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The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) is a regional bloc of 33 Latin American and Caribbean states. It was formed at the Unity Summit, which consisted of the 21st Summit of the Rio Group and the 2nd Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC), in the Mayan Riviera, Mexico on 23 February The organization aims to unite all of the Latin American and Caribbean states in order to strengthen the political, social and cultural integration of the region, improve its quality of life, stimulate its economic growth, and advance the well-being of all of its people. CELAC is a successor of the Rio Group and CALC.
The official bodies of the organization are: Summit of Heads of State and Government, Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Pro-Tempore Presidency, Specialized Meetings, and the Troika.
Summit of Heads of State and Government meet in the country holding the Pro Tempore Presidency. This body is responsible for designating the next state to serve as Pro Tempore Presidency and to host the following meeting; adopting procedures and strategies to guide the relations with countries outside of CELAC and other international and regional organizations; approving modifications of procedures; establishing action plans; and promoting citizens’ participation in the organization.
The Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs convenes twice a year or more frequently if necessary. Its duties include promoting political dialogue, monitoring the process of unity and integration of the region, adopting resolutions and statements to enforce the decisions of the Summit of Heads of State and Government, synchronizing the joint position of member states, evaluating and observing the enforcement of action plans, approving projects and programs that are to be presented to the Summit of Heads of State and Government, and forming and assigning tasks to working groups.
The Pro Tempore Presidency is held for a period of one year. However, during the Summit, the Heads of State and Government will decide whether to change the term duration. The Presidency’s main responsibilities, are to organize and chair the Summit of Heads of State and Government and the meetings of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and National Coordinators; enforce the decisions of the Summits and the meetings; monitor agreements reached at the meetings; submit for consideration the Biennial Work Programme of CELAC activities; formulate working papers; issue minutes; organize activities; create and present the Annual Reports; and carry on the Community legacy, as well as that of the Rio Group and CALC.
The Meeting of National Coordinators takes place in the country holding the Pro Tempore Presidency, unless states agree otherwise. Meetings coordinate dialogue and political consensus at the national level; facilitate regional integration; monitor cooperation on projects within the organization; organize, coordinate and observe Working Groups; function as the preparatory body for the meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs; and report the finding of Working Groups to the Ministers.
National Coordinators serve as a link between the Member States and the Pro Tempore Secretariat by coordinating and directly monitoring topics under discussion, and meet twice a year before the Meeting of Foreign Ministers. Each country is assigned one National Coordinator.
Specialized Meetings are intended to address issues that help promote unity within CELAC, as well as deal with integration and regional cooperation on matters vital to the organization. The Pro Tempore Presidency convenes the meetings and the results are reported to the National Coordinators Meeting that presents them at the meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs.
The Troika provides assistance to the Pro Tempore Presidency and is made up of the State currently holding the Presidency, by the former State in this position, and by the State assuming the title.
The Organization’s Position on Terrorism
At the time of the inauguration of CELAC, on 3 December , the Heads of State and Government of Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasized their disapproval of all acts of terrorism and reiterated their pledge to fight terrorism in adherence to International Law, International Rules of Human Rights Protection, and International Humanitarian Law. The Heads of State and Government promised to strengthen their national legislations and cooperate with their international partners to prevent acts of terrorism. In addition, they pledged to take necessary actions to prevent, penalize and eliminate terrorism financing and deny safe haven to those that participate in such activities.
The Heads of State and Government stressed their commitment to the United Nations Global Strategy Against Terrorism. They condemned the person responsible for the terrorist attack in October against the aircraft of Cubana de Avicion, and called for this person to be brought to justice.
The Heads of State and Government encouraged all States to become parties to all agreements and protocols regarding terrorism.
They expressed their desire to create a mechanism within the framework of the United Nations that will provide assistance to the victims of terrorist acts.
The Organization’s Position on Elimination of Nuclear Weapons
At the time of inauguration of CELAC, on 3 December , the Heads of State and Government of Latin America and the Caribbean voiced their concern regarding the threat presented to humankind by the existence of nuclear weapons and the threat or possibility of their use. They reiterated the urgency of complete and verifiable nuclear disarmament, as well as nuclear nonproliferation.
The Heads of State and Government expressed their pride in being a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ), by means of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco). In this regard, they called for the Nuclear Weapon States to withdraw all reservations to the Protocols of the Treaty.
