Greek origin in this group are ache, aurochs, baldachin, chianti, chiaroscuro, cromlech, Czech, lachrymose, masochist, Michael, mocha, oche, pinochle, pulchritude, scherzo, schooner, sepulchre; also broch, loch, pibroch, Sassenach when pronounced with /k/ rather than Scots /x/ (for this symbol see section 2.3)

<cq>

only in acquaint, acquiesce, acquire, acquisitive, acquit

<cqu>

spells only /k/ (not /kw/) only in lacquer, picquet, racquet

<cu>

only in biscuit, circuit (contrast ‘circuitous’ where the <u> ‘surfaces’ – see section 7.2.2); cf. <bu> under /b/, section 3.5.1, and <gu> under /g/, section 3.5.3

<g>

only in length, lengthen, strength, strengthen pronounced/leŋkθ, ˈleŋkθən, streŋkθ, ˈstreŋkθən/ (for their alternative pronunciations see under /n/, section 3.5.5) - for the rationale of this analysis see Notes under /ŋ/, section 3.8.2 – and in angst /æŋkst/, disguise /dɪsˈkaɪz/, disgust pronounced/dɪsˈkʌst/, i. e. identically to discussed; disguise, disgust are also pronounced/dɪzˈgaɪz, dɪzˈgʌst/, i. e. with both medial consonants voiced rather than voiceless

<gh>

only in hough

<ke>

only in Berkeley, burke

<kh>

only in astrakhan, gurkha, gymkhana, khaki, khan, khazi, khedive, sheikh, Sikh

<kk>

only in chukker, dekko, pukka and inflected forms of trek, e.g. trekkie

<qu>

as a digraph spelling only /k/ (not /kw/) occurs initially or medially (never finally – cf. next paragraph) in about 50 words mainly of French origin, namely bouquet, conquer (/w/ surfaces in conquest – see section 7.2), coquette, croquet, croquette, etiquette, exchequer, liqueur, liquor, liquorice, maquis, mannequin, marquee, marquetry, masquerade, mosquito, parquet, piquant, quatrefoil, quay, quenelle, quiche, so(u) briquet, tourniquet, and, in conservative RP-speakers’accents, questionnaire, quoits; also medially in applique, communique, manque, risque – see next paragraph; also phonemically but not orthographically wordfinal in opaque; claque, plaque; basque, casque, masque; antique, bezique, boutique, clique, critique, mystique, oblique, physique, pique, technique, unique; bisque, odalisque; toque; peruque; brusque pronounced /bruːsk/, and a few more rare words where the final written <e> is part of a split digraph with a preceding vowel letter spelling variously /eɪ, ɑː, iː, əʊ, uː/. The words basque, casque, masque, bisque, odalisque and brusque pronounced /bruːsk/, where there is also an <s> before the <qu>, cause a special extension to the definition of a split digraph – see section A. 6 in Appendix A and the Notes under <a.e, i.e, u.e>, sections 10.4/24/38

<que> as a trigraph spelling only /k/ (not /kw/ plus vowel)

occurs word-initially only in queue and medially only in milquetoast (where it is nevertheless stemfinal in a compound word); otherwise only wordfinally and only in about 18 words mainly of French origin, namely:
(1) with a preceding consonant letter such that <que> could be replaced by <k> without changing the pronunciation: arabesque, barque, basque, brusque pronounced /brʌsk/ (also pronounced /bruːsk/), burlesque, casque, catafalque, grotesque, marque, masque, mosque, torque and the derived forms picturesque, romanesque, statuesque. However, in this group barque, basque, casque, marque, masque, torque are kept visually distinct from bark, bask, cask, mark, mask, torc
(2) with a preceding vowel letter such that <que> could be replaced by <ck> without changing the pronunciation: baroque, cheque (cf. US check), monocoque, plaque pronounced /plæk/ (also pronounced /plɑːk/)

<x> spells /k/ (not /ks/, etc.)

only in coxswain and before /s/ spelt <c> in a small group of words of Latin origin, namely exceed, excel (lent), except, excerpt, excess, excise, excite

Other 2-phoneme graphemes

See also Notes

/k∫/

(1)
spelt <x>

only in flexure, luxury, sexual /ˈflekʃə, ˈlʌkʃəriː, ˈsekʃ (uːw) əl/

(2)
spelt <xi>

only in anxious, complexion, connexion (also spelt connection), crucifixion, fluxion, (ob) noxious

/ks/

(1)
spelt <xe>

only in annexe, axe, deluxe, (River) Exe. The <e> in axe is redundant, as the US spelling ax shows (but cf. the ‘ Three-Letter Rule’, section 4.3.2). The <e> in annexe /ˈæneks/ (‘addition to building or document’) is also phonologically redundant (and mainly omitted in US spelling) but, where used, differentiates this word visually from annex /əˈneks/ (‘take over territory’). Similarly, deleting the final <e> from the French spelling of de luxe would get too close to soap and washing powder

(2)
spelt <xh>

only in exhibition, exhortation, exhumation – for exhibit, exhort, exhume see under /g/, section 3.5.3

3-phoneme grapheme

/eks/
spelt <x>

only in X-ray, etc. One of only two 3-phoneme graphemes in the whole language

75NOTES

76For adverbs with the unstressed ending /ɪkliː/ spelt <-ically> see section 6.10.

77It is unphonological but true that it is easier to state the main correspondences of /k/ in terms of following letters rather than following phonemes. (For an attempt to do it phonologically see Carney, 1994: 217).

78<k> is used to spell /k/ mainly before the letters <e, i, y>, that is, just where <c> would usually spell /s/ – see below. There are very few exceptions:

  1. where /k/ is spelt <c> despite being before <e, i>: Celt, Celtic, sceptic, all of which have alternative spellings with <k> (and the Glasgow football club is in any case /ˈseltɪk/), arced, arcing, synced, syncing (which means that the spelling synch for this verb is better); also several words beginning encephal-, all of which have two pronunciations, with /s/ (where the spelling with <c> is regular) or /k/ (where it is irregular), e.g. encephalitis /enˈsefəlaɪtəs, eŋˈkefəlaɪtəs/ - note too the alternation between /n, ŋ/ in the first syllable. Also, in July 2006 the derived form chicest /ˈʃiːkɪst/appeared on a magazine cover, and in May 2010 ad hocery appeared in the Guardian

Источник: https://books.openedition.org/obp/2185?lang=en

Instructions

To enter your product key, go to the appropriate section of your operating system. To do this, open the "Start" menu and right-click on the "Computer" item. In the list that appears, select the "Properties" attribute.

In a new window, you will see information about the computer and the version of the operating system used. To go to the product activation section, at the bottom of the Windows Activation menu, click on the Activate Windows now link.

In the window that appears, you will be asked to choose one of the methods for activating the system - directly via the Internet or by phone. The first item is considered the most convenient activation option. The second option should only be selected if you do not have a working network connection.

After choosing "Activate Windows over the Internet", enter the product key that is printed on the box with the licensed disc. If the combination is entered correctly, you will see a message about the successful activation procedure.

To receive the code by phone, select Show other activation methods. Then enter your product key, which is shown on the Windows 7 disc box. Then click on the "Use the automatic telephone system" link. In the next window, select the country of your stay and call the one indicated on the screen.

Follow the instructions of the answering machine to complete the activation. The automatic program will ask you to enter the product code, which will be displayed on the screen. Entering must be done using the telephone keypad. If the operation is performed correctly, you will be given an activation code, which you will need to write down or immediately enter in the activation program window. If you can't enter the code correctly, stay on the line to speak with a Microsoft support specialist.

Helpful advice

OS activation is necessary to prevent the use of unlicensed software and serves as a means of fighting pirated copies of Windows.

Before using the installed OS, you must activate it. This procedure guarantees the use of a licensed copy of the product on a specific computer, and is also designed to reduce the level of illegal copying and installation of pirated versions of the OS. To activate the installed operating system, you can use one of the three available methods.

Instructions

Activation via the Internet.
1. Open the Windows Activation window by clicking the left mouse button on the corresponding tray icon or using the Start menu.
2. Click the "Yes, activate Windows over the Internet" button.
3. Click Windows Activation Privacy Statement, then the Back and Next buttons.
4. In the window that opens, do one of the following:
to activate and register your copy of Windows at the same time, click Yes, Register and Activate Windows and Windows Registration Confidentiality Agreement, then click the Back and Next buttons. Fill out the registration form and click "Next";
to easily activate Windows (without registering it), click "No, do not register, only activate Windows", then click the "Next" button.
5. After activation is complete, click OK.

If the Windows activation key is not on the bottom of the laptop, if the licensed installation DVD is lost, where the key is indicated on the box, as well as in any other cases of losing the latter, you need to find out and save it. Moreover, this matter should not be postponed indefinitely. Before the planned reinstallation of Windows, of course, the activation key can be obtained as part of the general preparatory process. But, alas, reinstalling the operating system is such a process that it is not always possible to plan it in advance and carefully. The need to reinstall the OS can arise at any time - after unsuccessful experiments with system settings and third-party software, after the penetration of a virus, in case of a conflict of replaced hardware components, etc. Plus, Windows activation can simply fail. This is not only a natural consequence of replacing the motherboard to which the Windows product key is bound. Activation may fail, for example, after installing an unsuccessful system update.

The activation key of the installed Windows can be seen in various programs for diagnosing the system and hardware resources of the computer. For example, in the popular AIDA64 program, the Windows product key is listed in the Operating System section, in a subsection with the same name.

In another similar program PC-Wizard, you can look in the "Configuration" section, in the "Operating system" subsection. When you click on the serial number in the upper part of the program window at the bottom, we will get a display of the activation key of the installed Windows.

But if these programs are not installed on the computer, there is no point in fiddling with their installation just for the sake of obtaining the Windows activation key. It is much easier to use a small program called ProduKey for these purposes. It does not require installation. ProduKey can be downloaded from its official website for free.

What ProduKey does is display the activation key data for installed Microsoft products. There are no other functions in it.

After unpacking the archive and launching the EXE file, in the program window we will see, in particular, the activation key of the installed Windows. We click the line with this key, call the context menu and select “Copy Product Key”.

The Windows activation key copied to the clipboard must then be saved, for example, in a TXT file or in Web Notes.

Windows 10 allows you to defer key entry and activation during the installation of the operating system. Whereas earlier versions of the system will not want to be installed without entering the product key. Therefore, just in case of emergency, it is better to write down the activation key from this system somewhere in a paper notebook.

Have a great day!

Hello dear friends! In this article I will show you how to find out the activation key for your windows XP, windows 7, 8, 10. I have been asked many times how can I find the activation key from my windows system? It turned out that the activation key was lost, or the sticker on the back of the laptop or system unit was simply worn out and I simply could not see the key. You need to reinstall the system and you need your own activation key to activate windows later, help with advice.

And so let's get started, in the first method we will use the script from the site microsoft... Create a plain text document on your desktop.

Set WshShell = CreateObject("WScript.Shell")

regKey = "HKLM \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows NT \ CurrentVersion \"

DigitalProductId = WshShell.RegRead (regKey & "DigitalProductId")

Win8ProductName = "Windows Product Name:" & WshShell.RegRead (regKey & "ProductName") & vbNewLine

Win8ProductID = "Windows Product ID:" & WshShell.RegRead (regKey & "ProductID") & vbNewLine

Win8ProductKey = ConvertToKey (DigitalProductId)

strProductKey = "Windows Key:" & Win8ProductKey

Win8ProductID = Win8ProductName & Win8ProductID & strProductKey

MsgBox (Win8ProductKey)

MsgBox (Win8ProductID)

Function ConvertToKey (regKey)

Const KeyOffset = 52

isWin8 = (regKey (66) \ 6) And 1

regKey (66) = (regKey (66) And& HF7) Or((isWin8 And 2) * 4)

Chars = "BCDFGHJKMPQRTVWXY2346789"

Cur = regKey (y + KeyOffset) + Cur

regKey (y + KeyOffset) = (Cur \ 24)

Cur = Cur Mod 24

LoopWhile y> = 0

winKeyOutput = Mid (Chars, Cur + 1, 1) & winKeyOutput

LoopWhile j> = 0

If(isWin8 = 1) Then

keypart1 = Mid (winKeyOutput, 2, Last)

winKeyOutput = Replace (winKeyOutput, keypart1, keypart1 & insert, 2, 1, 0)

If Last = 0 Then winKeyOutput = insert & winKeyOutput

EndIf

a = Mid (winKeyOutput, 1, 5)

b = Mid (winKeyOutput, 6, 5)

c = Mid (winKeyOutput, 11, 5)

d = Mid (winKeyOutput, 16, 5)

e = Mid (winKeyOutput, 21, 5)

ConvertToKey = a & "-" & b & "-" & c & "-" & d & "-" & e

EndFunction

After you have inserted the script into a text document, the document must be saved with the extension .VBS... To do this, click on the "File" item and select "Save As" in the drop-down list.

In the window that opens, in the File type field, select "All files (*. *)" And write any name for the file, for example I wrote windowssss.vbs. Click the "Save" button.


Open this file and you will see the long-awaited activation key for your windows system. You can click on the cross or the "OK" button, an additional window will open with information about windows, product code and, accordingly, the activation key.

That's how easy it is, you can find out your activation key on your computer. Let's look at another way, a simpler one, using the KeyFinderInstaller utility.

How to find the activation key for your windows using the KeyFinderInstaller utility

Downloading the utility KeyFinderInstaller(you can download it from any site on the Internet) and install it. After the utility is installed, click on the shortcut on the desktop and see the information we need in the window that opens.


If you still have other Microsoft products installed on your computer, for example Microsoft office, then you can also find out the activation key for these products, just select the product in the window and see the information. That's all, now you know how to find out the activation key for your windows. I hope the article will be useful to you, good luck everyone!

Hello dear readers.

Today it is not uncommon to buy a device with the software already installed. And sometimes sellers of such equipment claim that an original product is installed on it, demanding additional money for this. Therefore, many people want to know how to check the license for Windows, so as not to simply be deceived. Later in the article, I will tell you several ways to achieve our plan.

general information

Everyone today has the opportunity to buy a licensed Windows 10 operating system for their computer or any other version offered by the IT giant. At the same time, earlier it could only be done in official stores. At the moment, a variety of resellers are engaged in the sale of original software. Despite their status, even in such places you sometimes find products that require special attention from buyers, because for a lot of money you can buy a simple pirated version. The following are the main points to ensure that you are getting a truly normal product.

Sticker

The first and easiest way to check Windows 7 and lower versions is to check for a special sticker. If the seller claims that the original software is installed on the computer, then the corresponding information should be on the laptop (usually on the bottom cover) or on the system unit. This is what speaks about the use of a legal program, not a pirated one.

Key, version and assembly are indicated on laminated paper.

Portable device

If you intend to buy a new operating system separately, there should be no problems with verification at all. Windows 8.1 and other versions are offered on portable devices - plastic disks and flash drives. On the legal versions on the box, you can find all the data mentioned at the end of the last heading. In general, the sticker indicates the same, only the appearance is slightly different.

In addition, the manufacturer applies a ton of holographic badges. This can be seen not only on the box, but also on the portable memory itself. On flash drives, the corresponding pictures are on the covers. They can be found in various places on the disc packaging. In addition, Microsoft designers have provided protection for the plastic memory itself.

Key verification

Sometimes, some become victims of fraudsters who themselves print the appropriate elements to confirm the authenticity. To avoid falling into the trap, there is a simple way to check.

So, future users need to turn on the device and on the icon " A computer"Call" Properties". A window will open where the required data will be indicated. This is where you need to check the product code. If everything matches, the license is installed.

Otherwise, in place of letters and numbers, there will be an inscription about the failed activation.

In addition, the term of operation for the key installed in the system is indicated here. If this is not the case, the remaining time for entering characters is written. Usually a month is given for this. After that, messages begin to appear that you need to go through the appropriate procedure.

However, some services may stop performing their functions.

Site

Another way to check the authenticity of the operating system is to contact the manufacturer's website. More precisely, it is necessary to enter the appropriate combination of characters into the corresponding line on the web resource.

Important! This cannot be done for Windows XP, Windows Vista and the seventh version, since developer support is already closed for them.

Pirate build

You can use several methods to identify non-original software. So, first go to Computer Properties. If nothing is specified in the paragraph about activation, most likely a low-quality product is being used. But usually there is always some kind of inscription here.

Many Win mobile users dream of testing their device to be sure of using the original image.

It is worth noting that today mobile phones with this operating system are produced only by Microsoft partner companies, and therefore only genuine software is used on them.

Command line

Another convenient way to check if the system is activated is to write a special combination of characters through the command line. To do this, go to " Start"And in the search bar indicate" cmd". The corresponding icon will appear. We call the context menu on it and open it with administrator rights.

A black window will appear in front of users. It is necessary to write the command in it: " clmgr / xpr". Next, the operating system will display a message corresponding to the activation status.

If this does not help, in the line you need to specify: " cscript slmgr.vbs -xpr". The result should be the same result.

In general, all methods are free and legal, so you can safely use one of them or even all of them at once.

I hope you will be able to carry out your plans without any problems.

A special license product key is used to activate the Windows operating system. The Windows product key for activating the system differs depending on the version of the operating system (Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, etc.), OS edition (Home, Pro, etc.), distribution method (OEM, Retail etc).

To activate the Windows operating system, a product key is used, which consists of 25 characters in the form of numbers and capital (upper case) English letters, divided into 5 groups of 5 characters each: "XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX".

Laptops used to have a glued Windows activation key. At the moment, laptop manufacturers with pre-installed operating systems sew the product key into the BIOS to automatically activate Windows.

In case of reinstallation of the system, or for any other reason (for example, activation failed after a hardware failure), the user may need a Windows product key. How do I find my Windows activation key?

You can find out the license key of the installed Windows by running a special VBS script, as well as using five programs: ProduKey, ShowKeyPlus, Free PC Audit, Speccy, AIDA64, SIW. All the listed programs are free, except for AIDA64 and SIW.

The script with the ".vbs" extension and portable free programs (ProduKey, ShowKeyPlus, Free PC Audit) can be downloaded from here. Download the rest of the programs to your computer from the manufacturers' official websites.

Using these methods, you can find out the key for Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10. After you find out the Windows product key, the obtained data for subsequent use, in the case of reinstalling the operating system, to activate the operating system.

How to find the Windows key in ProduKey

The free ProduKey program from the well-known manufacturer NirSoft does not require installation on a computer. The application shows keys from Windows OS, Internet Explorer browser, Microsoft Office.

Unpack the archive with the program, and then run the file "Application" from the folder. After launch, the key from the installed operating system will be displayed in the ProduKey utility window.

Highlight the entry with the Windows 10 key or another operating system, and then select "Copy Product Key" from the context menu to copy the activation key to the clipboard.

We look at the license key in ShowKeyPlus

The free ShowKeyPlus program does not require installation on a computer. After starting, in the application window you will see information:

  • Product Name - the operating system currently installed on the computer
  • Product ID - product code
  • Installed Key - the key of the operating system currently installed on the computer
  • OEM Key - a key embedded in the BIOS of the laptop of the originally installed operating system

To save the data, click on the “Save” button, and then the received information in a text file.

How to view the Windows key in Free PC Audit

Free software Free PC Audit will help you to find out the key of the installed Windows. This program does not need to be installed on a computer. Run the utility file, after which the Free PC Audit window will open, in which a system scan will begin.

After the scan is complete, in the "System" tab, opposite the "Windows product key" item, you will see the product key of the installed Windows operating system.

To copy the key, select the line with the license key, and then using the "Copy" context menu item, or using the "Ctrl" + "C" keys, copy the Windows product key from the utility window.

How to find out Windows 8 key using VBScrit

Windows operating system activation keys are stored encrypted on your hard drive. Executing the VBScrit script will allow you to get the decrypted product key of the installed operating system. This script was developed for the Windows 8 operating system, but this code also works great on the Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 7 operating systems.

To perform the operation, double-click on the "WindowsKey.vbs" file. In the window that opens, you will see the Windows activation code. Then click on the "OK" button.

The next window will display information about the operating system version, product ID and product key number. Ignore the title of the entry "Windows 8 Key". The name of this OS will be displayed on any version of the Windows operating system.

Get Windows key in Speccy

Free Speccy from the renowned Piriform company, CCleaner and other software. You can download the portable version of Speccy from the official site. There is a paid version of the program with advanced features.

The program provides the user with detailed information about the computer hardware; also, using the application, you can find out the license key of the installed Windows.

Run the Speccy program, the "Operating System" section will display the version of the installed operating system, its serial number (activation key).

Find out the product key in AIDA64

AIDA64 is a powerful program for obtaining all kinds of information about the software and hardware of your computer.

After starting the AIDA64 program, in the "Menu" tab, in the "Operating system" section, the license information will be displayed, including the Windows product key.

Select the product key, select "Copy" in the context menu, then paste the key into Notepad, or another similar program to save.

Read the program overview.

Key information in SIW

SIW (System Information of Windows) is a program for obtaining information about the hardware status and software of a computer.

After starting SIW, go to the "Programs", "Licenses" section. Information about the product key used by the Windows operating system installed on the computer is displayed here.

Invalid product key

When checking keys using the methods listed above, the Windows product key may appear as follows: "BBBBB-BBBBB-BBBBB-BBBBB-BBBBB".

This means that your computer is activated with a corporate MAK or VLK key. Operating Windows does not store such keys, therefore programs do not see them.

Windows 10 uses a new system authentication method (not all Windows 10). The activation record is stored on the servers and is not displayed on the computer. After reinstallation, Windows will activate itself for some time.

The retention of the license depends on changes in the hardware configuration of the computer. If the motherboard is replaced, Microsoft's activation servers will revoke the license for this computer. Windows will prompt you to purchase a new product key.

Conclusions of the article

If necessary, the user can find out the license code of the Windows operating system by running the VBS script, or using specialized programs: ProduKey, ShowKeyPlus, Free PC Audit, Speccy, AIDA64, SIW.

Источник: https://extraslots.ru/en/tools/kak-uznat-ot-kakoi-operacionnoi-sistemy-klyuch-kak-uznat-seriinyi-nomer/

Hari ini, Jumat 7 Agustus 2020 seluruh jajaran aparat Desa Wanayasa menggelar aksi sosialisasi Adaptasi Kebiasaan Baru di wilayah desa Wanayasa.

Kegiatan tersebut difokuskan di sekitar terminal Wanayasa, Alun-alun dan jalan protokol di wilayah desa Wanayasa. Sosialisasi ini lebih dikhususkan pada penggunaan masker bagi seluruh warga.

Acara ini rencananya akan dikomandani langsung oleh H. Aming, selaku wakil Bupati Purwakarta.

Kegiatan ini bertujuan menanamkan kesadaran warga untuk senantiasa melaksanakan protokol kesehatan pada masa pandemi yang belum juga usai. Tentu saja harapannya adalah bahwa desa Wanayasa khususnya terhindar dari penyebaran Covid-19 yang akhir-akhir ini kembali merebak di sejumlah daerah di Indonesia termasuk di kabupaten Purwakarta.

Pjs. Kepala Desa Wanayasa, Babang Subarna, M.Pd menegaskan bahwa Desa Wanayasa wajib kembali melaksanakan giat protokol kesehatan untuk menjaga Wanayasa tetap sehat. Sosialisasi AKB akan kembali dilaksanakan dan lebih disiplin lagi. Terutama nagi para pengunjung Alun-alun dan Situ Wanayasa, penggunaan Masker adalah Wajib hukumnya. Pungkas,  Babang Subarna.

Источник: https://wanayasa.desa.id/read/127657

Slang for ~term~

Urban Thesaurus

The Urban Thesaurus was created by indexing millions of different slang terms which are defined on sites like Urban Dictionary. These indexes are then used to find usage correlations between slang terms. The official Urban Dictionary API is used to show the hover-definitions. Note that this thesaurus is not in any way affiliated with Urban Dictionary.

Due to the way the algorithm works, the thesaurus gives you mostly related slang words, rather than exact synonyms. The higher the terms are in the list, the more likely that they're relevant to the word or phrase that you searched for. The search algorithm handles phrases and strings of words quite well, so for example if you want words that are related to lol and rofl you can type in lol rofl and it should give you a pile of related slang terms. Or you might try boyfriend or girlfriend to get words that can mean either one of these (e.g. bae). Please also note that due to the nature of the internet (and especially UD), there will often be many terrible and offensive terms in the results.

There is still lots of work to be done to get this slang thesaurus to give consistently good results, but I think it's at the stage where it could be useful to people, which is why I released it.

Special thanks to the contributors of the open-source code that was used in this project: @krisk, @HubSpot, and @mongodb.

Finally, you might like to check out the growing collection of curated slang words for different topics over at Slangpedia.

Please note that Urban Thesaurus uses third party scripts (such as Google Analytics and advertisements) which use cookies. To learn more, see the privacy policy.

Recent Slang Thesaurus Queries

Источник: https://urbanthesaurus.org/synonyms/sweaty%20pigeon

Samsung kies mac os x 10.8.1

Contents:

  • Hans D. Baumeister
  • You may also like
  • Latest Products

  • DMDE 3. Easy2Boot 1. Everything 1. GPU-Z 1. LessMSI 1. FileLocator Pro 8. DriveLetterView 1. FolderChangesView 2. SearchMyFiles 2. SimpleWMIView 1. WhosIP 1. WirelessKeyView 2. OSForensics 4. CCleaner 5. Speccy 1. RapidEE 9. Sysmon 5. Process Explorer Procdump 8. LiveKd 5.

    TeamViewer WSUS Offline TortoiseSVN 1. MySQL 5. VMware Player VirtualBox 5. Plupload 2. TinyMCE 4.

    xugucosahuqo.xyz/moravia-dnde-conocer-gay.php,

    Drupal 8. HumHub 1. WordPress 4. Contact Form 7 4.

    Sovrn was Zemanta 1. Keep it clean out there. Shawn K. Microsoft released updates to address vulnerabilities in Windows, Edge,.

    • mac cant find base station!
    • Connecting Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 to Mac?
    • no puedo conectar samsung GT-I - Apple Community.
    • Android FileTransfer does not work with OSX Mountain Lion (10.8)?

    These are security updates. Samsung Kies3 does not provide a changelog, so should be treated as a security update. Samsung SideSync 4.

    Hans D. Baumeister

    Remix OS 2. This is still in beta, so caveat emptor. NK2Edit 3. This is brought to you by the same people responsible for Nazi Bot. Prosody 0. Dropbox 3. Evernote 5. Nmap 7. FreeNAS 9. BrowsingHistoryView 1. DNSDataView 1. IPNetInfo 1. Plex Media Server 0. EA Origin 9. Adobe RoboHelp Server 9. Adobe Creative Cloud 3.

    You may also like

    Use Creative Cloud to install the most current version. Artweaver 5. LibreOffice 5. OpenOffice Dictionary I have MA 1. I have version 2. When I go through the tray icons and attempt to update the software they both come back and say I have the latest version. I ran the setup on my work laptop and it works, unfortunately all of my music is on my personal PC in iTunes.

    It's very unfortunate, I have been looking for something to replace my iPhone with Runkeeper and thought I had found it in this device but I am a distance runner and having no music for hours isn't really an option for me so I will have to stick with my iPhone. Windows 7 is definitely supported.

    That can cause problems. It's a USB 2. I would really rather not have to reinstall Windows to get this to work so I guess I will have to return it. If it automatically exported my workouts to RunKeeper then it would probably be worth the half a day it would take to reinstall and reload but having to export the data from the Motorola site and then import it to RunKeeper is just another hassle.

    Maybe when the next version of this comes out I will take another look at it. That has resolved connectivity issues for some users. Oh my Why dont you debug your software, why dont you hire QA people and so on. I'm stuck, I was able to do only one synchronization and now after trying everything on this post I can't connect my phone anymore, It hangs a few minutes "Please wait while your library is located" and then shows either the "Have trouble connecting" or it shows my library but with an empty phone.

    Any help? I already reinstalled motocast latest version, rebooted notebook and phone, turned on and off USB debug. Have you tried switching the USB mode? This website uses cookies. By browsing this website, you consent to the use of cookies. It brought more than new features.

    How to install Kies on Mac OS X 10.8

    The single DVD works for all supported Macs including bit machines. New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine , Spaces , Boot Camp pre-installed, [] full support for bit applications including graphical applications , new features in Mail and iChat , and a number of new security features. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X , Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system.

    For most users, the most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac.

    This release removed Rosetta , making it incompatible with PowerPC applications. Documents auto-save by default.

    Download Kies for Windows to connect your Samsung mobile phone to your PC. OS. MacOS X version or later. CPU. GHz Intel or faster processor. Samsung Kies for Mac, free and safe download. Samsung Kies latest version: Sync Android devices with your Mac. Samsung Kies for Mac is OS. Mac OS X.

    OS X It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center , support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app.

    Mac and cheese bites menu

    Contents:

  • Fried Macaroni and Cheese Bites Recipe
  • Fried Mac & Cheese Bites
  • Get fresh food news delivered to your inbox

  • Sign Me Up. In a large pot of boiling salted water, cook macaroni until al dente according to package instructions; drain.

    Eight golden bites filled with macaroni, Asiago, Mozzarella and Parmesan cheese. Stuffed with fresh grilled chicken breast, sautéed mushrooms, bacon, melted cheeses and honey mustard sauce. Bloomin' Onion® petals served with our spicy signature bloom sauce, Steakhouse Mac & Cheese. My favorite part of homemade mac and cheese happens to be the crispy My kids have already requested these get put on the menu again for.

    In pot, melt 4 tablespoons butter over medium heat. Whisk in flour, and cook, stirring frequently, until mixture is pale golden and has a nutty aroma, about 4 minutes. Whisking constantly, slowly add milk. Cook, whisking along bottom of pot, until boiling, about 7 minutes. Reduce heat and gently simmer, stirring occasionally, until sauce is thickened, 10 to 12 minutes.

    Remove from heat, and add remaining 1 tablespoon butter, the mustard powder, and cheese. Stir until melted and sauce is smooth; season with salt. Add a Recipe. Shopping List. Join Login. Meal Recipes. What could be better?

    Fried Mac & Cheese Bites

    What You Need. Original recipe yields 30 servings. Add to cart Add To Shopping List. Let's Make It. Prepare Dinner as directed on package, adding broccoli to the boiling water for the last 2 min. Stir in bacon, onions and eggs. It adds just the right amount of crunch.

    Then it dawned on me… why not turn them into mini bite size pieces to make each bite that piece of heaven! Adults and kids alike go crazy for them. My kids have already requested these get put on the menu again for this upcoming week and with how easy they are, how could I say no?! The flavor is delicious and they are cooked to perfection!

    Spray mini muffin tins with cooking spray. Cook pasta according to packaged directions and set aside. In a medium size pan combine butter and flour over medium heat. Whisk until butter is melted and mixture is smooth. Slowly add milk and bring to a simmer. Stir until smooth and creamy. Remove from heat.

    In a large mixing bowl, carefully stir pasta, cheese sauce, and egg until evenly mixed and pasta is evenly coated. Spoon mac and cheese into mini muffin tins and top each with a small pinch of remaining cheese.

    • Sonic's New Fall Menu Might Include This Sour Patch Slush And It's Actually So Good.
    • Fried Mac and Cheese Balls.
    • White Castle Brought Back Their Fried Mac & Cheese "Nibblers".

    Bake at degrees F for 15 minutes or until golden brown. Allow to cool 5 minutes before gently removing the bites. Your email address will not be published. Rate this recipe. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. I have an interesting question I like your pictures of the macaroni bites. Whenever I make oven baked macaroni, it always falls apart. How do you get each macaroni bite to hold together without a cupcake liner? I haven't made these yet, but I am guessing it's the egg that helps to holds them together. I am anxious to try them! It is important to have the correct ratio of noodles to sauce.

    Too many noodles for the sauce, it will really apart. I made these for a senior citizens pot luck I love the recipes, but I am having a hard time reading the grey on white print.. For those of us who have a vision problem, it would be a big help.. I have to re write the recipes in a larger, black ink format so I can read them My friend has less than twenty vision so I use font arial black in size 14 or 16 with a bright yellow background. But, why can't you just print your recipes, or whole your site in fact, in a font color that more contrast instead of having your users go through the trouble to copy past etc.

    But,yYou are not the only one!

    Get fresh food news delivered to your inbox

    From recipes to business cards etc seems to be the "cool" "IN" thing to do, and it truly is maddening. I don't understand the point. Do you know the yield to this recipe? Also, do you think these could be frozen and then rejuvinated, or will that just disturb the whole crunchy thing?

    Incredibly Addicting Fried Mac & Cheese Bites

    Can you make them ahead and freeze them, if so do you suggest bake them first, cool them then freeze them? I am planning to make these for a party next week, would like to know ahead of time, how to do the last minute heating without losing the consistency of them. I would not recommend microwaving anything. You will only get more water into your product.

    Thaw them and cook on a low heat just like you mentioned. Did you happen to make these ahead of time? If so, did you bake them, freeze them and then heated them up on low heat? I would also like to know how they turned out. Is it better to freeze them before or after baking? I assume after baking to make them hold its shape?

    Watch Next

    Would it work to freeze it before baking using cupcake liners, then to thaw and bake? Have a kids party coming up and I desperately need make ahead recipes. I freeze mine uncooked using mini muffin papers with the tray tied in a freezer bag. Take them out to thaw which is a short time, then bake. Each recipe give you I too would like to know the yield for this recipe. Also does the mixture stick together well. I think this will be such a hit when I make it for them. Hello, I'm interested in trying this enticing recipe - what level do we place the oven rack, and how many does your recipe make??

    Recommended way to reheat? I only have 1 pan and want to make more than that for a party so I'm gonna have to make two separate batches and keep them in a container. Microwave fine? Or would some time in the oven again be better? If you happen to get a response as to whether they can be prepared ahead of time and put into the freezer, please let me know. I would like to make them for a party in August.

    • recuperare salvataggio automatico word mac.
    • island racer full version free mac.
    • Comfort food, fast..
    • how to write html file in mac.
    • ableton live 9 plugins folder mac.

    I know noodles like to absorb any moisture they can so I am not sure how this will effect how dry or cheesy they will be. If you try, please keep me posted.

    The World's Largest Menu Just Got Bigger

    Although I haven't made this yet I am basing my rating on my cooking experience I know in my bones this will be a grand slam! I'm wondering if anyone has used silicone mini muffin pans instead of metal I used cornstarch and they are not holding together so well.

    Cd dvd label maker apple mac

    Contents:

  • Paper formats
  • CD Label Maker for Mac
  • Mac CD DVD Label Maker

  • The Epson Direct to Disk mode jump to a paper mode screen and no action to print happens. I hope the developer fixes this soon. It has always worked well before. My problem is the support page I did send a support email. I choose to buy a different software package from another vendor.

    I can not wait for a fix.

    Paper formats

    Import track info from your iTunes library, pictures from Photos or a folder on your disc. Print your disc covers on any of hundreds of paper layouts from Avery, Neato, Memorex and others.

    Mac OSX - Create a ISO from CD/DVD

    SensibleTuireann's Experience. Hide See All. Recommend 43 Technically an ad but we made this. Very reliable recommendations on what to buy.

    Plugs right into Amazon to save you money. Interested in promoting your product? Contact us. All 6.

    Description

    DedicatedAntheia's Experience. Recommend 52 All 3. High customization of all menus and great slide shows. You have to keep a old mac OS Recommend 30 2.

    All options will not show when opened. Users can even upload and import items from iTunes, iPhoto, Finder, and text files, to create custom-made labels for all their items. A myriad of editing options allow users to crop, trim, adjust color and shade, and use other effects to enhance each label. High quality printing controls allow users to pick and choose exactly those parts of which labels are printed.

    Labels can be printed on a wide variety of paper, including paper from Avery, Data Becker, Fellowes, Herma, and more. With over ten software titles for the Apple Mac platform currently released, Cristallight Software is at the forefront of Mac Software for businesses and homes. Cristallight Software strives to create software that offer endless options for creating business cards, labels, desktop publishing, business inventory and barcoding, and more.

    CD Label Maker for Mac

    Review copies are available on request. Cristallight Software development company produces the best Mac software for business and home.

    • Software Specifications?
    • iWinSoft CD Label Maker for Mac;
    • Step 2: Print out your labels?

    The company has released more then 10 software titles for the Mac platform. Copyright C Cristallight Software. The image libraries used for either label background or image objects long with the pre-defined layouts simplify the disk label creation process greatly, making it possible to finish the work in three steps.

    Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about CD DVD Label Maker. Download CD DVD Label Maker for macOS or. iWinSoft CD Label Maker is your one stop application for designing and printing CD/DVD disc labels, cover art, jewel case inserts, and more. iWinSoft CD Label Maker for Mac is a CD and DVD disc labeling software for Mac OS X. Use it to create professional CD and DVD disc labels as.

    It comes with everything you need to create and print stunning CD labels, jewel case inserts, spines, DVD covers and more. Download Trial Customizable Templates Start with a pre-designed label template, get incredible results almost instantly. Extensive Design Toolkit A complete set of text, design, and layout tools.

    Wondershare video converter ultimate 3.5.1 crack mac

    Contents:

  • 9290716 Total Video Converter Serial
  • UTorrent PRO 3.5.5 Build 44994 Full Crack APK [June 12222]
  • [Download] Wolverine Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate V544 @!
  • télécharger Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate 10.0.10.121 Crack

  • Currently viewing account details for:. Sign out. Sign in to manage your profile and devices My Optimum ID. Forgot my Optimum ID.

    9290716 Total Video Converter Serial

    I forgot my password. Remember Me. Next statement date. You do not have access. Please sign in as the primary. Zamzar — MP4 to MP3 converter free online that supports over different conversion types without downloading a software tool. Convertio — Advanced online video converter from MP4 to MP3 can convert other files of any formats online. Take the promotion coupon code below to save 5 USD.