The Heads of State and Government asked for the complete and balanced fulfillment of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). They confirmed their pledge to apply comprehensive IAEA safeguards, and encouraged all States to do the same.
They advised all Nuclear Weapon States to accelerate their process of nuclear disarmament. Equally, they recommended that the States that have not ratified and/or signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) expedite this process so that the Treaty can be enforced. In addition, the Heads of State and Government called for the start of the negotiations of a treaty to prohibit the Production of Fissile Material.
They reiterated the significance of continuing to draft proposals in order to reach total elimination of nuclear weapons.
The Heads of State and Government expressed their desire to establish a common position on issues related to nuclear nonproliferation, disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, so that it may be presented at the NPT Review Conference, as well as at the , and Preparatory Committee meetings.
They expressed their commitment to convening an international conference, aiming to establish a program that will lead toward complete elimination of nuclear weapons within specified timeframe. This program will prohibit the development, production, attainment, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons, as well as require their complete destruction.
The Head of State and Government expressed their gratitude to the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) for their contribution in the field of nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament. They confirmed their satisfaction with the Nuclear Suppliers Group’s (NSG’s) decision to recognize the Quadripartite Agreement as an alternative to Additional Protocols.
On 14 January, Brazil suspended its membership arguing the organization provided a platform for authoritarian states.
In January, Mexico assumed the pro-tempore presidency of CELAC from Bolivia.
On 14 January, Plurinational State of Bolivia assumed the pro tempore presidency of the CELAC from Cuba.
On 25 January, the 3rd EU-CELAC Workshop on Citizen Security was held in Belize City, Belize. The participants discussed best practices of police and border control cooperation, criminal investigation, and intelligence sharing.
On 22 January, the 2nd China-CELAC Forum was held in Santiago, Chile. The participants stated their goal of strengthening economic globalization and partnering in countering drug trafficking and cybercrimes. CELAC members also unanimously reaffirmed their support for China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
From June, the 20th EU-CELAC meeting of the Coordination and Cooperation Mechanism on Drugs took place in Sofia, Bulgaria. The participants discussed best practices and national strategies related to countering drug trafficking and placed special focus on preventing the distribution of drugs on so-called “darknet” markets.
From July, the 2nd EU-CELAC Foreign Ministers Meeting was held in Brussels, Belgium. The participants adopted a declaration that expressed support for the Paris Climate Agreement, discussed challenges to the Agenda for Sustainable Development, and called for strengthened multilateral cooperation across the globe.
On 7 August, CELAC issued a special communique condemning the 4 August assassination attempt against Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro in Caracas, Venezuela. The statement highlighted its proclamation, signed at the second summit of CELAC in , declaring Latin America a “Zone of Peace,” and condemned what it called terrorist actions against Venezuela.
On 25 January, CELAC member states met in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic for its 5th Summit. The agreement highlighted US-Cuban relations, emphasized multilateralism, and rejected the use of coercive economic policies.
On 2 May, El Salvador delivered a statement on behalf of CELAC to the First Meeting of the Preparatory Committee of the Review Conference to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The statement emphasized the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons, the need for a legally binding instrument for the abolition of nuclear weapons, and the importance of the entry into force of the CTBT.
On 27 January, the fourth summit of CELAC concluded in Ecuador. The summit focused on topics such as the Zika virus and the current economic crisis.
On 7 October, the Dominican Republic delivered a statement on behalf of CELAC in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly. The statement addressed the need to develop proposals to create concrete legal measures needed to maintain a world free of nuclear weapons.
On 29 January, the CELAC conference concluded in San Jose, Costa Rica. Major topics included the U.S. embargo against Cuba and the inclusion of Puerto Rico in next year’s summit. CELAC also issued the Declaration of Belén, which reaffirmed their commitment to complete nuclear disarmament and to the Treaty of Tlatelolco and OPANAL.
On 27 April, Ambassador Xavier Lasso Mendoza of Ecuador delivered a statement to the NPT Review Conference on behalf of CELAC, reaffirming CELAC’s position on nuclear disarmament and calling for a “legally binding instrument for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons.”