    Windows Media Player is the default player for Windows computer that supports a wide range of video and audio formats like. It's so full-featured that even enables you to free convert MP4 video to MP3. The following is the overall guide on MP4 to MP3 extraction. Step 2: Click Organize and select Options The free player not only streams most media files, but allows you to convert video.

    Handbrake is open source and completely free command line tool for transcoding video files from one format to another.

    Aimersoft Video Converter Ultimate Mac OS El Capitan serials keygen Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate OSX serial number keygen. Mac OS X Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate OS X Yosemite activation key Wondershare Democreator macintosh serial code maker.

    Although the interface looks complex, it's easy to use. Below we'll show you how to convert MP4 to MP3 with ease. Step 3: Search the converted MP3 file by using iTunes search function. You'll quite frequently need to extract sound or voice from video to add to your stock audio library.

    Espresso 3. Espresso 5. Essential Anatomy 5 5. Essential Anatomy 5. E-Utilities 8. EverWeb 2. ExactScan Pro Excel for Mac Exchange Rates 2. ExpanDrive 5. ExpanDrive 6.

    1. Other link for Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate Full Cracked:.
    2. Sparkol VideoScribe Pro 3.3.1 Full Version With Crack Torrent.
    3. Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate 10.3.0 Crack Full Free Download.
    4. Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate Full Cracked!
    5. Drone Surveys Planned for Wildfire Mitigation on Maui.

    Expert Designs - Templates for Pages 3. Expert Templates - Pro Templates for Pages 3.

    • [Download] Wolverine Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate V544 @!.
    • AnyDVD HD Crack Full Keygen Plus Serial Key Latest Version!
    • dragon dictate 4 mac deutsch?
    • Wondershare PDF Editor Pro for Mac 5.5.1, 125134 records found, first 100 of them are:.

    Explode Shape Layers 3. Exposure X2 2. Expressions 1. ExpressionUniv ersalizer 3. EyeTV 3. FabFilter Total Bundle v Fantastical 2 - Calendar and Reminders 2.

    Fantastical 2. FastRawViewer 1. F-Bar 2. Feeder 3. FigrCollage 2. File Cabinet Pro 3. File Cabinet Pro 4. File Juicer 4. File Multi Tool 6. Fileloupe - Media Browser 1. FileMaker Pro 15 Advanced FileMaker Pro Advanced FileMaker Server FilePane 1.

    [Download] Wolverine Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate V544 @!

    FileRecovery Enterprise 5. FilmConvert Pro 2. FilmConvert Pro Bundle FilmLight Baselight for Avid 4. Filmlight Daylight 5. FilmLight Daylight 5.

    Fast downloads of the latest free software! Bookends FontShop presents The all time Best Fonts. Adobe Illustrator CC Wondershare's Video Converter Ultimate is, as its name suggests, the ultimate video utility for Windows users. Audirvana Plus 3. JixiPix Spektrel Art 1. Corporate Templates - Business Stationery 3. Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate 5. As a major benefit, it provides access to SAP applications that are based on Control-Enabling and therefore used to be reserved for Windows users in the past. Bitwig Studio v1. Art Text 3. Infographics Lab for PowerPoint 1. Antivirus Zap 3.

    FilmLight Prelight On-Set 5. Filmlight prelight On-Set 5. Dayl ight. FilmTag 1. Final Cut Pro Final Cut Pro 7. Final Cut Pro X Final Draft Final Draft 9. Finale Find Any File 1. Findings 2. Fireplace 4K 1. Fission 2. Fix My iPhone 1. FL Studio Flaming Pear Solar Cell 1.

    Flare 2. Flinto 2. Flinto FlipCreator 4. Fluid Mask 3. Flume PRO 2. Flume Pro 2. Flux 5. Flux 6. Flux 7. Flyer Mill 1. Flyers Templates for Pages 1. Flying Logic Pro 3. Focus - A Pomodoro Timer 3. Folder Color 3. Folder Designer 1. Folder Icons 1. Folder Size Catalog 2. Folder Tidy 2. Folx GO 5. Folx Pro 5. FonePaw Android Data Recovery 2. FonePaw iOS Transfer 2. FonePaw iPhone Data Recovery 3. FontBook 5.

    Источник: https://america.wowaburezaba.cf/

    Hari ini, Jumat 7 Agustus 2020 seluruh jajaran aparat Desa Wanayasa menggelar aksi sosialisasi Adaptasi Kebiasaan Baru di wilayah desa Wanayasa.

    Kegiatan tersebut difokuskan di sekitar terminal Wanayasa, Alun-alun dan jalan protokol di wilayah desa Wanayasa. Sosialisasi ini lebih dikhususkan pada penggunaan masker bagi seluruh warga.

    Acara ini rencananya akan dikomandani langsung oleh H. Aming, selaku wakil Bupati Purwakarta.

    Kegiatan ini bertujuan menanamkan kesadaran warga untuk senantiasa melaksanakan protokol kesehatan pada masa pandemi yang belum juga usai. Tentu saja harapannya adalah bahwa desa Wanayasa khususnya terhindar dari penyebaran Covid-19 yang akhir-akhir ini kembali merebak di sejumlah daerah di Indonesia termasuk di kabupaten Purwakarta.

    Pjs. Kepala Desa Wanayasa, Babang Subarna, M.Pd menegaskan bahwa Desa Wanayasa wajib kembali melaksanakan giat protokol kesehatan untuk menjaga Wanayasa tetap sehat. Sosialisasi AKB akan kembali dilaksanakan dan lebih disiplin lagi. Terutama nagi para pengunjung Alun-alun dan Situ Wanayasa, penggunaan Masker adalah Wajib hukumnya. Pungkas,  Babang Subarna.

    Источник: https://wanayasa.desa.id/read/127657

    Samsung kies mac os x 10.8.1

    Contents:

  • Hans D. Baumeister
  • You may also like
  • Latest Products

  • DMDE 3. Easy2Boot 1. Everything 1. GPU-Z 1. LessMSI 1. FileLocator Pro 8. DriveLetterView 1. FolderChangesView 2. SearchMyFiles 2. SimpleWMIView 1. WhosIP 1. WirelessKeyView 2. OSForensics 4. CCleaner 5. Speccy 1. RapidEE 9. Sysmon 5. Process Explorer Procdump 8. LiveKd 5.

    TeamViewer WSUS Offline TortoiseSVN 1. MySQL 5. VMware Player VirtualBox 5. Plupload 2. TinyMCE 4.

    xugucosahuqo.xyz/moravia-dnde-conocer-gay.php,

    Drupal 8. HumHub 1. WordPress 4. Contact Form 7 4.

    Sovrn was Zemanta 1. Keep it clean out there. Shawn K. Microsoft released updates to address vulnerabilities in Windows, Edge.

    • mac cant find base station!
    • Connecting Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 to Mac?
    • no puedo conectar samsung GT-I - Apple Community.
    • Android FileTransfer does not work with OSX Mountain Lion (10.8)?

    These are security updates. Samsung Kies3 does not provide a changelog, so should be treated as a security update. Samsung SideSync 4.

    Hans D. Baumeister

    Remix OS 2. This is still in beta, so caveat emptor. NK2Edit 3. This is brought to you by the same people responsible for Nazi Bot. Prosody 0. Dropbox 3. Evernote 5. Nmap 7. FreeNAS 9. BrowsingHistoryView 1. DNSDataView 1. IPNetInfo 1. Plex Media Server 0. EA Origin 9. Adobe RoboHelp Server 9. Adobe Creative Cloud 3.

    You may also like

    Use Creative Cloud to install the most current version. Artweaver 5. LibreOffice 5. OpenOffice Dictionary I have MA 1. I have version 2. When I go through the tray icons and attempt to update the software they both come back and say I have the latest version. I ran the setup on my work laptop and it works, unfortunately all of my music is on my personal PC in iTunes.

    It's very unfortunate, I have been looking for something to replace my iPhone with Runkeeper and thought I had found it in this device but I am a distance runner and having no music for hours isn't really an option for me so I will have to stick with my iPhone. Windows 7 is definitely supported.

    That can cause problems. It's a USB 2. I would really rather not have to reinstall Windows to get this to work so I guess I will have to return it. If it automatically exported my workouts to RunKeeper then it would probably be worth the half a day it would take to reinstall and reload but having to export the data from the Motorola site and then import it to RunKeeper is just another hassle.

    Maybe when the next version of this comes out I will take another look at it. That has resolved connectivity issues for some users. Oh my Why dont you debug your software, why dont you hire QA people and so on. I'm stuck, I was able to do only one synchronization and now after trying everything on this post I can't connect my phone anymore, It hangs a few minutes "Please wait while your library is located" and then shows either the "Have trouble connecting" or it shows my library but with an empty phone.

    Any help? I already reinstalled motocast latest version, rebooted notebook and phone, turned on and off USB debug. Have you tried switching the USB mode? This website uses cookies. By browsing this website, you consent to the use of cookies. It brought more than new features.

    How to install Kies on Mac OS X 10.8

    The single DVD works for all supported Macs including bit machines. New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time MachineSpacesBoot Camp pre-installed, [] full support for bit applications including graphical applicationsnew features in Mail and iChatand a number of new security features. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS XSnow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system.

    For revo uninstaller pro crack users, the most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac.

    This release removed Rosettamaking it incompatible with PowerPC applications. Documents auto-save by default.

    Download Kies for Windows to connect your Samsung mobile phone to your PC. OS. MacOS X version or later. CPU. GHz Intel or faster processor. Samsung Kies for Mac, free and safe download. Samsung Kies latest version: Sync Android devices with your Mac. Samsung Kies for Mac is OS. Mac OS X.

    OS X It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Centersupport for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app.

    Mac and cheese bites menu

    Contents:

  • Fried Macaroni and Cheese Bites Recipe
  • Fried Mac & Cheese Bites
  • Get fresh food news delivered to your inbox

  • Sign Me Up. In a large pot of boiling salted water, cook macaroni until al dente according to package instructions; drain.

    Eight golden bites filled with macaroni, Asiago, Mozzarella and Parmesan cheese. Stuffed with fresh grilled chicken breast, sautéed mushrooms, bacon, melted cheeses and honey mustard sauce. Bloomin' Onion® petals served with our spicy signature bloom sauce, Steakhouse Mac & Cheese. My favorite part of homemade mac and cheese happens to be the crispy My kids have already requested these get put on the menu again for.

    In pot, melt 4 tablespoons butter over medium heat. Whisk in flour, and cook, stirring frequently, until mixture is pale golden and has a nutty aroma, about 4 minutes. Whisking constantly, slowly add milk. Cook, whisking along bottom of pot, until boiling, about 7 minutes. Reduce heat and gently simmer, stirring occasionally, until sauce is thickened, 10 to 12 minutes.

    Remove from heat, and add remaining 1 tablespoon butter, the mustard powder, and cheese. Stir until melted and sauce is smooth; season with salt. Add a Recipe. Shopping List. Join Login. Meal Recipes. What could be better?

    Fried Mac & Cheese Bites

    What You Need. Original recipe yields 30 servings. Add to cart Add To Speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U List. Let's Make It. Prepare Dinner as directed on package, adding broccoli to the boiling water for the last 2 min. Stir in bacon, onions and eggs. It adds just the right amount of crunch.

    Then it dawned on me… why not turn them into mini bite size pieces to make each bite that piece of heaven! Adults and kids alike go crazy for them. My kids have already requested these get put on the menu again for this upcoming week and with how easy they are, how could I say no?! The flavor is delicious and they are cooked to perfection!

    Spray mini muffin tins with cooking spray. Cook pasta according to packaged directions and set aside. In a medium size pan combine butter and flour over medium heat. Whisk until butter is melted and mixture is smooth. Slowly add milk and bring to a simmer. Stir until smooth and creamy. Remove from heat.

    In a large mixing bowl, carefully stir pasta, cheese sauce, and egg until evenly mixed and pasta is evenly coated. Spoon mac and cheese into mini muffin tins and top each with a small pinch of remaining cheese.

    • Sonic's New Fall Menu Might Include This Sour Patch Slush And It's Actually So Good.
    • Fried Mac and Cheese Balls.
    • White Castle Brought Back Their Fried Mac & Cheese "Nibblers".

    Bake at degrees F for 15 minutes or until golden brown. Allow to cool 5 minutes before gently removing the bites. Your email address will not be published. Rate this recipe. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. I have an interesting question I like your pictures of the macaroni bites. Whenever I make oven baked macaroni, it always falls apart. How do you get each macaroni bite to hold together without a cupcake liner? I haven't made these yet, but I am guessing it's the egg that helps to holds them together. I am anxious to try them! It is important to have the correct ratio of noodles to sauce.

    Too many noodles for the sauce, it will really apart. I made these for a senior citizens pot luck I love the recipes, but I am having a hard time reading the grey on white print. For those of us who have a vision problem, it would be a big help. I have to re write the recipes in a larger, black ink format so I can read them My friend has less than twenty vision so I use font arial black in size 14 or 16 with a bright yellow background. But, why can't you just print your recipes, or whole your site in fact, in a font color that more contrast instead of having your users go through the trouble to copy past etc.

    But,yYou are not the only one!

    Get fresh food news delivered to your inbox

    From recipes to business cards etc seems to be the "cool" "IN" thing to do, and it truly is maddening. I don't understand the point. Do you know the yield to this recipe? Also, do you think these could be frozen and then rejuvinated, or will that just disturb the whole crunchy thing?

    Incredibly Addicting Fried Mac & Cheese Bites

    Can you make them ahead and freeze them, if so do you suggest bake them first, cool them then freeze them? I am planning to make these for a party next week, would like to know ahead of time, how to do the last minute heating without losing the consistency of them. I would not recommend microwaving anything. You will only get more water into your product.

    Thaw them and cook on a low heat just like you mentioned. Did you happen to make these ahead of time? If so, did you bake them, freeze them and then heated them up on low heat? I would also like to know how they turned out. Is it better to freeze them before or after baking? I assume after baking to make them hold its shape?

    Watch Next

    Would it work to freeze it before baking using cupcake liners, then to thaw and bake? Have a kids party coming up and I desperately need make ahead recipes. I freeze mine uncooked using mini muffin papers with the tray tied in a freezer bag. Take them out to thaw which is a short time, then bake. Each recipe give you I too would like to know the yield for this recipe. Also does the mixture stick together well. I think this will be such a hit when I make it for them. Hello, I'm interested in trying this enticing recipe - what level do we place the oven rack, and how many does your recipe make??

    Recommended way to reheat? I only have 1 pan and want to make more than that for a party so I'm gonna have to make two separate batches and keep them in a container. Microwave fine? Or would some time in the oven again be better? If you happen to get a response as to whether they can be prepared ahead of time and put into the freezer, please let me know. I would like to make them for a party in August.

    • recuperare salvataggio automatico word mac.
    • island racer full version free mac.
    • Comfort food, fast.
    • how to write html file in mac.
    • ableton live 9 plugins folder mac.

    I know noodles like to absorb any moisture they can so I am not sure how this will effect how dry or cheesy they will be. If you try, please keep me posted.

    The World's Largest Menu Just Got Bigger

    Although I haven't made this yet I am basing my rating on my cooking experience I know in my bones this will be a grand slam! I'm wondering if anyone has used silicone mini muffin pans instead of metal I used cornstarch and they are not holding together so well.

    Cd dvd label maker apple mac

    Contents:

  • Paper formats
  • CD Label Maker for Mac
  • Mac CD DVD Label Maker

  • The Epson TriDef 3D 7.5 Crack + License Key 2021 - Free Activators to Disk mode jump to a paper mode screen and no action to print happens. I hope the developer fixes this soon. It has always worked well before. My problem is the support page I did send a support email. I choose to buy a different software package from another vendor.

    I can not wait for a fix.

    Paper formats

    Import track info from your iTunes library, pictures from Photos or a folder on your disc. Print your disc covers on any of hundreds of paper layouts from Avery, Neato, Memorex and others.

    Mac OSX - Create a ISO from CD/DVD

    SensibleTuireann's Experience. Hide See All. Recommend 43 Technically an ad but we made this. Very reliable recommendations on what to buy.

    Plugs right into Amazon to save you money. Interested in promoting your product? Contact us. All 6.

    Description

    DedicatedAntheia's Experience. Recommend 52 All 3. High customization of all menus and great slide shows. You have to keep a old mac OS Recommend 30 2.

    All options will not show when opened. Users can even upload and import items from iTunes, iPhoto, Finder, and text files, to create custom-made labels for all their items. A myriad of editing options allow users to crop, trim, adjust color and shade, and use other effects to enhance each label. High quality printing controls allow users to pick and choose exactly those parts of which labels are printed.

    Labels can be printed on a wide variety of paper, including paper from Wondershare Filmora 10.5.9.10 Crack With Keygen Number Free 2021, Data Becker, Fellowes, Herma, and more. With over ten software titles for the Apple Mac platform currently released, Cristallight Software is at the forefront of Mac Software for businesses and homes. Cristallight Software strives to create software that offer endless options for creating business cards, labels, desktop publishing, business inventory and barcoding, and more.

    CD Label Maker for Mac

    Review copies are available on request. Cristallight Software development company produces the best Mac software for business and home.

    • Software Specifications?
    • iWinSoft CD Label Maker for Mac;
    • Step 2: Print out your labels?

    The company has released more then 10 software titles for the Mac platform. Copyright C Cristallight Software. The image libraries used for either label background or image objects long with the pre-defined layouts simplify the disk label creation process greatly, making it possible to finish the work in three steps.

    Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about CD DVD Label Maker. Download CD DVD Label Maker for macOS or. iWinSoft CD Label Maker is your one stop application for designing and printing CD/DVD disc labels, cover art, jewel case inserts, and more. iWinSoft CD Label Maker for Mac is a CD and DVD disc labeling software for Mac OS X. Use it to create professional CD and DVD disc labels as.

    It comes with everything you need to create and print stunning CD labels, jewel case inserts, spines, DVD covers and more. Download Trial Customizable Templates Start with a pre-designed label template, get incredible results almost instantly. Extensive Design Toolkit A complete set of text, design, and layout tools.

    Wondershare video converter ultimate 3.5.1 crack mac

    Contents:

  • 9290716 Total Video Converter Serial
  • UTorrent PRO 3.5.5 Build 44994 Full Crack APK [June 12222]
  • [Download] Wolverine Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate V544 @!
  • télécharger Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate 10.0.10.121 Crack

  • Currently viewing account details for:. Sign out. Sign in to manage your profile and devices My Optimum ID. Forgot my Optimum ID.

    9290716 Total Video Converter Serial

    I forgot my password. Remember Me. Next statement date. You do not have access. Please sign in as the primary. Zamzar — MP4 to MP3 converter free online that supports over different conversion types without downloading a software tool. Convertio — Advanced online video converter from MP4 to MP3 can convert other files of any formats online. Take the promotion coupon code below to save 5 USD.

    Windows Media Player is the default player for Windows computer that supports a wide range of video and audio formats like. It's so full-featured that even enables you to free convert MP4 video to MP3. The following is the overall guide on MP4 to MP3 extraction. Step 2: Click Organize and select Options The free player not only streams most media files, but allows you to convert video.

    Handbrake is open source and completely free command line tool for transcoding video files from one format to another.

    Aimersoft Video Converter Ultimate Mac OS El Capitan serials keygen Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate OSX serial number keygen. Mac OS X Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate OS X Yosemite activation key Wondershare Democreator macintosh serial code maker.

    Although the interface looks complex, it's easy to use. Below we'll show you how to convert MP4 to MP3 with ease. Step 3: Search the converted MP3 file by using iTunes search function. You'll quite frequently need to extract sound or voice from video to add to your stock audio library.

    Espresso 3. Espresso 5. Essential Anatomy 5 5. Essential Anatomy 5. E-Utilities 8. EverWeb 2. ExactScan Pro Excel for Mac Exchange Rates 2. ExpanDrive 5. ExpanDrive 6.

    1. Other link for Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate Full Cracked:.
    2. Sparkol VideoScribe Pro 3.3.1 Full Version With Crack Torrent.
    3. Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate 10.3.0 Crack Full Free Download.
    4. Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate Full Cracked!
    5. Drone Surveys Planned for Wildfire Mitigation on Maui.

    Expert Designs - Templates for Pages 3. Expert Templates - Pro Templates for Pages 3.

    • [Download] Wolverine Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate V544 @!.
    • AnyDVD HD Crack Full Keygen Plus Serial Key Latest Version!
    • dragon dictate 4 mac deutsch?
    • Wondershare PDF Editor Pro for Mac 5.5.1, 125134 records found, first 100 of them are:.

    Explode Shape Layers 3. Exposure X2 2. Expressions 1. ExpressionUniv ersalizer 3. EyeTV 3. FabFilter Total Bundle v Fantastical 2 - Calendar and Reminders 2.

    Fantastical 2. FastRawViewer 1. F-Bar 2. Feeder 3. FigrCollage 2. File Cabinet Pro 3. File Cabinet Pro 4. File Juicer 4. File Multi Tool 6. Fileloupe - Media Browser 1. FileMaker Pro 15 Advanced FileMaker Pro Advanced FileMaker Server FilePane 1.

    [Download] Wolverine Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate V544 @!

    FileRecovery Enterprise 5. FilmConvert Pro 2. FilmConvert Pro Bundle FilmLight Baselight for Avid 4. Filmlight Daylight 5. FilmLight Daylight 5.

    Fast downloads of the latest free software! Bookends FontShop presents The all time Best Fonts. Adobe Illustrator CC Wondershare's Video Converter Ultimate is, as its name suggests, the ultimate video utility for Windows users. Audirvana Plus 3. JixiPix Spektrel Art 1. Corporate Templates - Business Stationery 3. Wondershare Video Converter Ultimate 5. As a major benefit, it provides access to SAP applications that are based on Control-Enabling and therefore used to be reserved for Windows users in the past. Bitwig Studio v1. Art Text 3. Infographics Lab for PowerPoint 1. Antivirus Zap 3.

    FilmLight Prelight On-Set 5. Filmlight prelight On-Set 5. Dayl ight. FilmTag 1. Final Cut Pro Final Cut Pro 7. Final Cut Pro X Final Draft Final Draft 9. Finale Find Any File 1. Findings 2. Fireplace 4K 1. Fission 2. Fix My iPhone 1. FL Studio Flaming Pear Solar Cell 1.

    Flare 2. Flinto 2. Flinto FlipCreator 4. Fluid Mask 3. Flume PRO 2. Flume Pro 2. Flux 5. Flux 6. Flux 7. Flyer Mill 1. Flyers Templates for Pages 1. Flying Logic Pro 3. Focus - A Pomodoro Timer 3. Folder Color 3. Folder Designer 1. Folder Icons 1. Folder Size Catalog 2. Folder Tidy 2. Folx GO 5. Folx Pro 5. FonePaw Android Data Recovery 2. FonePaw iOS Transfer 2. FonePaw iPhone Data Recovery 3. FontBook 5.

    Источник: https://america.wowaburezaba.cf/

    Instructions

    To enter your product XYLIO Future DJ Pro Crack, go to the appropriate section of your operating system. To do this, open the "Start" menu and right-click on the "Computer" item. In the list that appears, select the "Properties" attribute.

    In a new window, you will see information about the computer and the version of the operating system used. To go to the product activation section, at the bottom of the Windows Activation menu, click on the Activate Windows now link.

    In the window that appears, you will be asked to choose one of the methods for activating the system - directly via the Internet or by phone. The first item is considered the most convenient activation option. The second option should only be selected if you do not have a working network connection.

    After choosing "Activate Windows over the Internet", enter the product key that is printed on the box with the licensed disc. If the combination is entered correctly, you will see a message about the successful activation procedure.

    To receive the code by phone, select Show other activation methods. Then enter your product key, which is shown on the Windows 7 disc box. Then click on the "Use the automatic telephone system" link. In the next window, select the country of your stay and call the one indicated on the screen.

    Follow the instructions of the answering machine to complete the activation. The automatic program will ask you to enter the product code, which will be displayed on the screen. Entering must be done using the telephone keypad. If the operation is performed correctly, you will be given an activation code, which you will need to write down or immediately enter in the activation program window. If you can't enter the code correctly, stay on the line to speak with a Microsoft support specialist.

    Helpful advice

    OS activation is necessary to prevent the use of unlicensed software and serves as a means of fighting pirated copies of Windows.

    Before using the installed OS, you must activate it. This procedure guarantees the use of a licensed copy of the product on a specific computer, and is also designed to reduce idm 3.37 crack - Activators Patch level of illegal copying and installation of pirated versions of the OS. To activate the installed operating system, you can use one of the three available methods.

    Instructions

    Activation via the Internet.
    1. Open the Windows Activation window by clicking the left mouse button on the corresponding tray icon or using the Start menu.
    2. Click the "Yes, activate Windows over the Internet" button.
    3. Click Windows Activation Privacy Statement, then the Back and Next buttons.
    4. In the window that opens, do one of the following:
    to activate and register your copy of Windows at the same time, click Yes, Register and Activate Windows and Windows Registration Confidentiality Agreement, then click the Back and Next buttons. Fill out the registration form and click "Next";
    to easily activate Windows (without registering it), click "No, do not register, only activate Windows", then click the "Next" button.
    5. After Vocabulary Worksheet Factory 6.0.6.2 Crack Free Download is complete, click OK.

    If the Windows activation key is not on the bottom of the laptop, if the licensed installation DVD is lost, where the key is indicated on the box, as well as in any other cases of losing the latter, you need to find out and save it. Moreover, this matter should not be postponed indefinitely. Before the planned reinstallation of Windows, of course, the activation key can be obtained as part of the general preparatory process. But, alas, reinstalling the operating system is such a process that it is not always possible to plan it in advance and carefully. The need to reinstall the OS can arise at any time - after unsuccessful experiments with system settings and third-party software, after the penetration of a virus, in case of a conflict of replaced hardware components, etc. Recovery Explorer Professional Crack Plus, Windows activation can simply fail. This is not only a natural consequence of replacing the motherboard to which the Windows product key is bound. Activation may fail, for example, after installing an unsuccessful system update.

    The activation key of the installed Windows can be seen in various programs for diagnosing the system and hardware resources of the computer. For example, in the popular AIDA64 program, the Windows product key is listed in the Operating System section, in a subsection with the same name.

    In another similar program PC-Wizard, you can look in the "Configuration" section, in the "Operating system" subsection. When you click on the serial number in the upper part of the program window at the bottom, we will get a display of the activation key of the installed Windows.

    But if these programs are not installed on the computer, there is no point in fiddling with their installation just for the sake of obtaining the Windows activation key. It is much easier to use a small program called ProduKey for these purposes. It does not require installation. ProduKey can be downloaded from its official website for free.

    What ProduKey does is display the activation key data for installed Microsoft products. There are no other functions in it.

    After unpacking the archive and launching the EXE file, in the program window we will see, in particular, the activation key of the installed Windows. We click the line with this key, call the context cleanmymac crack and select “Copy Product Key”.

    The Windows activation key copied to the clipboard must then be saved, for example, in a TXT file or in Web Notes.

    Windows 10 allows you to defer key entry and activation during the installation of the operating system. Whereas earlier versions of the system will not want to be installed without entering the product key. Therefore, just in case of emergency, it is better to write down the activation key from this system somewhere in a paper notebook.

    Have a great day!

    Hello dear friends! In this article I will show you how to find out the activation key for your windows XP, windows 7, 8, 10. I have been asked many times how can I find the activation key from my windows system? It turned out that the activation key was lost, or the sticker on the back of the laptop or system unit was simply worn out and I simply could not see the key. You need to reinstall the system and you need your own activation key to activate windows later, help with advice.

    And so let's get started, in the first method we will use the script from the site microsoft. Create a plain text document on your desktop.

    Set WshShell = CreateObject("WScript.Shell")

    regKey = "HKLM \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows NT \ CurrentVersion \"

    DigitalProductId = WshShell.RegRead (regKey & "DigitalProductId")

    Win8ProductName = "Windows Product Name:" & WshShell.RegRead (regKey & "ProductName") & vbNewLine

    Win8ProductID = "Windows Product ID:" & WshShell.RegRead (regKey & "ProductID") & vbNewLine

    Win8ProductKey = ConvertToKey (DigitalProductId)

    strProductKey = "Windows Key:" & Win8ProductKey

    Win8ProductID = Win8ProductName & Win8ProductID & strProductKey

    MsgBox (Win8ProductKey)

    MsgBox (Win8ProductID)

    Function ConvertToKey (regKey)

    Const KeyOffset = 52

    isWin8 = (regKey (66) \ 6) And 1

    regKey (66) = (regKey (66) And& HF7) Or((isWin8 And 2) * 4)

    Chars = "BCDFGHJKMPQRTVWXY2346789"

    Cur = regKey (y + KeyOffset) + Cur

    regKey (y + KeyOffset) = (Cur \ 24)

    Cur = Cur Mod 24

    LoopWhile y> = 0

    winKeyOutput = Mid (Chars, Cur + 1, 1) & winKeyOutput

    LoopWhile j> = 0

    If(isWin8 = 1) Then

    keypart1 = Mid (winKeyOutput, 2, Last)

    winKeyOutput = Replace (winKeyOutput, keypart1, keypart1 & insert, 2, 1, 0)

    If Last = 0 Then winKeyOutput = insert & winKeyOutput

    EndIf

    a = Mid (winKeyOutput, 1, 5)

    b = Mid (winKeyOutput, 6, 5)

    c = Mid (winKeyOutput, 11, 5)

    d = Mid (winKeyOutput, 16, 5)

    e = Mid (winKeyOutput, 21, 5)

    ConvertToKey = a & "-" & b & "-" & c & "-" & d & "-" & e

    EndFunction

    After you have inserted the script into a text document, the document must be saved with the extension .VBS. To do this, click on the "File" item and select "Save As" in the drop-down list.

    In the window that opens, in the File type field, select "All files (*. *)" And write any name for the file, for example I wrote windowssss.vbs. Click the "Save" button.


    Open this file and you will see the long-awaited activation key for your windows system. You can click on the cross or the "OK" button, an additional window will open with information about windows, product code and, accordingly, the activation key.

    That's how easy it is, you can find out your activation key on your computer. Let's look at another way, a simpler one, using the KeyFinderInstaller utility.

    How to find the activation key for your windows using the KeyFinderInstaller utility

    Downloading the utility KeyFinderInstaller(you can download it from any site on the Internet) and install it. After the utility is installed, click on the shortcut on the desktop and see the information we need in the window that opens.


    If you still have other Microsoft products installed on your computer, for example Microsoft office, then you can also find out the activation key for these products, just select the product in the window and see the information. That's all, now you know how to find out the activation key for your windows. I hope the article will be useful to you, good luck everyone!

    Hello dear readers.

    Today it is not uncommon to buy a device with the software already installed. And sometimes sellers of such equipment claim that an original product is installed on it, demanding additional money for this. Therefore, many people want to know how to check the license for Windows, so as not to simply be deceived. Later in the article, I will tell you several ways to achieve our plan.

    general information

    Everyone today has the opportunity to buy a licensed Windows 10 operating system for their computer or any other version offered by the IT giant. At the same time, earlier it could only be done in official stores. At the moment, a variety of resellers are engaged in the sale of original software. Despite their status, even in such places you sometimes find products that require special attention from buyers, because for a lot of money you can buy a simple pirated version. The following are the main points to ensure that you are getting a truly normal product.

    Sticker

    The first and easiest way to check Windows 7 and lower versions is to check for a special sticker. If the seller claims that the original software is installed on the computer, then the corresponding information should be on the laptop (usually on the bottom cover) or on the system unit. This is what speaks about the use of a legal program, not a pirated one.

    Key, version and assembly are indicated on laminated paper.

    Portable device

    If you intend to buy a new operating system separately, there should be no problems with verification at all. Windows 8.1 and other versions are offered on portable devices - plastic disks and flash drives. On the legal versions on the box, you can find all the data mentioned at the end of the last heading. In general, the sticker indicates the same, only the appearance is slightly different.

    In addition, the manufacturer applies a ton of holographic badges. This can be seen not only on the box, but also on the portable memory itself. On flash drives, the corresponding pictures are on the covers. They can be found in various places on the disc packaging. In addition, Microsoft designers have provided protection for the plastic memory itself.

    Key verification

    Sometimes, some become victims of fraudsters who themselves print the appropriate elements to confirm the authenticity. To avoid falling into the trap, there is a simple way to check.

    So, future users need to turn on the device and on the icon " A computer"Call" Properties". A window will open where the required data will be indicated. This is where you need to check the product code. If everything matches, the license is installed.

    Otherwise, in place of letters and numbers, speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U will be an inscription about the failed activation.

    In addition, the term of operation for the key installed in the system is indicated here. If this is not the case, the remaining time for entering characters is written. Usually a month Stardock Fences 3.1.0.5 + Crack with Full Serial Key 2021 [Latest] given for this. After that, messages begin to appear that you need to go through the appropriate procedure.

    However, some services may stop performing their functions.

    Site

    Another way to check the authenticity of the operating system is to contact the manufacturer's website. More precisely, it is necessary to enter the appropriate combination of characters into the corresponding line on the web resource.

    Important! This cannot be done for Windows XP, Windows Vista and the seventh ESSS Rocky DEM 4.4.2 Free Download with Crack, since developer support is already closed for them.

    Pirate build

    You can use several methods to identify non-original software. So, first go to Computer Properties. If nothing is specified in the paragraph about activation, most likely a low-quality product is being used. But usually there is always some kind of inscription here.

    Many Win mobile users dream of testing their device to be sure of using the original image.

    It is worth noting that today mobile phones with this operating system are produced only by Microsoft partner companies, and therefore only genuine software is used on them.

    Command line

    Another convenient way to check if the system is activated is to write a special combination of characters through the command line. To do this, go to " Start"And in the search bar indicate" cmd". The corresponding icon will appear. We call the context menu on it and open it with administrator rights.

    A black window will appear in front of users. It is necessary to write the command in it: " clmgr / xpr". Next, the operating system will display a message corresponding to the activation status.

    If this does not help, in the line you need to specify: " cscript slmgr.vbs -xpr". The result should be the same result.

    In general, all methods are free and legal, so you can safely use one of them or even all of them at once.

    I hope you will be able to carry out your plans without any problems.

    A special license product key is used to activate the Windows operating system. The Windows product key for activating the system differs depending on the version of the operating system (Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, etc.), OS edition (Home, Pro, etc.), distribution method (OEM, Retail etc).

    To activate the Windows operating system, a product key is used, which consists of 25 characters in the form of numbers and capital (upper case) English letters, divided into 5 groups of 5 characters each: "XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX".

    Laptops used to have a glued Windows activation key. At the moment, laptop manufacturers with pre-installed operating systems sew the product key into the BIOS to automatically activate Windows.

    In case of reinstallation of the system, or for any other reason (for example, activation failed after a hardware failure), the user may need a Windows product key. How do I find my Windows activation key?

    You can find out the license key of the installed Windows by running a special VBS script, as well as using five programs: ProduKey, ShowKeyPlus, Free PC Audit, Speccy, AIDA64, SIW. All the listed programs are free, except for AIDA64 and SIW.

    The script with the ".vbs" extension and portable free programs (ProduKey, ShowKeyPlus, Free PC Audit) can be downloaded from here. Download the rest of the programs to your computer from the manufacturers' official websites.

    Using these methods, you can find out the key for Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10. After you find VMware Workstation Pro 16.1.1Crack + Final Keygen Free Download2021 the Windows product key, the obtained data for subsequent use, in the case of reinstalling the operating system, to activate the operating system.

    How to find the Windows key in ProduKey

    The free Gom player for mac - Crack Key For U program from the well-known manufacturer NirSoft does not require installation on a computer. The application shows keys from Windows OS, Internet Explorer browser, Microsoft Office.

    Unpack the archive with the program, and then run the file "Application" from the folder. After launch, the key from the installed operating system will be displayed in the ProduKey utility window.

    Highlight the entry with the Windows 10 key or another operating system, and then select "Copy Product Key" from the context menu to copy the activation key to the clipboard.

    We look at the license key in ShowKeyPlus

    The free ShowKeyPlus program does not require installation on a computer. After starting, in the application window you will see information:

    • Product Name - the operating system currently installed on the computer
    • Product ID - product code
    • Installed Key - the key of the operating system currently installed on the computer
    • OEM Key - a key embedded in the BIOS of the laptop of the originally installed operating system

    To save the data, click on the “Save” button, and then the received information in a text file.

    How to view the Windows key in Free PC Audit

    Free software Free PC Audit will help you to find out the key of the installed Windows. This program does not need to be installed on a computer. Run the utility file, after which the Free PC Audit window will open, in which a system scan will begin.

    After the scan is complete, in the "System" tab, opposite the "Windows product key" item, you will see the product key of the installed Windows operating system.

    To copy the key, select the line with the license key, and then using the "Copy" context menu item, or using the "Ctrl" + "C" keys, copy the Windows product key from the utility window.

    How to find out Windows 8 key using VBScrit

    Windows operating system activation keys are stored encrypted on your hard drive. Executing the VBScrit script will allow you to get the decrypted product key of the installed operating system. This script was developed for the Windows 8 operating system, but this code also works great on the Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 7 operating systems.

    To perform the operation, double-click on the "WindowsKey.vbs" file. In the window that opens, you will see the Windows activation code. Then click on the "OK" button.

    The next window will display information about the operating system version, product ID and product key number. Ignore the title of the entry "Windows 8 Key". The name of this OS will be displayed on any version of the Windows operating system.

    Get Windows key in Speccy

    Free Speccy from the renowned Piriform company, CCleaner and other software. You can download the portable version of Speccy from the official site. There is a paid version of the program with advanced features.

    The program provides the user with detailed information about the computer hardware; also, using the application, you can find out the license key of the installed Windows.