On 30 September, Ecuador delivered a statement on behalf of CELAC at the special meeting of the UNGA to commemorate the International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. They welcomed the UN’s decision to hold a High Level Conference “no later than to identify measures and actions to eliminate nuclear weapons in the shortest possible term.”
On 12 October, Ecuador issued a statement on behalf of CELAC at the UN General Assembly. They urged for “multilateral, diplomatic” negotiations to create a new “instrument” to completely eliminate nuclear weapons. They also praised the Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zones as an excellent method to increase security and peace in the world.
On 28 January, the summit for CELAC was held in Havana, Cuba. Many speculated that the summit proceedings indicated that the region is distancing itself from the United States. Following the summit, all 33 nations from CELAC adopted a landmark agreement making the region a “zone of peace”. The agreement highlights the Tlatelolco Treaty and the unity of the region.
On 28 January, the second summit for CELAC was held in Santiago, Chile where the presidency was passed from Chile’s Sebastian Pinera to Cuba’s Raul Castro. The summit concluded with a joint declaration and plan of action that included sustainable development, integration and coordination goals. The next annual summit will be held in Havana.
The meeting was preceded by CELAC’s first summit with the EU. The summit focused on collaboration in trade and mutual investment. The EU later expressed that CELAC will be the EU’s “counter-part for the bi-regional partnership process.”
On 7 February , heads of State of CELAC (also party to the Tlatelolco Treaty) pushed for disarmament and pledged to continue their commitment to a nuclear weapons-free world at the High Level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on Nuclear Disarmament on 26 September, in New York.
On 1 April, the Cuban delegation representing CELAC made a statement at the session of the UN Disarmament Commission. It reaffirmed CELAC’s commitment to disarmament and encouraged the creation and preservation of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones.
On 10 September, at a meeting held in Havana, Cuba, CELAC called for an immediate solution to the crisis in Syria. CELAC condemned the use of chemical weapons while emphasizing that any action taken in Syria must be undertaken by the UN Security Council in accordance with the UN Charter.
On 2 April, Octavio Errazuriz, representative of Chile, addressed the UN Disarmament Commission on behalf of CELAC, announcing that Latin America had become the first densely-populated nuclear-weapon-free zone and urging the nuclear-weapon States to withdraw all reservations to the Treaty of Tlatelolco. In addition, CELAC reaffirmed the rights of states to develop peaceful uses of nuclear energy and called upon all Annex II states that had not yet ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) to do so.
On 3 December, leaders of 33 Latin American and Caribbean states met in Caracas to inaugurate a new regional bloc, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) .The new alliance greatly resembles the Organization of American States (OAS), with the absence of the United States and Canada. While the host of the summit, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, is greatly critical of the OAS and the dominance of the United States within the OAS, other leaders of CELAC believe that the new bloc should not replace the OAS. They instead view CELAC as a forum for regional discussions and cooperation. The attendants of the summit addressed their concerns related to the economic crises, drug trafficking, and climate change. In addition, they agreed to oppose the U.S. trade embargo on Cuba.
The members approved the Plan of Action, known as the Caracas Declaration, covering various topics similar to those of OAS. However, the leaders were unable to reach a consensus on a decision-making process within the organization. At present, it is consensus-based. The president of Chile, Sebastian Pinera, took the chair of a rotating presidency.n Pinera, took the chair of a rotating presidency.
Native people to Latin America and/or citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies
For the pan-ethnic demographic group in the United States, see Hispanic and Latino Americans.
or more (in )
|Primarily Spanish and Portuguese|
Regionally Haitian Creole, Quechua, Mayan languages, Guaraní, French, Aymara, Nahuatl and others
Latin Americans (Spanish: Latinoamericanos; Portuguese: Latino-americanos; French: Latino-américains) are the citizens of Latin American countries (or people with cultural, ancestral or national origins in Latin America). Latin American countries and their diasporas are multi-ethnic and multi-racial, Latin Americans are a pan-ethnicity consisting of people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with a combination of their nationality, ethnicity and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous Amerindian population, all Latin Americans have some ancestors who immigrated since Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Portuguese, Black Africans, Italians, Lebanese and Japanese in the world. The region also has large German (second largest after the United States),French and Jewish diasporas.