    Run the Speccy program, the "Operating System" section will display the version of the installed operating system, its serial number (activation key).

    Find out the product key in AIDA64

    AIDA64 is a powerful program for obtaining all kinds of information about the software and hardware of your computer.

    After starting the AIDA64 program, in the "Menu" tab, in the "Operating system" section, the license information will be displayed, including the Windows product key.

    Select the product key, select "Copy" in the context menu, then paste the key into Notepad, or another similar program to save.

    Read the program overview.

    Key information in SIW

    SIW (System Information of Windows) is a program for obtaining information about the hardware status and software of a computer.

    After starting SIW, go to the "Programs", "Licenses" section. Information about the product key used by the Windows operating system installed on the computer is displayed here.

    Invalid product key

    When checking keys using the methods listed above, the Windows product key may appear as follows: "BBBBB-BBBBB-BBBBB-BBBBB-BBBBB".

    This means that your computer is activated with a corporate MAK or VLK key. Operating Windows does not store such keys, therefore programs do not see them.

    Windows 10 uses a new system authentication method (not all Windows 10). The activation record is stored advanced system repair pro reviews - Crack Key For U the servers and is not displayed on the computer. After reinstallation, Windows will activate itself for some time.

    The retention of the license depends on changes in the hardware configuration of the computer. If the motherboard is replaced, Microsoft's activation servers will revoke the license for this computer. Windows will prompt you to purchase a new product key.

    Conclusions of the article

    If necessary, the user can find out the license code of the Windows operating system by running the VBS script, or using specialized programs: ProduKey, ShowKeyPlus, Free PC Audit, Speccy, AIDA64, SIW.

    Источник: https://extraslots.ru/en/tools/kak-uznat-ot-kakoi-operacionnoi-sistemy-klyuch-kak-uznat-seriinyi-nomer/

    Welcome to the largest glossary of Australian slang terms found anywhere in the world.

    *** Good news: This post has been published as a book! The Big Book of Australian Slang is now available for purchase on Amazon

    LANGUAGE WARNING
    Look mate: Cursing and saying inappropriate sh*t is big part of Aussie culture. There’s a lot in this list that may offend you. If you’re offended, get stuffed. If not, read on…

    A

    Ace

    Fantastic, very good

    Bloke 1: Ay mate you seen the latest season of Neighbours?

    Bloke 2: Yeah mate. It’s f*cken’ ace.

    Bloke 1: Bloody oath mate. Real tearjerker last night’s episode was mate. Put me in a state, couldn’t sleep for yonks just thinkin about it.

    Advert

    Short for advertisement.

    Girl 1: You seen the latest AAMI advert? Ketut is back!

    Girl 2: Oath, it’s a bloody ripper ain’t it?

    Aerial ping pong

    A somewhat derogatory way of referring to Australian Rules Football. As with other Australian idioms it makes very little practical sense. It refers to the way in which Australian Rules Football is dictated by long, high kicks of the ball to either side of the playing field—but technically regular pingpong is aerial too. The mind boggles…

    Man: Yeah what can I say? I’m the star midfielder for the Calder Cannons. AFL clubs are lookin at me but for confidentiality reasons I can’t say which. Let’s just say there’s at least 5.

    Woman: Ew, you play aerial pingpong? You’re a loser.

    Aggro

    “Aggressive” or “aggression.” Often associated with drinking.

    You see Tommo stack it last night? He was super aggro. Just a pissed mess.

    Airy fairy

    When a sheila or bloke tries to explain something but makes no bloody sense while doing so. Vague.

    Bloke 1: Mate I tried to track down where the closest servo in Bendigo was for a pack of Winnie blues but the copper’s response was all airy fairy and I ended up in Wollongong.

    Bloke 2: F*ck mate, deadset?

    Akubra

    A brand of fully sick hats worn by true blue Aussie farmers.

    Jackaroo:Oi, check out me new Akubra.

    Jillaroo:I used to think you had a munted face and that I could never give ya a root. I see now the error of my ways.

    All ears

    To be open to whatever hectic idea one of your dumbass mates has. To listen to.

    Mate 1: We only get 20 bucks between us and we need a slab. F*ck alright, I got a ripper of an idea.

    Mate 2: I’m all ears cobber.

    Mate 1:So there’s this bottle-o down the road sellin out of date piss for 20 bucks a slab. What ya reckon we go and suss it?

    Mate 2: Oath.

    All smiles

    Someone who’s generally amicable, happy and pleasant to those in their company, even in spite of difficult circumstances.

    Barry: Did ya hear about Steve mate? His missus f*ckin cheated on the poor bloke. But trooper that he is, still all smiles.

    Sharon: Bloody ripper legend he is mate.

    All the go

    Something, usually an event or location, that is extremley popular, particularly among a specific demographic.

    Sheila 1: I’ve heard the Zoo is all the go on a Friday night.

    Sheila 2: The zoo? Are ya taking the piss?

    Sheila 1: Nah mate, I hear the koalas got a bloody roarin’ drugs trade garn on in there. Selling eucalyptus leaves at a discount.

    Shelia 2: You’re a deadset dickhead mate.

    Always in the shit

    Someone who is constantly in trouble.

    Bloke 1: Ya hear the news? Bazza is in strife, might not even make it to his own piss-up!

    Bloke 2: He’s a bloody legend isn’t he. Always in the shit but still puts on a belter of a party for us.

    Amber fluid

    Beer. Piss. Grog. Refers to the fact that most beer is amber and also a fluid.

    Bloke 1: Oi. Oi drongo.

    Bloke 2: What’s good c*nt?

    Bloke 1: Feelin thirsty?

    Bloke 2: Yeah mate f*ckin bit hot ay?

    Bloke 1: Suss out some amber fluid at the pub I reckon.

    Bloke 2: I reckon mate.Bloke 1: Oath.Bloke 2: Oath.

    Ambo

    Short for ambulance. Can sometimes also mean a paramedic.

    Person 1: Sh*t mate. That looks f*cken nasty, what’d you do?

    Person 2: Lost an arm wrestle with a f*cker built like a brick sh*thouse.

    Person 1: Looks buggered mate.

    Person 2: Yeah it’s cactus mate. Absolutely cactus.

    Person 1: F*cken better call an ambo ay?

    Person 2: Nah she’ll be right. After the footy I reckon.

    Anchors

    Brakes, for any sort of vehicle. Don’t forget to use em, you dickhead.

    Car enthusiast 1: Check out the new anchors I modded on me car. Fully sick, got hectic yellow and pink fluro nitro gas coming out of em everytime I press em.

    Car enthusiast 2: Oh mad, out the exhaust?

    Car enthusiast 1: Nah cunt, right out the f*cking brakes! Suss this out. CRASH

    Ankle Biter

    A small child. Sometimes used as a derogatory term for an annoying young kid.

    Can also refer to poisonous plants commonly found in the jungles of far north Queensland. Accidentally brushing up against these will leave you in agonizing pain.

    Mate, can we get going already? These little ankle biters are full on.

    Ant’s pants

    Really good. Superb. Anything related to VB.

    Drinking this here tinnie, in this here Ute, out in the GAFA, with you mad speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U, is the ant’s pants mate.

    Any tic of the clock

    Something that is bound to happen soon. Any minute now.

    Watching Prime Minister presser: Oi, ScoMo is gonna say something funny. Any tick of the clock now mate. *How good is having the rugby back?* Hahahahahaha. On ya bike ScoMo.

    Apples

    Similar to ‘right’, ‘fine’ or ‘Jake.’

    Girl 1: Do ya reckon we should stop her? She’s already through half that sack of goon, the clothesline won’t stop landing on her.

    Girl 2: Nah, she’ll be apples mate.

    Girl 3: *MUNTS* Girl 2: See?

    ARIA

    Stands for Australian Record Industry Award and is the most meaningful music award known to Australian’s. So yeah, not very meaningful.

    Bloke 1: Dean Lewis took home 3 ARIA’s the other night. I reckon he only got ‘em cos his song uses the word mate.

    Bloke 2: He’s a bit of a poofta isn’t he. If I was on the panel I woulda given some to AC/DC.

    Bloke 1: They don’t even have a new album mate.

    Bloke 2: Yeah, nah Back in Black is as good as new mate.

    Arse

    Ass, rear-end, gluteus maximus — but pronounced with a drawl.

    Taronga Zoogoer: Check out the arse on that baboon mate. That thing’s built like a brick sh*thouse.

    Arse about

    To just be plain wrong. To have done something ridiculously, inexplicably, incorrect.

    Girlfriend to boyfriend: I know I told you to look fresh, but mate, those Ugg Boots combined with those Vegemite trackies is just arse about. I reckon I might have to give ya the sack.

    Arse into gear

    To step it up, to put in some hard yakka after lazing around, often with the goal of finishing said yakka with a hard-earned coldie.

    Bloke to spider exterminator: Get ya arse into gear mate, still found at least thirteen huntsmen in the loo alone.

    Spider exterminator: F*cken fair call mate, just let me finish me tinnie and I’ll hop to it.

    Arse over tit

    Upside down, rolling, flipped. Used in both a physical and metaphorical sense.

    Bloke 1: Crikey Bazza’s piss-up is full of animals. Every bloke is skulling piss and going arse over tit. I reckon a fair few of these c*nts would have a few kangaroos loose in the top paddock.

    Arsey

    Essentially Aussie slang for arsehole. Because, you know, we gotta have a short-hand for everything. Someone that is rude, difficult to deal with it. Not a True Blue Aussie.

    Sheila 1: Dazza wouldn’t run up to the serve to pick me up some Marlboro reds. He’s a fucken arsey sometimes is Speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U.

    Sheila 2: Oi, nah don’t crack the sh*ts mate he’s alright. Here, ya can pinch one of me Winnie Blues for now.

    Arvo

    Afternoon. Not to be confused with Avo.

    Coincidentally, Arvo is also the name of the font used on this site.

    Oi, you wanna grab some tinnies this arvo?

    As busy as a cat burying shit

     If you saw a cat burying sh*t, you probably would be best-advised to not interrupt it. Very busy.

    Person 1: Oi sheila you coming over to Bazza’s piss-up?

    Person 2: Yeah nah mate, I’m as busy as a cat burying sh*t. Gotta get me ute fixed up cause some deadsh*t put petrol in it when the f*cker runs on diesel.

    Person 1: Deadset?

    Person 2: Yeah, fair dinkum dumbc*nts some blokes are.

    As cross as a frog in a sock

    Imagine how pleased a wild frog templatetoaster 7.1 crack be upon being captured and forcibly restrained in a stinky, old man’s sock. Not sure why this specific metaphor was used or how many Aussies actively practice placing frogs in socks, but hey who cares? It’s Australia mate. Angry, mad.

    Teenager: Nah, so, legit man, I chucked a snag into that vego neighbour’s backyard. He cracked the sh*ts man.

    Teenager 2: Yeah I reckon mate. He woulda been as cross as a frog in a sock.

    Teenager: Hahaha bloody hell mate. I’m gonna get walloped I reckon.

    As mean as cat’s piss

    Though I’m not convinced the meanness of cat’s piss is a quantifiable product, it goes without saying that it’s probably pretty bloody mean. Untoward, mean, particularly from a fiscal perspective.

    Gazza: Oi Bruce, it’s your round mate. Get schoolhouse technologies - Activators Patch a Furphy.

    Bazza: Yeah chuck us a f*cken Toohey’s mate. Pint of the piss.

    Bruce: What are you blokes talken about. It ain’t my round. This is a f*cken stitch-up. A fair dinkum stitch-up. Youse are scum.

    Bazza: Nah c*nt it ain’t.

    Gazza: Yeah Bruce mate sometimes you’re as mean as cat piss. Be a true blue Aussie and do it for the boys.

    At the drop hat

    Quickly, often without thought.

    Person 1: Mate I’ll drink a half-open can of VB at the drop of a hat. Don’t give a toss if half of it is roo piss if the other half is the good type of piss.

    Aussie

    The proper term for anything Australian. Can be a noun or a verb.

    Always pronounced like ‘Ozzie,’ with a hard ‘z’ sound. Never with an ‘s’ sound.

    Aussie Aussie Aussie! Oi oi oi!

    That old cobber’s got a pack of Tooey’s in his ute, just like a real Aussie bloke should.

    Aussie Salute

    Swatting flies away with your hand.

    Bloke 1: Was up in Brisbane. They had mozzies the size of galahs.

    Bloke 2: You get bit at all?

    Bloke 1: Yeah, gave ’em the Aussie salute but it did f*ck all.

    Avo

    Avocado. Not to be confused with Arvo.

    It’s unclear whether or not Australia actually invented Avocado Toast, or as they call it, “Smashed Avo.” But the avocado toast homeownership meme has its roots in Australia, when millionaire real estate developer Tim Gurner famously declared on 60 Minutes Australia that the reason millennials cannot afford homes is because they spend all their money on “fancy coffee and avocado toast.”

    And to this day, Australia unquestionably has the widest variety of avocado toast dishes in the world (not to mention the highest prices!)

    Sheila 1: You having smashed avo for brekkie?

    Sheila 2: Yeah nah…it’s $28 and I’m trying to save up for a flat.

    Awning over the toy shop

    A man’s gut that has been finely curated through years of excessive stubby consumption. A beer belly. In this glorious piece of Aussie slang, the toy shop represents a man’s private region. Makes sense right? Thought so.

    Beachgoer: Crikey mate checks out the awning over your toy shop. Dunno if Budgie smugglers are the way to go for you mate, might need to cover the big fella up.

    B

    B & S

    A rowdy party held in rural Australia for bachelors and spinsters (singles). Generally aimed at young adults. Originally a formal event, the advent of tinder has forced these gatherings to degrade into a night of mayhem, sex and drugs.

    Editor’s note: This is NOT Auslogics Anti-Malware 1.21.0.6 Crack & Serial Key Free Download 2021 bad thing.

    Bloke 1: Headed to the B&S in Sheppo mate?

    Bloke 2: Yeah oath mate. Looking to commit some crimes mate?

    Bloke 1: Bloody oath mate. Hope there aren’t any coppers there.

    Bloke 2: Yeah, nah mate. No coppers mate, got me oldies to make a call and tell em there was a bloke with 3 grams of marijuana all the way in Echuca. They took the whole squad with em to suss it out.

    Bloke 1: You beauty!

    Back hander

    Contrary to common usage, a backhander is referring to a bribe, or money being exchanged under the table.

    Aussie to American: Yeah bloody oath the cop was gonna fine me! But I gave him a good backhander and he smiled, waved and went on his way.

    American: You did WHAT?

    Back of beyond

    Источник: https://amaryroad.com/australian-slang-terms-largest-list-words-phrases

    3. The phoneme-grapheme correspondences of English, 1: Consonants

    1This chapter can be summed up by saying that 13 of the 24 consonant phonemes of RP have highly regular spellings (though for two of these, /w, ŋ/, positional constraints have to be stated), while the other 11 have to be analysed according to position in the word.

    2So, the 11 consonant phonemes/b d g h m n p r t θ ð/are regularly spelt <b d g h m n p r t th th> respectively; /w/ (which occurs only before vowel phonemes and therefore does not occur word-finally) is regularly spelt <w> initially, <u> medially (but see the note below Table 3.1); and /ŋ/ (which occurs only after short vowel phonemes and therefore does not occur initially) is regularly spelt <n> before/k, g/, however spelt, otherwise <ng>.

    3The main regularities for the other 11 consonant phonemes are summarised in Table 3.1, by position in the word. For seven phonemes final position has to be subdivided, and final/s, k/have a further sub-subdivision. The entries for /ʤ, s, k/blur the distinction between phonemes and graphemes in defining word positions – for more detail on these phonemes’complicated correspondences, and for the 2-phoneme grapheme <x>, see sections 3.7.1, 3.7.4 and 3.7.6 and Tables 3.3 and 3.4.

    TABLE 3.1: MAIN CORRESPONDENCES OF THE 11 CONSONANT PHONEMES WITH VARIABLE SPELLINGS, BY POSITION IN THE WORD

    Position in word

    Phoneme

    Initial

    Medial

    Final

    /∫/

    sh

    ti

    sh

    /f/

    f

    f

    ff

    /v/

    v

    v

    ve

    /j/ within /juː/

    See Table 5.1

    /j/ elsewhere

    y

    i*

    (does not occur)

    in monosyllables after a short vowel spelt with one letter

    otherwise

    /I/

    I

    I

    II

    L

    /ʧ/

    ch
    but <t>
    before/uː/

    t

    tch

    ch

    /ʒ/

    (rare)

    si

    (does not occur)

    ge

    /z/

    z

    s

    zz

    S

    /ʤ/

    j

    <g> before <e, i, y>, otherwise <j>

    dge

    ge

    /s/

    s

    s

    ss

    in other monosyllables <ce>; in polysyllables <s>

    /k/

    c

    c

    ck

    in other monosyllables <k>; in polysyllables <c>

    but <k> before <e, i, y>

    * N. B. Many occurrences of medial /j/ (and some of medial /w/) are actually not represented in the spelling at all – see sections 3.8.7-8.

    4In sections 3.5, 3.7 and 3.8 I set out the consonantal phoneme-grapheme correspondences of English, under the consonant phonemes listed in the order in which they appear in Table 2.1 in chapter 2.

    5The consonant phonemes fall into two main categories, those which have a doubled spelling, such as <bb> for /b/ in rabbit, and those which do not. Within those which do have a doubled spelling there is a further important distinction, between those whose doubled spellings are rare in one-syllable words and those whose doubled spellings are regular at the end of one-syllable words after a short vowel phoneme spelt with one letter (Crystal, 2012, especially chapters 7 and 8, explains how this division goes back many centuries). Sections 3.5 and 3.7 cover these two categories of consonant phonemes with doubled spellings, and section 3.8 those which do not have a doubled spelling.

    6This trichotomy (the Greek etymology of this word officially means ‘cutting into three’, but unofficially could also mean ‘haircut’– how neat is it that the word meaning ‘cutting into three’could also mean ‘splitting hairs’?) does not quite accommodate /r/. It does have a doubled spelling (<rr>) and therefore does not belong in section 3.8 (phonemes without a doubled spelling). But /r/ does not occur word-finally in RP, so is not even a candidate for section 3.7 (phonemes whose doubled spellings are regular at the end of one-syllable words after a short vowel phoneme spelt with one letter). Yet /r/ spelt <rr> is not just rare in one-syllable words – it is non-existent – so it might seem not to fit into section 3.5 (phonemes whose doubled spellings are rare in one-syllable words) genymotion download. However, section 3.5 is where I have put it, on the grounds that (a) there are some medial examples of /r/ spelt <rr>, e.g. error; (b) many other examples of /r/ spelt <rr> arise from suffixation, e.g. preferring, referral; (c) in these respects /r/ is similar to the other phonemes in section 3.5.

    7Within each group I list the phonemes in alphabetical order of the letter (s) comprising their basic spellings, except that in section 3.5 /r/ is dealt with after /t/; /r/ is dealt with last because that leads on naturally to the treatment in section 3.6 of a special process involving /r/, namely /r/-linking, hence the interruption in the order of sections.

    8Under each consonant phoneme I deal with the spellings in this order:

    1. The basic grapheme. In my opinion, each of the 24 consonant phonemes of English has a basic grapheme, the one that seems most natural as its spelling. The identification of <si> as the basic grapheme for /ʒ/ may seem curious – but this is the least frequent phoneme in English speech and <si> is its most frequent spelling. As you will see from the percentages at the beginning of each section, the basic grapheme is also, in 20 cases, the most frequent spelling of that phoneme – the exceptions are /z, ʤ, ∫, j/.

    2. Other graphemes which are used for the phoneme with reasonable frequency. By reasonable frequency I mean at least 5 per cent of the occurrences of the phoneme in running text.

    3. The doubled spelling, if the phoneme has one – 16 of the 24 consonant phonemes do (indeed, a few have more than one). Most doubled consonant spellings consist of the basic single-letter grapheme written twice, but some have a different pattern. Most of the doubled spellings are quite rare in stem words. For some guidance on when to spell a consonant double see chapter 4. None of the doubled spellings of English consonant phonemes ever occur in word-initial position (with the two exceptions noted under /l/ in sections 3.7.5 and 4.1), so wordinitial position is not mentioned in the entries about doubled spellings in this chapter (except under /l/).

    4. The doubled spelling plus final <e>, if the phoneme has such a spelling.

    5. Oddities, graphemes which are used to spell that phoneme only speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U 2-phoneme graphemes in which the phoneme is represented. Almost all the 2-phoneme graphemes are also Oddities, but a few belong to the main system (see section 3.4) and are included there.

    6. Any 3-phoneme grapheme in which the phoneme is represented. Both 3-phoneme graphemes are definitely Oddities.

    9Some entries end with Notes, and a few have Tables.

    10Under most phonemes I give the frequency of occurrence of each major grapheme as a spelling of the phoneme, using the information in Edward Carney’s massive study A Survey of English Spelling (1994). He gives two frequencies for most phoneme-grapheme correspondences:

    • text frequency, that is, the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all the correspondences in a large set of pieces of continuous prose, but discounting derived forms of stem words, e.g. past tenses, and all function words, e.g. of, is, there, where. Because Carney lemmatised his corpus (that is, reduced all the words to stem forms), his text frequencies for doubled consonants are probably systematically underestimated, since large numbers of occurences of doubled consonant letters arise from suffixation – see sections 4.2 and 4.3.1;

    • lexical frequency, that is, the frequency with which the correspondence occurs when you count all and only the correspondences in a dictionary.

    11Usually the two frequencies are similar, but where a particular correspondence occurs in only a few words but those words are very common, the text frequency will be high and the lexical frequency low (and vice versa where a correspondence occurs in many words but those words are rare). For this chapter and chapter 5 I’ve used only Carney’s text frequencies since those (mainly) represent what readers encounter. However, my lists of examples range far and wide within English vocabulary, and take in words which are so rare that they certainly did not contribute to Carney’s text frequencies. An odd category here is words in which /ɪə/ is spelt <ier> - this category is never mentioned by Carney; presumably no such words turned up in the corpus he compiled and analysed.

    12I give no frequencies for doubled spellings plus final <e> since these are all rare, and in most cases the frequencies for the Oddities are lumped together.

    13Under each phoneme I separate the correspondences with graphemes into what I consider to be the main system and the rest (this distinction is very similar to that between major and minor units postulated by Venezky, 1970: 52-55). The correspondences which I include in the main system are those which seem to me to operate as part of larger regularities, even though pretty rarely as absolute rules. For the consonant phonemes the larger regularities comprise the basic correspondences, the correspondences which have reasonable frequency as I’ve defined it above, and the doubled spellings, but not the doubled spellings plus <e>, the 2-and 3-phoneme graphemes (except a few 2-phoneme graphemes which are of reasonably high frequency), or the Oddities. In this chapter (and in chapters 5, 9 and 10) correspondences which have reasonable frequency are shown in 9-point type, the rest in smaller 7.5-point type.

    14Three quite rare correspondences are, however, included in the main system – /k/ spelt <q>, /ʒ/ spelt <ge>, and /uː/ spelt <ue>. For /k/ spelt <q> this is because <q> would otherwise not appear in the main system at all, but <q> is a grapheme of written English and therefore has PDF Shaper Download - Crack Key For U be included; also, the 2-phoneme sequence /kw/ is mainly spelt <qu>. /ʒ/ spelt <ge> is needed to complete the pattern of correspondences in word-final position – see Table 3.1. And although/uː/spelt <ue> is very rare, I found it necessary to include it in the main system because the mirror-image correspondence (<ue> pronounced/uː/) is one of only two frequent correspondence of <ue> - see section 10.37.

    15For the incluson of /r/ in this section see section 3.2.

    16Despite their rarity in stem words, the doubled spellings of these consonant phonemes arise very frequently from suffixation, e.g. rubbed, budding, begged, skimmed, skinned, hopped, pitted, preferring (see sections 4.2 and 4.3.1).

    3.5.1 /b/ as in by

    17THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <b> 98%

    e.g. rabid

    Other frequent graphemes

    (none)

    Doubled spelling

    <bb> <1%

    medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with a single letter, e.g. babble – see section 4.3.3; there are also independent medial examples, e.g. abbey, abbot, bobbin, cabbage, dibber, hobbit, hobby, hubbub, rabbi, rabbit, ribbon, rubber, rubbish, Sabbath, shibboleth, stubborn – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in ebb – see section 4.3.2

    18THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    (does not occur)

    Oddities

    1% in total

    <bh>

    only in abhor and its derivatives abhorred, abhorrent, plus bhaji, bhang (ra), bhindi, Bhutan and a few other rare words from the Indian sub-continent. <b, h> are usually separate graphemes at a morpheme boundary, as in clubhouse, subheading

    <bu>

    only in build, buoy, buy. See Notes

    <pb>

    only in the compound words cupboard, raspberry, plus Campbell

    2-phoneme graphemes

    (none)

    19NOTES

    20For the compound words gooseberry /ˈgʊzbriː/), raspberry /ˈrɑːzbriː/), strawberry /ˈstrɔːbriː/) see section 6.10.

    21I analyse <bu> in build, buoy, buy as a grapheme spelling /b/ because this is more economical than adding /ɪ/ spelt <ui>, icarefone crack free download - Activators Patch spelt <uoy> and /aɪ/ spelt <uy> to the list of graphemes; cf. <gu> under /g/, section 3.5.3, and <cu> under /k/, section 3.7.1.

    3.5.2 /d/ as in dye

    22THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <d> 98%

    e.g. bud

    Other frequent grapheme

    <ed>

    (not counted in percentages) See Note

    Doubled spelling

    <dd> 2%

    medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. griddle – see section 4.3.3; other medial examples include addictive, additive, adduce, bladder, buddy, cheddar, fodder, judder, ladder, midden, rudder, ruddy, shoddy, sodden, sudden, teddy, toddy, widdershins – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5 – 6; perhaps also the compound word granddad, but see section 4.4.7; word-finally, only in add, odd, rudd, Sudd – on add, odd see section 4.3.2

    23THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    (does not occur)

    Oddities

    <1% in total

    <bd>

    only in bdellium

    <ddh>

    only in Buddha and derivatives, saddhu

    <de>

    only in aide, blende, blonde, horde and (for)bade pronounced /(fəˈ)bæd/ (also pronounced /(fəˈ)beɪd/ with <d> alone spelling /d/ and <a.e> spelling /eɪ/). The <e> in blonde marks it French-style as feminine (masculine: blond)

    <dh>

    only in a few loanwords and names from the Indian subcontinent, e.g. dhobi, dhoti, dhow, Gandhi, jodhpurs, sandhi, Sindh

    2-phoneme graphemes

    (none)

    24NOTE

    25/d/ is almost always spelt <ed> in past forms of regular verbs ending in a voiced consonant other than /d/ or a vowel, e.g. ebbed, flowed. The only exceptions are laid, paid which would (if they were spelt regularly) be *layed, *payed – cf. delayed, played and sections 5.7.1 and 6.5. See also the entry for <ed> in chapter 10, section 10.15.

    3.5.3 /g/ as in goo

    26THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <g> 92%

    e.g. beg

    Other frequent graphemes

    (none)

    Doubled spelling

    <gg> 2%

    medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. muggle – see section 4.3.3; other medial speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U include aggressive, beggar, dagger, doggerel, haggis, jagged, maggot, nugget, ragged, rugged, rugger, sluggish, trigger – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in egg – see section 4.3.2

    27THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    (does not occur)

    Oddities

    2% in total

    <ckgu>

    only in blackguard /ˈblægəd, ˈblægɑːd/

    <gh>

    word-final only in ugh; otherwise only in afghan, aghast, burgher, ghastly, ghat, ghee, gherkin, ghetto, ghillie (also spelt gillie), ghost, ghoul, ogham, sorghum and a few more rare words

    <gu>

    word-initially, only in guarantee, guard, guerrilla, guess, guest, guide, guild, guilder, guile, guillemot, guillotine, guilt, guinea, guise, guitar, guy and a few more rare words; medially, only in baguette, beguine, dengue, disguise, languor (the <u> surfaces as /w/ in languid, languish – see section 7.2) and suffixed forms of a few words in next category, e.g. cataloguing; phonemically word-final only in brogue, drogue, fatigue, fugue, intrigue, plague, rogue, vague, vogue and a few more rare words where the final written <e> is part of a split digraph with the vowel letter preceding the <g> – see also next paragraph, and Notes

    <gue>

    only word-final and only in analogue, catalogue, colleague, decalogue, demagogue, dialogue, eclogue, epilogue, ideologue, league, monologue, morgue, pedagogue, prologue, prorogue, synagogue. In some of the words ending <-ogue> US spelling has <-og>, which is simpler in the stem forms but means that in, e.g., cataloging the first <g> (less regularly) spells /g/ before <i>, a problem which the spelling with <u> avoids. The only word in which final <g, u, e> are all separate graphemes is segue /ˈsegweɪ/

    2-phoneme graphemes

    For all of these see Notes

    /gz/

    4%

    (1) spelt <x>

    only in some polysyllabic words of Latin origin, namely anxiety pronounced /æŋˈgzaɪjɪtiː/ (also pronounced /æŋˈzaɪjɪtiː/), auxiliary, exact, exaggerate, exalt, exam(ine), example, exasperate, executive, executor, exemplar, exemplify, exempt, exert, exigency, exiguous, exile, exist, exonerate, exorbitant, exordium, exuberant, exude, exult, plus exotic from Greek and a few more rare words; also in Alexandra, Alexander and becoming frequent in exit pronounced /ˈegzɪt/(also pronounced /ˈeksɪt/). For anxiety see also under /ŋ/ in section 3.8.2

    (2) spelt <xh>

    only in about 7 polysyllabic words of Latin origin: exhaust(ion), exhibit, exhilarat-e/ ion, exhort, exhume – but in some derivatives <xh> spells /eks/, e.g. exhibition, exhortation, exhumation

    /gʒ/ spelt <x>

    only in luxuriance, luxuriant, luxuriate, luxurious

    28NOTES

    29In blackguard (also spelt blaggard), guarantee, guard the <u> is technically redundant because <ckg, g> would spell (and be pronounced) /g/ without it. But in all the other words with <gu> the <u> has to be there in order to prevent the <g> appearing to spell (and be pronounced) /ʤ/. It’s because guild, guy must be analysed this way that I analyse windows 8.1 crack - Free Activators, buy (and by extension buoy) as having /b/ spelt <bu> (see section 3.5.1, and cf. <cu> under /k/, section 3.7.1).

    30The regular 2-grapheme spelling of /gz/ is <gs>, e.g. dogs. The sequence <gz> seems to occur only in zigzag.

    31The 2-phoneme sequence /gʒ/ seems to occur only in the four words listed above and to have no 2-grapheme spelling.

    32The 2-phoneme sequence /gw/ is almost always spelt <gu>, e.g. in anguish, distinguish, extinguish, guacamole, guano, guava, iguana, language, languish, linguist, penguin, sanguine, segue, unguent. Exception: wigwam. The converse does not hold – most occurrences of <gu> are pronounced either as /g/ or as 2 phonemes (/g/ plus a vocalic pronunciation of <u>) – see section 9.15.

    33For <go> in allegory, category see section 6.10.

    3.5.4 /m/ as in my

    34THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <m> 96%

    e.g. sum

    Other frequent graphemes

    (none)

    Doubled spelling

    <mm> 3%

    medially, does NOT occur before final /əl/ spelt <-le>; medial examples include comma, commune, cummerbund, hammock, hummock, immense, plummet, rummage, slummock, summit and some derived forms, e.g. dia/pro-grammatic, immodest – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; never word-final

    35THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    <mme>

    now only in oriflamme and (noncomputer) programme since gram and its derivatives are no longer spelt *gramme, etc.

    Oddities (all word-final only)

    <1% in total

    <gm>

    only in apophthegm, diaphragm, epiphragm, paradigm, phlegm, syntagm. /g/ surfaces in some derivatives: paradigmatic, phlegmatic, syntagma (tic) – see section 7.2

    <mb>

    only in dithyramb, lamb; climb, limb; aplomb, bomb, catacomb, comb, coomb, coxcomb, coulomb, hecatomb, rhomb, tomb, womb; crumb, dumb, numb, plumb, rhumb, succumb, thumb and a few more very rare words. /b/ surfaces in some derivatives: dithyrambic, bombard(ier), bombast(ic), rhomb-ic/us, crumble and supposedly, according to some authorities, in thimble – see section 7.2

    <mbe>

    only in buncombe (‘nonsense’; also spelt bunkum), co(o)mbe (‘short valley’; also spelt coomb); and contrast flambe /ˈflɒmbeɪ/, where <m, b, e> are all separate graphemes

    <me>

    never initial; mainly word-final and there only in become, come, some, welcome and the adjectival suffix /səm/ spelt <-some>, e.g. handsome (contrast hansom); medially only in camera, emerald, omelette, ramekin pronounced /ˈræmkɪn/ (also pronounced /ˈræmɪkɪn/) – see section 6.10 – and Thames

    <mn>

    only in autumn, column, condemn, contemn, damn, hymn, limn, solemn. /n/ surfaces in some derivatives: autumnal, columnar, columnist, condemnation, contemner, damnable, damnation, hymnal, solemnity – see section 7.2

    <nd>

    only in sandwich pronounced /ˈsæmwɪʤ/ (also has a ‘regular’ spelling pronunciation /ˈsændwɪʧ/)

    2-phoneme grapheme

    /əm/
    spelt <m>

    only word-final, e.g. chasm, enthusiasm, orgasm, phantasm, pleonasm, sarcasm, spasm, several words ending in – plasm (e.g. ectoplasm), chrism, speedcommander 19 crack, schism and all the many derived forms ending in – ism, macrocosm, microcosm, abysm, aneurysm (also spelt aneurism), cataclysm, paroxysm, algorithm, rhythm and a few other very rare words; also in film pronounced /ˈfɪləm/in some Irish accents. See Note

    36NOTE

    37In all but the last three of the words just listed with word-final /əm/ spelt <-m> the preceding phoneme is /z/ spelt <s>, so the regular spelling of word-final /zəm/ is <-sm> (only exception: bosom). This is one of only a handful of cases where the spelling of a final syllable is more predictable as a whole than from its separate phonemes, which here would predict (for example) *chasam, *prisom, etc. However, word-final /əm/ with other preceding phonemes has various 2-grapheme spellings in, e.g., alyssum, balsam, besom, fathom (but contrast the 1-grapheme spelling in algorithm, rhythm), gypsum, hansom, lissom, opossum, ransom, transom and all the adjectives ending <-some>.

    3.5.5 /n/ as in nigh

    38THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <n> 97%

    e.g. tin

    Other frequent graphemes

    (none)

    Doubled spelling

    <nn> <1%

    medially, does NOT occur before final /əl/ spelt <-le>; medial examples include anneal, annual, annul, biennale, binnacle, Britannic, cannibal, chardonnay, cinnabar, cinnamon, ennui, innocent, punnet, tannic, tinnitus, tintinnabulation, zinnia – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in Ann, djinn, Finn, inn – on Ann, inn see section 4.3.2

    39THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    <nne>

    only word-final and only in Anne, cayenne, comedienne, cretonne, doyenne, tonne and a few other rare words

    Oddities

    3% in total

    <dne>

    only in Wednesday

    <gn>

    word-initially, only in gnarl, gnash, gnat, gnaw, gneiss, gnome, Stronghold Crusader 2 Crack Full Version Free Download, Gnostic and gnu analysed as /n/ spelt <gn> plus /juː/ spelt <u>; medially, only in cognisance (also pronounced with /gn/), physiognomy, recognise pronounced /ˈrekənaɪz/ (usually pronounced /ˈrekəgnaɪz/); word-finally, only in align, arraign, assign, benign, campaign, coign, condign, consign, deign, design, ensign, feign, foreign, impugn and a few other very rare words in –pugn, malign, reign, resign, sign, sovereign, thegn; also phonemically word-final in champagne, cologne where the final written <e> is part of a split digraph with the letter before the <g> spelling a diphthong. /g/ surfaces in some derivatives: agnostic, diagnosis, prognosis, malignant, pugnacious, repugnant, assignation, designation, resignation, signal, signature – see section 7.2

    <gne>

    only word-final and only in cockaigne, epergne, frankalmoigne /kəˈkeɪn, ɪˈpɜːn, ˈfræŋkælmɔɪn/

    <kn>

    1% never word-final; medially, only in acknowledge, knick-knack; otherwise only word-initial and only in knack (er (s)), knap, knave, knead, knee, knell, knew, knick (er (s)), knickerbocker, knick-knack, knife, knight, knit, knob, knobbly, knock, knoll, knot, know (ledge), knuckle and a few more very rare words

    <mn>

    only word-initial and only in mnemonic, mnemonist. /m/ surfaces in amnesia, amnesty – see section 7.2

    <nd>

    only in grandfather, Grandma (hence the frequent misspelling *Granma – cf. section 4.4.7 on Gran(d)dad), handsome (cf. hansom (cab)), landscape

    <ne>

    non-finally, only in vineyard (and even there it’s stem-final), vulnerable pronounced /ˈvʌlnrəbəl/ - see also Notes and section 6.10 (I refuse to analyse the alternative pronunciation /ˈvʌnrəbəl/with loss of the first /l/ because it would add an otherwise not-needed grapheme <lne> to the inventory); otherwise only word-final and only in about 35 words, namely borne, bourne, bowline, Catherine, clandestine pronounced /klænˈdestɪn/ (also pronounced /ˈklændəstaɪn/), cocaine, compline, crinoline, demesne, (pre)destine, determine, discipline, engine, ermine, examine, famine, feminine, genuine, gone, groyne, heroine, hurricane pronounced /ˈhʌrɪkən/ (also pronounced /ˈhʌrɪkeɪn/), illumine, intestine, winzip 21.5 registration code - Crack Key For U, marline, masculine, medicine, migraine, moraine, none, peregrine, ptomaine, saccharine, sanguine, scone pronounced /skɒn/ (also pronounced /skəʊn/), shone, urine, vaseline, wolverine. In all these words the <e> is phonographically redundant, in that its removal would not affect the pronunciation. However, without <e> done, none would become don and the prefix non- (and changing their spellings to dun, nun would cause other confusions). Also, the <e> keeps borne, heroine visually distinct from born, heroin

    <ng>

    only in length, lengthen, strength, strengthen pronounced /lenθ, ˈlenθən, strenθ, ˈstrenθən/. See also under/k, ŋ/, sections 3.7.1, 3.8.2

    <nt>

    only in croissant, denouement, rapprochement

    <nw>

    only in gunwale

    <pn>

    only word-initial and only in words derived from Greek πνεῦμα pneuma (‘breath’) or πνεύμων pneumon (‘lung’), e.g. pneumatic, pneumonia

    2-phoneme graphemes

    /ən/
    spelt <n>

    only in Haydn (I mention him in memory of Chris Upward of the Simplified Spelling Society) and most contractions of not with auxiliary verbs, i. e. isn’t, wasn’t, haven’t, hasn’t, hadn’t, doesn’t, didn’t, mayn’t, mightn’t, mustn’t, couldn’t, shouldn’t, wouldn’t, oughtn’t, usedn’t, some of which are rare to the point of disuse, plus durstn’t, which is regional / comic; in all of these except mayn’t the preceding phoneme is a consonant. Other contractions of not with auxiliary verbs (ain’t, aren’t, can’t, daren’t, don’t, shan’t, weren’t, won’t), i. e. all those with a preceding vowel phoneme (except mayn’t) are monosyllabic (though some Scots say /ˈdeərənt/ with a preceding consonant and linking /r/ and therefore two syllables). Curiously, innit, being a contraction of isn’t it, reduces isn’t to a single syllable. See Notes

    /nj/
    spelt <gn>

    see under /j/, section 3.8.8

    40NOTES

    41/ən/ has several 2-grapheme spellings, e.g. in cotton, ruffian, written.