The specific ethnic and/or racial composition varies from country to country and diaspora community to diaspora community: many have a predominance of European-Amerindian or mestizo, population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are mostly inhabited by people of European ancestry; others are primarily mulatto. Various black, Asian and zambo (mixed black and Amerindian) minorities are also identified in most countries. The largest single group are White Latin Americans. Together with the people of part European ancestry, they combine for almost the totality of the population.
Latin Americans and their descendants can be found almost everywhere in the world, particularly in densely populated urban areas. The most important migratory destinations for Latin Americans are found in the United States, Spain, Canada, Italy and Japan.
Main article: Latin America
Latin America (Spanish: América Latina or Latinoamérica; Portuguese: América Latina; French: Amérique latine) is the region of the Americas where Romance languages (i.e., those derived from Latin)—particularly Spanish and Portuguese, as well as French—are primarily spoken.
It includes 21 countries or territories: Mexico in North America; Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama in Central America; Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay in South America; and Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean—in summary, Hispanic America, plus Brazil, and Haiti. Canada and the United States, despite having a sizeable Romance-speaking communities, are almost never included in the definition, primarily for being predominantly English-speaking Anglosphere countries.
Latin America, therefore, can be defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish, Portuguese or French colonial empires, namely New Spain, Colonial Brazil and New France.
Ethnic and Racial groups
Main article: Race and ethnicity in Latin America
The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups, and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: many have a predominance of European-Amerindian, or mestizo, population; in others, Amerindian are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations are primarily mulatto. black, Asian, and zambo (mixed black and Amerindian) minorities are also identified regularly. White Latin Americans are the largest single group, accounting for more than one-third of the population.
- Asians. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino, as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. Most Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru; there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent, which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside Japan itself, estimated as high as million, and circa , ethnic Chinese and , ethnic Koreans. Ethnic Koreans also number tens of thousands of individuals in Argentina and Mexico. Peru, with million people of Asian descent, has one of the largest Chinese communities in the world, with nearly one million Peruvians being of Chinese ancestry. There is a strong ethnic-Japanese presence in Peru, where a past president and a number of politicians are of Japanese descent. The Martiniquais population includes an African-white-Amerindian mixed population, and an East Indian (Asian Indian) population is also present in Martinique. In Guadeloupe, an estimated 14% of the population is East Asian.
- Blacks. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the 16th century onward, most of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Today, people identified as "black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10million) and in Haiti (more than 7million). Significant populations are also found in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Colombia. Latin Americans of mixed black and white ancestry, called mulattoes, are far more numerous than blacks.
- Amerindians. The indigenous population of Latin America, the Amerindians, arrived during the Lithic stage. In post-Columbian times they experienced tremendous population decline, particularly in the early decades of colonization. They have since recovered in numbers, surpassing sixty million (by some estimates), though with the growth of the other groups meanwhile, they now compose a majority only in Bolivia, and Peru. In Guatemala, the Amerindians are a large minority that comprises 41% of the population.Mexico's 21% (% in the official census) is the next largest ratio, and one of the largest Amerindian population in the Americas in absolute numbers. Most of the remaining countries have Amerindian minorities, in every case making up less than one-tenth of the respective country's population. In many countries, people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry, known as mestizos, make up the majority of the population.
- Mestizos. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. The resulting people, known as mestizos, make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. Additionally, mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries.
- Mulattoes. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry, mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other, during the colonial period. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. Mulattoes form a majority in the Dominican Republic, and are also numerous in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries.
- Whites. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region), and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish, Portuguese or Italian ancestry. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages, the Catholic faith, and many Iberian traditions. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Venezuela contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America in pure numbers. Whites make up the majority of the population of Argentina, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Uruguay; whites make up roughly half of Brazil's, Chile's and Venezuela's population as well. Of the millions of immigrants since most of Latin America gained independence in the s–s, Italians formed the largest group, and next were Spaniards and Portuguese. Many others arrived, such as French, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Ukrainians, Russians, Croats, Serbs, Latvians, Lithuanians, English, Jews, Irish and Welsh. Also included are Middle Easterners of Lebanese, Syrian, and Palestinian descent; most of them are Christian. Whites presently compose the largest racial group in Latin America (36% in the table herein), and, whether as white, mestizo or mulatto, the vast majority of Latin Americans have white ancestry.
- Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia and Brazil, often due to slaves running away (becoming cimarrones: maroons) and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. In Spanish-speaking nations, people of this mixed ancestry are known as zambos, and they are also known as cafuzos in Brazil.
- Multi-ethnic/Multi-racials: In addition to the foregoing groups, Latin America also has millions of multiracial peoples (Triracial/Quadracial) of mixed white (European or Middle Eastern), African, Native Amerindian, and Asian (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino and Indian) ancestry. Most are found in Colombia, Puerto Rico and Brazil, with a much smaller presence in other countries and parts of Mexico. In Brazil they are called pardos. This intermixing inspired Mexican philosopher José Vasconcelos to publish an essay in titled "La Raza Cósmica" (The Cosmic Race). The essay expressed the ideology of a future "fifth race" in the Americas; an agglomeration of all the races in the world with no respect to color or number to erect a new civilization: Universópolis. Genetic studies have shown results of various degrees of admixture between various ethnic groups that has taken place throughout Latin America since the arrival of Spanish and other European explorers commencing in
Note: Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States.
Racial groups according to self-identification
The Latinobarómetro surveys have asked respondents in 18 Latin American countries what race they considered themselves to belong to. The figures shown below are averages for through 
1Don't know/No response.
2Weighted using population.
Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. Spanish is the official language of most of the countries on the Latin American mainland, as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English), Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil, the biggest and most populous country in the region. French is spoken in Haiti, as well as in the French overseas departments of French Guiana in South America and Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean. Dutch is the official language of some Caribbean islands and in Suriname on the continent; however, as Dutch is a Germanic language, these territories are not considered part of Latin America.
Amerindian languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay, and to a lesser degree, in Mexico, Chile and Ecuador. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages is small or non-existent.
In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guarani is, along with Spanish, an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but, on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico that are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish.
Other European languages spoken in Latin America include: English, by some groups in Argentina, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama and Puerto Rico, as well as in nearby countries that may or may not be considered Latin American, such as Belize and Guyana; English is also used as a major foreign language in Latin American commerce and education. Other languages spoken in parts of Latin America include German in southern Brazil, southern Chile, Argentina, portions of northern Venezuela and Paraguay; Italian in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Venezuela; Polish, Ukrainian and Russian in southern Brazil; and Welsh in southern Argentina. Hebrew and Yiddish are used by Jewish diasporas in Argentina and Brazil.
In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole, the predominant language of Haiti; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with Amerindian, English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues.
Main article: Religion in Latin America
The vast majority of Latin Americans are Christians (90%), mostly Roman Catholics. About 71% of the Latin American population consider themselves Catholic. Membership in Protestant denominations is increasing, particularly in Brazil, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Argentina hosts the largest communities of both Jews and Muslims in Latin America. Indigenous religions and rituals are practiced in countries with large Amerindian populations, especially Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, and Afro-Latin American religions such as Santería, Candomblé, Umbanda, Macumba and Vodou are practiced in countries with large Afro-Latin American populations, especially Cuba, Brazil and Haiti. Latin America constitutes, in absolute terms, the world's second largest Christian population, after Europe.
See also: Latino Americans, Latin American Canadians, Latin Americans in the United Kingdom, Latin American Australians, and Latin American Asian
According to the Colombian census or DANE, about 3,, Colombians currently live abroad. The number of Brazilians living overseas is estimated at about 2million people. An estimated to two million Salvadorians reside in the United States. At least million Ecuadorians have gone abroad, mainly to the United States and Spain. Approximately million Dominicans live abroad, mostly in the United States. More than million Cubans live abroad, most of them in the United States. It is estimated that over , Chileans live abroad, mainly in Argentina, Canada, United States and Spain. Other Chilean nationals may be located in countries like Costa Rica, Mexico and Sweden. An estimated , Bolivians were living in Argentina as of and another 33, in the United States. Central Americans living abroad in were 3,,, of which 1,, were Salvadorans, , were Guatemalans, , were Nicaraguans, , were Hondurans, , were Panamanians and , were Costa Rica.
As of , Costa Rica and Chile were the only two countries with global positive migration rates.
Notable Latin Americans
Main article: List of Latin Americans
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As there are still many varieties of the plant grown in America, so there doubtless was when cultivated by the Indians.
Tobacco; Its History, Varieties, Culture, Manufacture and Commerce January 8, E. R. Billings.