    42For <ne> in confectionery, generative, stationery, vulnerable see section 6.10.

    3.5.6 /p/ as in pie

    43THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <p> 95%

    e.g. apt

    Other frequent graphemes

    (none)

    Doubled spelling

    <pp> 5%

    medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. apple: other medial examples include apply, apprehend, cappuccino, dapper, frippery, hippodrome, hippopotamus, guppy, opponent, oppose, opposite, scupper, supper, supply, support – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; wordfinally, only in Lapp

    44THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    <ppe>

    only in grippe, steppe

    Oddities

    <1% in total

    <b>

    only in presbyterian pronounced /prespɪˈtɪəriːjən/ (also pronounced /prezbɪˈtɪəriːjən/)

    <bp>

    only in subpoena /səˈpiːnə/

    <gh>

    only in misspelling of hiccup as *hiccough

    <pe>

    only in canteloupe, troupe, plus opera in rapid speech – for <pe> in opera see section 6.10

    <ph>

    only in diphtheria, diphthong, naphtha, ophthalmic and shepherd. The first four also have pronunciations with /f/ – e.g. /ˈdɪfθɒŋ/versus /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/

    2-phoneme graphemes

    (none)

    3.5.7 /t/ as in tie

    45THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <t> 96%

    e.g. rat

    Other frequent grapheme

    <ed>

    (not counted in percentages) See Notes

    Doubled spelling

    <tt>

    3% medially, regular before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. rattle; other medial examples include attention, attract, attribute, battalion, battery, butter, button, buttress, chitterlings, falsetto, glutton, jitter(s), mattress, rattan, smattering, tattoo, tittup – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; word-finally, only in bott, boycott, butt, matt, mitt, mutt, nett, putt, watt. See also Notes

    46THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    <tte>

    only word-final and only in about 23 stem words, namely baguette, brunette, cassette, coquette, corvette, croquette, epaulette, etiquette, garrotte, gavotte, gazette, maisonette, omelette, oubliette, palette, pipette, pirouette, roulette, serviette, silhouette, toilette, vignette, vinaigrette, and a few derived forms, e.g. cigarette, launderette, rosette, statuette, suffragette, and some other rare words. In latte <tt, e> represent separate phonemes, as do <u.e, tt> in butte

    Oddities

    1% in total

    <bt>

    only in debt, doubt, subtle. /b/ surfaces in debit, indubitable, subtilitynordvpn crack download - Crack Key For U section 7.2

    <ct>

    only in Connecticut, indict, victualler, victuals. /k/ surfaces in indiction – see section 7.2

    <dt>

    only in veldt

    <phth>

    only in phthisic, phthisis pronounced /ˈtaɪsɪk, ˈtaɪsɪs/

    <pt>

    only in Deptford, ptarmigan, pterodactyl (Greek, = ‘wing finger’), pterosaur (Greek, = ‘wing lizard’), Ptolem-y/ aic, ptomaine, receipt and a few more very rare words. /p/ surfaces in archaeopteryx, helicopter (Greek, = ‘ ancient wing, spiral wing’), reception, receptive – see section 7.2

    <te>

    mainly word-final and in that position in at least 120 words, namely
    - ate pronounced /et/ (also pronounced /eɪt/, which requires a different analysis: /t/ spelt <t> and /eɪ/ spelt <a. e>), Bacchante, composite, compote, confidante, debutante, definite, detente, dirigiste, enceinte, entente, entracte, exquisite, favourite, granite, hypocrite, infinite, minute (‘sixtieth of an hour’), opposite, perquisite, plebiscite, pointe, requisite, riposte, route, svelte - about 30 nouns/adjectives in /ət/ spelt <-ate> where the verbs with the same spelling are pronounced with /eɪt/, e.g. advocate, affiliate, aggregate, alternate (here with also a difference in stress and vowel pattern: noun/adjective pronounced /ɔːlˈtɜːnət/, verb pronounced /ˈɔːltəneɪt/), animate, appropriate, approximate, articulate, associate, certificate, consummate (here with also a difference in stress and vowel pattern: adjective pronounced/kənˈsʌmət/, verb pronounced /ˈkɒnsjəmeɪt/), coordinate, curate (here with also a difference in meaning and stress: noun (‘junior cleric’) pronounced /ˈkjʊərət/, verb (‘mount an exhibition’) pronounced /kjʊəˈreɪt/), degenerate, delegate, deliberate (here with also a difference in syllable structure: adjective /dɪˈlɪbrət/ with three syllables and an elided vowel – see section 6.10; verb /dɪˈlɪbəreɪt/ with four syllables), designate, desolate, duplicate, elaborate, estimate, expatriate, graduate, initiate, intimate, legitimate, moderate, pontificate (here with unrelated (?) meanings: noun (‘ pope’s reign’) pronounced/pɒnˈtɪfɪkət/, verb (‘speak pompously’) pronounced/pɒnˈtɪfɪkeɪt/), precipitate (but here only the adjective has /ət/; the noun as well as the verb has /eɪt/), predicate, separate (here too dvdfab download a difference in syllable structure: adjective /ˈseprət/ with two syllables and an elided vowel – see section 6.10; verb /ˈsepəreɪt/ with three syllables), subordinate, syndicate, triplicate. In the verbs and the many other nouns and adjectives with this ending pronounced /eɪt/, the <e> is part of the split digraph <a. e> spelling /eɪ/ and the /t/ is spelt solely by the <t> - a further set of at least 60 nouns/adjectives (some of which are derived forms) in /ət/ spelt <-ate> with no identically-spelt verb, e.g. accurate, adequate, agate, appellate, celibate, chocolate, climate, collegiate, conglomerate, (in) considerate, consulate, delicate, desperate, (in) determinate, directorate, disconsolate, doctorate, electorate, episcopate, extortionate, fortunate, illegitimate, immaculate, immediate, inanimate, in (sub) ordinate, inspectorate, intricate, inviolate, (bacca) laureate, legate, (il) literate, novitiate, obdurate, palate, particulate, (com/dis-)passionate, private, profligate, proletariate (also spelt proletariat), (dis) proportionate, protectorate, proximate, roseate, senate, surrogate, (in) temperate, triumvirate, ultimate, (in) vertebrate (a few of these words do have related but not identicallyspelt verb forms with <-ate> pronounced /eɪt/: animate, legitimate, mediate, subordinate, violate)
    - possibly just one word where both noun and verb have <-ate> pronounced /ət/: pirate
    - <te> spelling /t/ also occurs medially in a few words in rapid speech, e.g. interest, literacy, literal, literary, literature, sweetener, veterinary – see section 6.10
    In all cases speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U /ət/ is spelt <-ate> the <e> is phonographically redundant (that is, it does not indicate a ‘ long’pronunciation of the preceding vowel letter and could therefore be omitted from the spelling without altering the pronunciation; hence I have not analysed such words as having /ə/ spelt <a. e> and /t/ spelt <t>), but in two cases it makes the words visually distinct from words without the <e> and with an unrelated meaning: point, rout.
    Carney does not recognise <te> as a spelling of /t/ and this probably means that percentages for my analysis would be slightly different from his

    <th>

    only in Thai, thali, Thame, Thames, Therese, Thomas, thyme, Wrotham /ˈruːtəm/

    <tw>

    only in two and derivatives, e.g. twopence, twopenny. /w/ surfaces in between, betwixt, twain, twelfth, twelve, twenty, twice, twilight, twilit, twin – see section 7.2

    2-phoneme graphemes

    /tθ/
    spelt <th>

    only in eighth. See section 4.4.7

    /ts/

    (1)
    spelt <z>

    only in Alzheimer’s, bilharzia, Nazi (but Churchill said /ˈnɑːziː/), scherzo, schizo(-)

    (2)
    spelt <zz>

    only in intermezzo, paparazzi, pizza, pizzicato

    47NOTES

    48/t/ is always spelt <ed> in past forms of regular verbs ending in a voiceless consonant other than /t/, e.g. walked. See also the entry for <ed>, section 10.15.

    49/ts/ also has 2-grapheme spellings, the regular one being <ts>, plus the Oddity <tz> – for the latter see under /s/, section 3.7.6.

    3.5.8 /r/ as in rye

    50Occurs only before a vowel phoneme (in RP).

    51THE MAIN SYSTEM

    Basic grapheme

    <r> 94%

    e.g. very

    Other frequent graphemes

    (none)

    Doubled spelling

    <rr> 4%

    medially, does NOT occur before final /əl/ spelt <-le> and arises mainly from suffixation (see Notes), but there are some independent examples, e.g. arroyo, barrow, berry, borrow, burrow, carrot, derrick, garrotte, guerrilla, herring, horrid, hurry, lorry, mirror, (to) morrow, parrot, porridge, scurrilous, serrate, sorry, squirrel, stirrup, terrine, warrant, wherry, worrit, worry – see sections 4.3.4 and 4.4.5-6; never wordfinal as a separate grapheme – see Notes

    52THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    (does not occur as a spelling of /r/ – but see Notes)

    Oddities

    2% in total

    <re>

    only in forehead pronounced /ˈfɒrɪd/

    <rh>

    only word-initial and only in a few words mainly of Greek origin, namely rhapsody and several other words beginning rhapsod- rhea, rheme, rhesus, rhetor(ic), rheum(ati-c/sm), rhinestone, rhinoceros and several other words beginning rhin(o)-, rhizome and several other words beginning rhizo-, rhododendron and several other words beginning rhodo- rhodium, rhomb-ic/us, the Greek letter name rho, rhotic, rhubarb, rhyme, rhythm and a few other rare words

    <rrh>

    only medial and only in a few words of Greek origin, namely amenorrhoea, arrhythmia, cirrhosis, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, haemorrhage, haemorrhoid, lactorrhoea, logorrhoea, pyorrhoea, pyrrhic. N.B. In catarrh, myrrh the <rrh> is not a separate grapheme – see Notes (but in catarrhal /r/-linking occurs – see section 3.6)

    <wr>

    except in awry, only in initial position and only in wrap, wrasse, wreck, wren, wrench, wrest (le), wretch (ed), wriggle, wring, wrinkle, wrist, write, wrong, Wrotham /ˈruːtəm/, wrought, wry and a few more rare words

    2-phoneme graphemes

    (none)

    53NOTES

    54The only stem words in which final <-rr,-rre,-rrh> occur are carr, charr, parr, err, chirr, shirr, skirr, whirr, burr, purr; barre, bizarre, parterre; catarrh, myrrh. Because there is no /r/ phoneme in these words (in RP), these letters do not form separate graphemes but are part of the trigraphs or four-letter graphemes <arr, err, irr, urr, arre, erre, arrh, yrrh> spelling variously/ɑː, ɜː, eə/– see the entries for those phonemes in sections 5.5.1, 5.5.2 and 5.6.3 and, for some suffixed forms, the next section. For err see also section 4.3.2.

    55In words like preferring, referral, the <rr> is due purely to a spelling rule involving the suffix – see the next section and section 4.2. In such words the letters <err> spell the vowel/ɜː/and the <rr> also spells the linking /r/ consonant – for /r/-linking see section 3.6, and for dual-functioning section 7.1. But in berry, errant, guerrilla, herring, wherry, abhorrent, demurral, garrotte, <e, o, u, a> spell/e, ɒ, ʌ, ə/and the <rr> simply spells /r/ without influencing the pronunciation of the vowel; similarly in the other words listed above as having independently-occurring medial <rr>.

    56Although word-final /r/ does not occur in RP when words are pronounced in isolation, words which end in letter <r> after a vowel letter retain the possibility of a /r/ phoneme surfacing when a suffix or the next word begins with a vowel phoneme. For example, I pronounce the phrase dearer and dearer with three /r/ sounds, corresponding to the first three occurrences of the letter <r>: /ˈdɪərərənˈdɪərə/. For more phonological detail see Cruttenden (2014: 224, 315-7).

    57Many people call this phenomenon ‘<r>-linking’, using the name of the letter <r>. I prefer to call it ‘/r/-linking’, using (in speech) the sound of, or (in writing) the symbol for, the phoneme /r/ because that is what the link consists of in speech. Moreover, various other graphemes which can spell /r/ allow /r/-linking – see, for example, <rrh> in catarrhal in the entry for /r/ just above. /r/-linking is one of four special processes which I have identified as operating in English spelling (for the others see section 6.10 and chapter 7).

    58In Table 3.2 I have assembled all the examples of /r/-linking mentioned in this book.

    59NOTES TO TABLE 3.2: FULL LIST OF /r/-linking CATEGORIES.

    60In some cases the pre-linking ‘phoneme’ is actually a 2-phoneme sequence.

    61In a few categories where, before linking, the last phoneme of the stem is /ə/ spelt <er, or>, /ə/ is deleted in speech and <e, o> in writing, and the <r> is left to spell /r/. This process needs to be distinguished from vowel elision (see section 6.10), where a vowel letter is written even though there is no vowel phoneme at that point in the spoken word.

    62Where <e>-deletion (see section 6.4) occurs, I analyse the phoneme before the linking /r/ (provided it has not been deleted or elided) as spelt by the pre-linking grapheme minus <e>, even when that phoneme has changed.

    63Except where stated:

    1. stress placement and the speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U before the linking /r/ remain unchanged;

    2. the /r/-linking grapheme continues to function as part of the spelling of the preceding phoneme (dual-functioning – see section 7.1), even when that phoneme has changed and/or <e>-deletion has occurred. This principle is adopted in order to avoid introducing some correspondences for which there is no other warrant in my analysis, e.g. <a> alone spelling /eə/ in vicarious. For more detail see section A. 8 in Appendix A.

    TABLE 3.2: FULL LIST OF /r/-linking CATEGORIES

    Phoneme before/r/-linking

    Grapheme spelling that phoneme

    /r/-linking grapheme

    Example(s)

    Notes

    /ə/

    <ar>

    <r>

    polarise

    familiarity, hilarity, peculiarity, polarity, vulgarity

    Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, the vowel there shifts to/æ/ and is spelt only DeskSoft SmartCapture 3.17.4 Crack + Patch [2021] Full Download <a>, and <r> spells only /r/

    vicarious

    Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /eə/

    <er>

    ethereal, managerial

    Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /ɪə/

    hyperintelligent, interagency, leverage, offering, sufferance

    /ə/ may be elided – see section 6.10

    <eur>

    amateurish

    <er>

    foundress, hindrance, laundress, ogress, temptress, tigress, waitress, wardress, wintry

    /ə/ is deleted, as shown by the disappearance of the penultimate <e> of the stem, and <r> spells only /r/

    <or>

    actress, ambassadress, conductress, dominatrix, executrix

    /ə/ is deleted, as shown by the disappearance of the penultimate <o> of the stem, and <r> spells only /r/

    for instance, prioress, terrorist

    authority

    Stress shifts to last syllable Parallels Desktop 14 Crack Download - Crack Key For U stem, the vowel there shifts to/ɒ/ and is spelt only by <o>, and <r> spells only /r/

    /ə/

    <or>

    <r>

    authorial, dictatorial

    Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /ɔː/

    <our>

    favourite

    /ə/ may be elided – see section 6.10

    <r>, plus deletion of <u> from final syllable of stem

    glamorise, rigorous, vigorous

    <re>

    <r> following
    <e>-deletion

    central, fibrous, lustr-al/ous, metrical, spectral

    /ə/ is deleted (as shown by disappearance of <e>), and <r> spells only /r/

    mediocrity, sepulchral, theatrical

    /ə/ is deleted (as shown by disappearance of <e>), stress shifts to syllable before suffix if not already there, vowel there shifts to/ɒ, ʌ, æ/, and <r> spells only /r/

    calibration

    /ə/ is deleted (as shown by disappearance of <e>), stress shifts to first syllable of suffix, and <r> spells only /r/

    acreage, massacreing, ochreous, ogreish /ˈeɪkərɪʤ, ˈmæsəkərɪŋ, ˈəʊkərəs, ˈəʊgərɪʃ/

    /ə/ is not deleted (as shown by retention of <e>), and <r> spells only/r/, but the schwa and/r/ seem to be spelt by the <e> and <r> in reverse order

    <ure>

    injurious

    Stress shifts to 2nd syll-able of stem, and vowel there shifts to /jʊə/

    adventurous, natural, naturist, procedural, treasury

    /ə/ is spelt only by the <u> and may be elided, especially in derived adverbs – see section 6.10 – and <r> spells only /r/

    TABLE 3.2: FULL LIST OF /r/-linking CATEGORIES, CONT.

    Phoneme before /r/-linking

    Grapheme spelling that phoneme

    /r/-linking grapheme

    Example(s)

    Notes

    /ə/

    <ur>

    <r>

    murmuring

    sulphuric

    Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, and the vowel there shifts to /jʊə/

    /ɜː/

    <er>

    conference,
    deference,
    preference

    Stress shifts to first syllable, and last vowel phoneme of stem shifts to /ə/ (or may be elided – see section 6.10)

    <err>

    <rr>

    errant

    Preceding vowel shifts to /e/, and <rr> spells only /r/

    <irr>

    whirring

    <urr>

    purring

    <er>

    <rr> arising from consonant letter doubling (see section 4.2)

    conferring, deferring, preferring, referral

    <ur>

    furry, occurring

    demurral

    Preceding vowel shifts to /ʌ/, and <rr> spells only /r/

    /ɑː/

    <ar>

    sparring

    <arre>

    <rr> following <e>-deletion

    bizarrery

    <arrh>

    <rrh>

    catarrhal

    <ar>

    <r>

    cigarette, czarina

    Stress shifts to suffix, and in cigarette vowel phoneme preceding /r/ shifts to /ə/

    /wɑː/

    <oir>

    memoirist

    /eə/

    <heir>

    inherit

    Too complicated to analyse

    <air>

    repairing

    <aire, heir>

    millionairess, heiress

    Stress shifts to final syllable

    <ayor>

    mayoral, mayoress

    In mayoress, stress shifts to final syllable

    <ear>

    wearing

    /eə/

    <ere>

    <re>

    thereupon

    <r> following <e>-deletion

    wherever, compering

    <are>

    staring

    preparedness

    /aɪə/

    <ire>

    <r> following <e>-deletion

    entirety

    2nd <e> surfaces as /ɪ/ – see section 7.2

    wiring

    inspiration

    Stress shifts to first SecuritySpy 5.3.2 Crack+ License Key 2021 - Free Activators of suffix, vowel in last syllable of stem shifts to /ɪ/ or /ə/ and is spelt only by the <i>, and <r> spells only /r/

    satirical

    Stress shifts to last syllable of stem, the vowel there shifts to /ɪ/ and is spelt only by the <i>, and <r> spells only /r/

    <yre>

    lyrical

    Vowel in stem shifts to /ɪ/ and is spelt only by the <i>, and <r> spells only /r/

    pyromaniac

    /ʊə/

    <ure>

    enduring, surety

    <oor, our>

    <r>

    boorish, touring

    /ɔː/

    <ar>

    <rr> arising from consonant letter doubling (see section 4.2)

    warring

    <or>

    abhorrent

    Preceding vowel shifts to /ɒ/ and is spelt only by <o>, and <rr> spells only /r/

    <or, oar, oor, our>

    <r>

    mentoring, hoary, flooring, pouring

    /ɔː/

    <ore>

    <r> following <e>-deletion

    boring

    /ɪə/

    <ere>

    interfering

    sincerity

    Preceding vowel shifts to /e/ and is spelt only by <e>, and <r> spells only /r/

    <ear, eer, ier>

    <r>

    dearer, hearing, cheering, tiering

    /aʊə/

    <our, ower>

    devouring, towering

    64An even fuller analysis would also mention cases of /r/-linking occurring where an intervening consonant phoneme has been dropped, as in the place-and surname Wareham /ˈweərəm/(where the /h/ of the Anglo-Saxon placename element ham was dropped many centuries ago) and the British Tommy’s adage about medals: ‘ Win’em and wear’em’– here the end of the sentence is also pronounced /ˈweərəm/, the /ð/ phoneme of RP /ˈweə ðəm/(with no /r/) having been elided. But this book is not about placenames, surnames or accents other than RP.

    65Sometimes /r/-linking is overgeneralised to words which do not have a letter <r> in the written form (and never had, and still do not have, a /r/ phoneme in any accent of English when manycam old version cracked in isolation): the best-known example is law and order pronounced /ˈlɔːrəˈnɔːdə/ (‘Laura Norder’) with ‘intrusive /r/’, rather than /ˈlɔːwəˈnɔːdə/. (But this phrase never seems to be pronounced /ˈlɔːrəˈndɔːdə/ (‘Lauren Dawder’), with the <d> of and made explicit.) An example that occurs in children’s speech is drawing pronounced /ˈdrɔːrɪŋ/ rather than /ˈdrɔːɪŋ/. Cruttenden (2014: 316) provides several more examples.

    66On the other hand, /r/-linking is sometimes avoided where the spelling suggests it would be natural. For example, the recorded announcers at Sheffield railway station say /ˈplætfɔːm fɔː ˈeɪ, ˈmænʧɪstə ˈeəpɔːt, ˈmænʧɪstə ˈɒksfəd ˈrəʊd, ˈʃaɪə əʊks / rather than /ˈplætfɔːm fɔːˈreɪ, ˈmænʧɪstəˈreəpɔːt, ˈmænʧɪstəˈrɒksfəd ˈrəʊd, ˈʃaɪərəʊks/for ‘Platform 4A’, ‘Manchester Airport’, ‘Manchester Oxford Road’, ‘Shireoaks’.

    67Almost all instances of /r/-linking are also examples of what I call dualfunctioning. That is, after linking, the <r>, etc., continues to function as part of the grapheme spelling the pre-linking phoneme while also spelling /r/ in its own right. Exceptions shown in Table 3.2 where an <r> ceases to function as part of the grapheme spelling the pre-suffixation phoneme and therefore only spells /r/ after suffixation are: familiarity, hilarity, peculiarity, polarity, vulgarity, foundress, laundress, ogress, temptress, tigress, waitress, wardress, actress, ambassadress, conductress, dominatrix, executrix, protrectress, authority, mediocrity, sepulchral, theatrical, central, fibrous, lustr-al/ous, metrical, spectral, calibration, demurral, inspiration, satirical, lyrical, abhorrent, sincerity.

    68For other categories of dual-functioning see section 7.1.

    69For cases in which /ə/ may be elided after /r/-linking see also section 6.10.

    70For ‘linking /w/’ and ‘linking /j/’see sections 3.8.7-8. Like /r/-linking, both occur frequently between a stem word and a suffix or a following word beginning with a vowel phoneme. However, there are two key differences: (1) in /w/- and /j/-linking, the quality of the glide between stem and suffix or next word is entirely predictable from the stem-final phoneme, whereas /r/-linking never is (in RP), and can be explained only historically – it occurs where once there was a postvocalic /r/; (2) similar /w/- and /j/-glides occur within many stem words where there is no indication of them in the spelling – /r/-linking never occurs within stem words.

    71In addition to their frequency in stem words, the doubled spellings of /k Minecraft Forge Crack l s/ occasionally arise from suffixation, e.g. picnicking, iffy, modelling, gassing (see sections 4.2 and 4.3.1).

    3.7.1 /k/ as in coo

    72THE MAIN SYSTEM

    73For all these categories see Notes and Table 3.3.

    Basic grapheme

    <c> 59%

    e.g. cat
    Regular in all positions except (1) before <e, i, y>, where the regular spelling is <k> (2) before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, where software crack - Activators Patch regular spelling is <ck> (3) word-finally in one-syllable words, where the regular spelling is <ck> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, otherwise <k> For other exceptions see below

    Other frequent grapheme

    <k> 21%

    regular before <e, i, y>, e.g. kelp, kit, sky, including word-finally within split digraphs, e.g. like, make; also word-finally in onesyllable words except those idm 6.36 build 7 crack <ck> is regular. Only exceptions: ache, Celt, Celtic, sceptic and one pronunciation of words beginning encephal-; arc, chic, disc, and a few more words

    Doubled spelling

    <ck> 6%

    regular in word-final position in onesyllable words after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. crack; also before final /əl/ spelt <-le> after a short vowel spelt with one letter, e.g. heckle – see section 4.3.3; for other occurrences medially in stem words see Table 3.3; there are several word-final occurrences in polysyllables, e.g. derrick, dunnock, haddock, hammock, hummock, slummock

    Frequent 2-phoneme grapheme

    /ks/ 5%
    spelt <x>

    word-initially, only in the Greek letter-name xi pronounced /ksaɪ/; regular medially, e.g. buxom, maxim, next (for exceptions see below); also finally where the /s/ is part of the stem, e.g. box (only exception: aurochs)

    Rare grapheme

    <q> 3%

    e.g. quick See <cq, cqu, qu, que> within the Oddities, below, and Notes

    74THE REST

    Doubled spelling + <e>

    (does not occur)

    Oddities

    6% in total

    <cc> spells /k/

    - before <e, i, y>: only in baccy, biccy, recce /ˈrekiː/(short for reconnoitre), soccer, speccy, streptococci
    - where the next letter is not <e, i, y>: in about 45 words mainly of Latin origin, namely acclaim, acclimatise, accolade, accommodate, accompany, accomplice, accomplish, accord, accost, account, accoutrement, accredit, accrete, accrue, acculturate, accumulate, accurate, accursed, accuse, accustom, desiccate, occasion, occlude, occult, occupy, occur, succour, succubus, succulent, succumb.
    Words of non-Latin origin in this group are broccoli, buccaneer, ecclesiastic, felucca, hiccup, mecca, moccasin, peccadillo, peccary, piccolo, raccoon, scirocco, staccato, stucco, tobacco, toccata, Wicca, yucca
    See Notes for the complementary value of <cc> before <e, i, y>, and on why <cc> is not the doubled spelling of /k/

    <cch>

    only in bacchanal, Bacchante, bacchic, ecchymosis, gnocchi, saccharide, saccharine, zucchini. In bacchanal, Bacchante, ecchymosis, saccharide, saccharine, the <h> could be deleted without altering the English pronunciation – see just above; but in bacchic, gnocchi, zucchini this change might make them look as if they were pronounced with /ks/

    <ch>

    mainly in words of Greek origin, e.g. amphibrach, anarchy, anchor, archaic and every other word beginning /ɑːk/ (except arc, ark), brachial, brachycephalic, bronchi (-al/tis), catechis-e/m, chalcedony, chameleon, chaos, character, charisma, chasm, chemical, chemist, chiasma, chimera, chiropody (also pronounced with initial /ʃ/), chlamydia, chloride, chlorine, choir, cholesterol, cholera, choral, chord, choreograph (-er/ y), chorus, chrism, Christian, Christmas, Chris (topher), chrome, chromosome, chronic and every other word beginning /krɒn-/, chrysalis, chrysanth(emum), chyle, chyme, cochlea, diptych, distich, drachma, echo, epoch, eschatology, eucharist, eunuch, hierarch(y) and every other polysyllabic noncompound word ending /ɑːk (iː)/ (except aardvark), hypochondriac, ichor, lichen pronounced /ˈlaɪkən/ (also pronounced /ˈlɪʧən/), machination, malachite, mechani-c/sm, melanchol-y/ic, monarch(-y/ic), ochlocracy, ochre, orchestra, orchid, pachyderm, parochial, pentateuch, psyche and all its derivatives, scheme, schizo and all its derivatives, scholar, scholastic, school, stochastic, stomach, strychnine, synchronise, synecdoche, technical, technique, trachea, triptych, trochee.
    Words of non-Greek origin in this group are ache, aurochs, baldachin, chianti, chiaroscuro, cromlech, Czech, lachrymose, masochist, Michael, mocha, oche, pinochle, pulchritude, scherzo, schooner, sepulchre; also broch, loch, pibroch, Sassenach when pronounced with /k/ rather than Scots /x/ (for this symbol see section 2.3)

    <cq>

    only in acquaint, acquiesce, acquire, acquisitive, acquit

    <cqu>

    spells only /k/ (not /kw/) only in lacquer, picquet, racquet

    <cu>

    only in biscuit, circuit (contrast ‘circuitous’ where the <u> ‘surfaces’ – see section 7.2.2); cf. <bu> under /b/, section 3.5.1, and <gu> under /g/, section 3.5.3

    <g>

    only in length, lengthen, strength, strengthen pronounced/leŋkθ, ˈleŋkθən, streŋkθ, ˈstreŋkθən/ (for their alternative pronunciations see under /n/, section 3.5.5) - for the rationale of this analysis see Notes under /ŋ/, section 3.8.2 – and in angst /æŋkst/, disguise /dɪsˈkaɪz/, disgust pronounced/dɪsˈkʌst/, i. e. identically to discussed; disguise, disgust are also pronounced/dɪzˈgaɪz, dɪzˈgʌst/, i. e. with both medial consonants voiced rather than voiceless

    <gh>

    only in hough

    <ke>

    only in Berkeley, burke

    <kh>

    only in astrakhan, gurkha, gymkhana, khaki, khan, khazi, khedive, sheikh, Sikh

    <kk>

    only in chukker, dekko, pukka and inflected forms of trek, e.g. trekkie

    <qu>

    as a digraph spelling only /k/ (not /kw/) occurs initially or medially (never finally – cf. next paragraph) in about 50 words mainly of French origin, namely bouquet, conquer (/w/ surfaces in conquest – see section 7.2), coquette, croquet, croquette, etiquette, exchequer, liqueur, liquor, liquorice, maquis, mannequin, marquee, marquetry, masquerade, mosquito, parquet, piquant, quatrefoil, quay, quenelle, quiche, so(u) briquet, tourniquet, and, in conservative RP-speakers’accents, questionnaire, quoits; also medially in applique, communique, manque, risque – see next paragraph; also phonemically but not orthographically wordfinal in opaque; claque, plaque; basque, casque, masque; antique, bezique, boutique, clique, critique, mystique, oblique, physique, pique, technique, unique; bisque, odalisque; toque; peruque; brusque pronounced /bruːsk/, and a few more rare words where the final written <e> is part of a split digraph with a preceding vowel letter spelling variously /eɪ, ɑː, iː, əʊ, uː/. The words basque, casque, masque, bisque, odalisque and brusque pronounced /bruːsk/, where there is also an <s> before the <qu>, cause a special extension to the definition of a split digraph – see section A. 6 in Appendix A and the Notes under <a.e, i.e, u.e>, sections 10.4/24/38

    <que> as a trigraph spelling only /k/ (not /kw/ plus vowel)

    occurs word-initially only in queue and medially only in milquetoast (where it is nevertheless stemfinal in a compound word); otherwise only wordfinally and only in about 18 words mainly of French origin, namely:
    (1) with a preceding consonant letter such that <que> could be replaced by <k> without changing the pronunciation: arabesque, barque, basque, brusque pronounced /brʌsk/ (also pronounced /bruːsk/), burlesque, casque, catafalque, grotesque, marque, masque, mosque, torque and the derived forms picturesque, romanesque, statuesque. However, in this group barque, basque, casque, marque, masque, torque are kept visually distinct from bark, bask, cask, mark, mask, torc
    (2) with a preceding vowel letter such that <que> could be replaced by <ck> without changing the pronunciation: baroque, cheque (cf. US check), monocoque, plaque pronounced /plæk/ (also pronounced /plɑːk/)

    <x> spells /k/ (not /ks/, etc.)

    only in coxswain and before /s/ spelt <c> in a small group of words of Latin origin, namely exceed, excel (lent), except, excerpt, excess, excise, excite

    Other 2-phoneme graphemes

    See also Notes

    /k∫/

    (1)
    spelt <x>

    only in flexure, luxury, sexual /ˈflekʃə, ˈlʌkʃəriː, ˈsekʃ (uːw) əl/

    (2)
    spelt <xi>

    only in anxious, complexion, connexion (also spelt connection), crucifixion, fluxion, (ob) noxious

    /ks/

    (1)
    spelt <xe>

    only in annexe, axe, deluxe, (River) Exe. The <e> in axe is redundant, as the US spelling ax shows (but cf. the ‘ Three-Letter Rule’, section 4.3.2). The <e> in annexe /ˈæneks/ (‘addition to building or document’) is also phonologically redundant (and mainly omitted in US spelling) but, where used, differentiates this word visually from annex /əˈneks/ (‘take over territory’). Similarly, deleting the final <e> from the French spelling speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U de luxe would get too close to soap and washing powder

    (2)
    spelt <xh>

    only in exhibition, exhortation, exhumation – for exhibit, exhort, exhume see under /g/, section 3.5.3

    3-phoneme grapheme

    /eks/
    spelt <x>

    only in X-ray, etc. One of only two 3-phoneme graphemes in the whole language

    75NOTES

    76For adverbs with the unstressed ending /ɪkliː/ spelt <-ically> see section 6.10.

    77It is unphonological but true that it is easier to state the main correspondences of /k/ in terms of following letters rather than following phonemes. (For an attempt to do it phonologically see Carney, 1994: 217).

    78<k> is used to spell /k/ mainly before the letters <e, i, y>, that is, just where <c> would usually spell /s/ – see below. There are very few exceptions:

    1. where /k/ is spelt <c> despite being before <e, i>: Celt, Celtic, sceptic, all of which have alternative spellings with <k> (and the Glasgow football club is in any case /ˈseltɪk/), arced, arcing, synced, syncing (which means that the spelling synch for this verb is better); also several words beginning encephal-, all of which have two pronunciations, with /s/ (where the spelling with <c> is regular) or /k/ (where it is irregular), e.g. encephalitis /enˈsefəlaɪtəs, eŋˈkefəlaɪtəs/ - note too the alternation between /n, ŋ/ in the first syllable. Also, in July 2006 the derived form chicest /ˈʃiːkɪst/appeared on a magazine cover, and in May 2010 ad hocery appeared in the Guardian

    Источник: https://books.openedition.org/obp/2185?lang=en

    Slang for ~term~

    Urban Thesaurus

    The Urban Thesaurus was created by indexing millions speccy broccoli - Crack Key For U different slang terms which are defined on sites like Urban Dictionary. These indexes are then used to find usage correlations between slang terms. The official Urban Dictionary API is used to show the hover-definitions. Note that this thesaurus is not in any way affiliated with Urban Dictionary.

    Due to the way the algorithm works, the thesaurus gives you mostly related slang words, rather than exact synonyms. HD Video Converter Factory higher the terms are in the list, the more likely that they're relevant to the word or phrase that you searched for. The search algorithm handles phrases and strings of words quite well, so for example if you want words that are related to lol and rofl you can type in lol rofl and it should give you a pile of related slang terms. Or you might try boyfriend or girlfriend to get words that can mean either one of these (e.g. bae). Please also note that due to the nature of the internet (and especially UD), there will often be many terrible and offensive terms in the results.

    There is still lots of work to be done to get this slang thesaurus to give consistently good results, but I think it's at the stage where it could be useful to people, which is why I released it.

    Special thanks to the contributors of the open-source code that was used in this project: @krisk, @HubSpot, and @mongodb.

    Finally, you might like to check out the growing collection of curated slang words for different topics over at Slangpedia.

    Please note that Urban Thesaurus uses third party scripts (such as Google Analytics and advertisements) which use cookies. To learn more, see the privacy policy.

    Recent Slang Thesaurus Queries

    Источник: https://urbanthesaurus.org/synonyms/sweaty%20pigeon
    speccy broccoli  - Crack Key For U

    You can watch a thematic video

    CARA MUDAH MEMBUKA PROTEKSI PASSWORD EXCEL TANPA APLIKASI

    Notice: Undefined variable: z_bot in /sites/mynewextsetup.us/crack-key-for/speccy-broccoli-crack-key-for-u.php on line 100

    Notice: Undefined variable: z_empty in /sites/mynewextsetup.us/crack-key-for/speccy-broccoli-crack-key-for-u.php on line 100

    Comments

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *